Isityalo samandla enyukliya iAlmaraz

Isityalo samandla enyukliya iAlmaraz

Namhlanje siza kuthetha ngesinye isityalo samandla senyukliya saseSpain ngokubaluleka okukhulu kwicandelo lezamandla. Imalunga ne Isityalo samandla enyukliya iAlmaraz. Ime kumasipala waseAlmaraz de Tajo (Cáceres). Imihlaba apho ikhoyo inommandla weehektare ezili-1683 zomhlaba kwaye akabikho kuphela kumasipala waseAlmaraz, kodwa ikwayinxalenye yeSaucedilla, iSerrejón kunye neRomangordo. Le ndawo yakhethwa kulwakhiwo lwesityalo kuba ineempawu ezintle kakhulu ze-seismotectonic, geological, climatological kunye ne-hydrological.

Kule nqaku siza kuhlalutya ngokupheleleyo isityalo samandla enyukliya saseAlmaraz. Ukuba woyika amandla enyukliya kwaye ufuna ukwazi ngcono ukuba zisebenza njani izityalo zamandla enyukliya, yile post yakho

Ukufakwa kwesityalo samandla enyukliya iAlmaraz

Ifoto yasemoyeni yesityalo

Lo matshini wamandla enyukliya uqulethe izixhobo ezingama-2947 MW zokufudumeza amandla okukhanya. Ngamnye kubo uneesekethe ezintathu zokupholisa. Ekuveliseni nasekwakhiweni kwayo kukho igalelo laseSpain kwiipesenti ezingama-80. Umsebenzi wayo ulawulwa ngu IBhunga lezoKhuseleko lweNyukliya (CSN).

Ezi zinto zimbini zamanzi ezikhanyayo zisebenzisa i-uranium oxide etyebileyo njengamafutha. Oku kwenza amandla ombane zii-1.049,43 MW kunye ne-1.044,45 MW ngokulandelanayo. Umzi-mveliso wamandla enyukliya ungowama-53% ngu-Iberdrola Generación Nuclear, SAU, ngu-Endesa Generación, SAU ngama-36% kwaye ngeGesi yeNdalo iFenosa Generación, i-SLU nge-11%.

Imijikelezo yokupholisa iqulethwe kwiindawo zokubamba ezilungiselelwe kwisakhiwo ngasinye se-reactor. Umphunga ovela kwiijenereyitha uqhutyelwa kwisakhiwo se-turbine esigcina amaqela amabini kwigumbi elinye, kodwa ngokuzimeleyo.

Ukutya okupholileyo kuqhelekile kuzo zombini ukufakela ukusuka kumthombo obandayo. Ukuze kupholiswe isixhobo sokuphendula kwakhona kwaye kungafudunyezwi kakhulu ukusabela kweekhemikhali okwenzeka ngaphakathi kwisityalo samandla enyukliya, indawo yokugcina iArrocampo sele yakhiwe. Eli chibi lenzelwe kuphela ukupholisa isityalo samandla enyukliya.

Ukuveliswa kobushushu kunye nefutha

Iimpawu kunye nokuveliswa kobushushu

Isityalo samandla enyukliya iAlmaraz siyakwazi ukulayisha kwi-reactor yayo malunga neetoni ezingama-72 ze-uranium oxide ehlanganiswe ne-Uranium 235. Oku kwenziwa kumyinge we-4,5% ukuya kulungelelanisa izixhobo.

Amafutha anokubonwa ngohlobo lweepellets zezilinda malunga ne-8,1mm ubukhulu kunye ne-9,8mm ubude. Zifakwe kwiityhubhu zetsimbi zircaloy alloy ngaphezulu nje kweemitha ezi-4 ubude kunye ne-10 mm ubukhulu. Eziityhubhu zikwadityaniswe ngokweemfumba zeeyunithi ezingama-289. Zibizwa ngokuba zizinto zepetroli kwaye zenzelwe ukuba iiyunithi zibeke iintonga zepetroli. Eminye yimibhobho nje ekwabonelela ngqongqo kulwakhiwo lwezixhobo kunye nolawulo lweentonga.

Inqanawa ye-reactor iqulethe izinto ezili-157 zepetroli. Ukuze iimpendulo zingayeki kwaye zivelise amandla ombane ngokuqhubekayo, i-reactor kufuneka ivuselelwe rhoqo. Oku kwenziwa ngokutshintsha isinye kwisithathu sezinto zombane.

Ukusinika umbono, usuku olunye lwemveliso kwesi sityalo samandla enyukliya lilingana nokusetyenziswa kweebhombu zeoyile ezingama-68.000 kwisityalo esinamandla afanayo. Ukuba siyithelekisa ne- isityalo esiqhelekileyo sombane oshushu Esebenzisa amalahle njengamafutha, i-14.000 yeetoni zayo iya kusetyenziswa ngosuku Ngale ndlela, isityalo samandla enyukliya iAlmaraz kuthintela ukukhutshwa kweetoni ezizizigidi ezingama-48 ze-CO2 emoyeni. Oku kuncitshiswa kunombulelo ngobushushu behlabathi kunye neziphumo ezibi zotshintsho lwemozulu kwihlabathi.

Ulwelo kunye nokuvelisa umphunga

Ukukhenkcisa

Ukuvelisa umphunga ofunekayo ukufudumeza amandla, kukho isekethe ephambili. Yenziwe inqanawa eneengcambu, isityholo kunye nemilo ephothiweyo emithathu. Iiluphu nganye inesixhobo sokwenza umphunga esakhelweyo kunye nempompo ephambili. Amanzi ajikeleza ngaphakathi kufuneka asuswe emanzini ukuze angaphazamisi oomatshini. Njengoko idlula ngaphakathi ithatha ubushushu obuveliswa kubushushu obubangelwa Ukulwa kwenyukliya kwaye uyithumele kumenzi wenkunkuma.

Xa ukuyo, ukuhamba kwamanzi okwesibini kuluxanduva lokufunxa ubushushu obuvela kwimibhobho apho ujikeleza khona amanzi angaphambi kokukhutshwa ngamanzi. Omabini la manzi azimeleyo. Kunokuthiwa ukuhamba kwamanzi okokuqala kunoxanduva lokufunxa ubushushu bokusabela kunye nokuhamba kokupholisa okokuqala. Konke oku kunceda ukuthintela ukugqithisa.

Isisombululo kunye nesekethe yokupholisa iqulethwe ngaphakathi kwendawo yokubamba i-hermetic kunye nokungangeni manzi, ebizwa ngokuba yi "Containment", equlathe ubume bekhonkrithi eyindilili eyi-1,4 m ubukhulu kumphezulu wayo osecaleni kunye ne-10 mm yentsimbi eshinyeneyo. Inkxaso yesakhiwo sekhonkrithi inobunzima be-3,5 m.

Isiqulatho sinokuvalwa okuphezulu okumile okwedome yehemispherical. Ukusebenza kwesekethe ephambili kuncedwa ziinkqubo ezahlukeneyo zokuncedisa. Ezi nkqubo zinomsebenzi obalulekileyo ukuze kungabikho zingozi. Imalunga nokuqinisekisa ukuba ivolumu, ukucoca kunye nokususa ifriji. Kule nto inolawulo olufanelekileyo lweekhemikhali kunye nonyango lwenkunkuma eqinileyo, engamanzi kunye neyerhasi. Inayo neminye imisebenzi eyimfuneko ukuze umsebenzi uchaneke.

Ukuveliswa kombane

Umphunga owenziweyo

Okokugqibela siza kwinxalenye yokugqibela apho isityalo samandla enyukliya saseAlmaraz sivelisa umbane. Ukusebenza kwayo kuyafana nezinye izityalo zamandla enyukliya ezinje nge leyo yeCofrentes. Kwisekethe yesibini, umphunga oveliswe kwiijeneretha uqhutyelwa kwindawo ebandayo ngeturbine. Le turbine inoxanduva lokuguqula amandla obushushu abe amandla oomatshini.

Ukujikeleza kweencakuba zeinjini yomoya iqhuba enye i-alternator ngqo kwaye ivelise amandla ombane. Umphunga wamanzi ophuma kwi-turbine uba lulwelo kwi-condenser, ubuye, ngoncedo lwe-condensate kunye nokondla iimpompo zamanzi, kumvelisi womphunga ukuqala umjikelo kwakhona. Iinkqubo ezininzi zokwenza ubushushu zifakiwe kweli nqanaba ukunceda ekusebenziseni ukusebenza kwe-thermodynamic. Uhanjiso oluthe ngqo (lokudlula) linoxanduva lokuqhuba umphunga ukusuka kwindawo yokungena ukuya kwi-turbine yoxinzelelo oluphezulu ukuya kwi-condenser.

Ngolu lwazi uya kuba nakho ukwazi ngokunzulu ukusebenza kwesityalo samandla enyukliya iAlmaraz.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.