Yintoni ifission yenyukliya

Ukulinganisa inyukliya

Ngokuqinisekileyo uyazi ukuba enye yeendlela zokuvelisa amandla kunye nombane kwenziwa ngokusetyenziswa kwamandla enyukliya. Kodwa ngekhe wazi ukuba isebenza njani. Zimbini iinkqubo zokwenziwa kwamandla enyukliya: fission yenyukliya kunye nefusion yenyukliya.

Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi ukuba yintoni ifission yenyukliya kunye nayo yonke into enxulumene nayo?

Ukulwa kwenyukliya

fission yenyukliya ye-uranium 235

Ukuqhekeka kwenyukliya yindlela yeekhemikhali apho i-nucleus enzima inebhombu yee-neutron. Xa oku kusenzeka, iba yinyukliya engazinzanga ngakumbi kwaye ibole ibe zii-nuclei ezimbini, ezinobungakanani bazo obufanayo ngokulandelelana kobukhulu. Kule nkqubo Kukhutshwa isixa esikhulu samandla kwaye ii-neutron ezininzi zikhutshwa.

Xa ii-neutron zikhutshwa lisahlulo senucleus, ziyakwazi ukubangela ezinye i-fissions ngokusebenzisana nezinye i-nuclei ezikufutshane. Nje ukuba ii-neutron zibangele ezinye i-fissions, ii-neutron eziza kukhutshwa kuzo ziya kuvelisa ngakumbi ii-fissions. Ke ngoku njengoko isixa esikhulu samandla senziwe. Le nkqubo iyenzeka ngeqhezu elincinci lomzuzwana kwaye yaziwa njengempendulo yetyathanga. I-nuclei ethe yadibanisa yakhupha amandla aphindaphindwe kwesigidi kunalawo afunyenwe ngokutshisa ibhloko yamalahle okanye ukuqhuma ibhloko yedynamite yesisindo esifanayo. Ngesi sizathu, amandla enyukliya ngumthombo wamandla onamandla kwaye asetyenziselwa iimfuno zamandla aphezulu.

Ukukhutshwa kwamandla kwenzeka ngokukhawuleza kunokusabela kweekhemikhali.

Xa i-neutron fissions isenzeka kwaye yinye kuphela i-neutron ekhutshiweyo ebangela ukufakelwa okulandelayo, inani leefensi ezenzeka ngomzuzwana zihlala zihleli kwaye iimpendulo zingalawulwa kakuhle. Lo ngumgaqo abasebenza ngawo izixhobo zenyukliya.

Umahluko phakathi kokudibana kunye nefission

fusion yenyukliya

Zombini ziimpembelelo zenyukliya ezithi zikhuphe amandla akwi-atom. Kodwa kukho umahluko omkhulu phakathi kwezi zimbini. Ukuqhekeka kwenyukliya, njengoko sele kukhankanyiwe, ukwahlulahlula i-nucleus enzima iye kwincinci, ngokudibana ne-neutron. Kwimeko yokudityaniswa kwenyukliya, ichasene. Yi indibaniselwano engundoqo yokukhanya ukwenza enkulu kwaye inzima.

Umzekelo, kwifission yenyukliya, i-uranium 235 (kuphela kwesotope enokuthi ifumane inyukliya kwaye ifunyenwe kwindalo) idibanisa ne-neutron ukwenza i-athomu ezinzileyo ezahlula ngokukhawuleza kwayen barium 144 kunye nekrypton 89, kunye nee-neutron ezintathu. Le yenye yeempendulo ezinokwenzeka xa uranium idibanisa ne-neutron.

Ngalo msebenzi, izixhobo zenyukliya ezifumanekayo ngoku kwaye zisetyenziselwa ukuveliswa kwamandla ombane.

Ukuze i-fusion yenyukliya yenzeke, kufuneka i-nuclei ezimbini ezilula ukuba zimanyane zenze enye enzima. Kule nkqubo kukhutshwa isixa esikhulu samandla. Umzekelo, kwiinkqubo zokudibanisa inyukliya kwelanga ziqhubeka ngokuqhubekayo apho iiathom ezinobunzima obuphantsi zidibene ukwenza ubunzima. Ezi zinto zimbini zilula kufuneka zihlawuliswe ngokuqinisekileyo kwaye zisondele kufutshane, zoyise amandla e-electrostatic of repulsion akhoyo. Oku kufuna isixa esikhulu sobushushu kunye noxinzelelo. Kwiplanethi yethu, kuba akukho xinzelelo lukhona eLangeni, amandla afunekayo afunekayo ukuze i-nuclei isabele kwaye yoyise le mikhosi ihlaselayo. zifezekiswa ngesixhobo sokukhawulezisa amasuntswana.

Enye yezona zinto zixhaphakileyo zokuphendula ngokudibanisa inyukliya yile yokudibanisa iisotop ezimbini zehydrogen, deuterium kunye netritium, ukwenza i-helium atom kunye ne-neutron. Xa oku kusenzeka, eLangeni kukho uxinzelelo oluphezulu lomxhuzulane apho iiathom ze-hydrogen ziphantsi kwazo kwaye zifuna amaqondo obushushu angama-15 ezigidi zeedigri Celsius ukuze zidibane. Mzuzwana ngamnye Izigidi ezingama-600 ze-hydrogen fuse ukwenza i-helium.

Okwangoku Akukho zi-reactor zisebenza nge fusion yenyukliya, kuba kunzima kakhulu ukuphinda wenze le meko. Eyona nto ibonakalayo sisilingo sokuvavanywa kwenyukliya esibizwa ngokuba yi-ITER esakhiwa eFrance kwaye esizama ukufumanisa ukuba ingaba le nkqubo yokuvelisa amandla iyasebenza kusini na kwezobuchwephesha nakwezoqoqosho, isenza ukudityaniswa kwenyukliya ngokuvalelwa ngemagnethi.

Ubunzima obubalulekileyo

Isikimu sokudibanisa inyukliya

Ubunzima obunzima bubalulekile ubuncinci bezinto ezinqabileyo Oku kuyimfuneko ukuze impendulo yetyathanga lenyukliya igcinwe kwaye amandla aveliswe rhoqo.

Nangona kwifission nganye yenyukliya iphakathi kwee-neutron ezimbini okanye ezintathu ziveliswayo, ayizizo zonke i-neutron ezikhutshiweyo ezikwaziyo ukuqhubeka nokunye ukusabela, kodwa ezinye zilahlekile. Ukuba ezi neutron zikhutshwe ngempendulo nganye zilahlekile kwinqanaba elingaphezulu kwelo ziyakwazi ukwenziwa ngefission, ukusabela kwikhonkco akuyi kuzinza kwaye iyakuyeka.

Ke ngoko, obu bunzima bubaluleke kakhulu buya kuxhomekeka kwizinto ezininzi ezinje ngeempawu zomzimba nezenyukliya, ijiyometri kunye nokucoceka kweathom nganye.

Ukuba ne-reactor apho i-neutron zincinci ziphuncuka khona, i-geometry ye-sphere iyafuneka, kuba inendawo encinci yomhlaba ukuze ukuvuza kwe-neutron kuncitshisiwe. Ukuba izinto esizisebenzisayo kwifission siyijikeleza ngesibonakalisi se-neutron, uninzi lwee-neutron ezininzi zilahlekile kwaye ubunzima obufunekayo buyancitshiswa. Oku konga izinto zokwenza imveliso.

Ukuqhawuka kwenyukliya okuzenzekelayo

Xa oku kusenzeka, akuyomfuneko ukuba i-neutron kufuneka ifunxwe ngaphandle, kodwa kwii-isotopu ezithile ze-uranium kunye ne-plutonium, ezinesakhiwo se-atom esingazinzanga ngakumbi, ziyakwazi ukuqhekeka ngokuzenzekelayo.

Ngesi sizathu, kwimpazamo nganye yenyukliya kukho ukubakho ngomzuzwana ukuba i-athomu iyakwazi ukuqhekeka ngokuzenzekelayo, oko kukuthi, ngaphandle kokungenelela. Umzekelo, I-plutonium 239 inokwenzeka ukuba yenzeke ngokukhawuleza kune-uranium 235.

Ngolu lwazi ndiyathemba ukuba uyazi into engakumbi malunga nendlela amandla enyukliya ayilelwe ngayo ukuveliswa kombane ezixekweni.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.