Isityalo samandla enyukliya iCofrentes

Isityalo samandla enyukliya iCofrentes

Sihambile saya kwidolophu yaseCofrentes, eValencia, sityelela amaziko enyukliya anika amandla eSpain. Isityalo samandla enyukliya iCofrentes I-100% yeyenkampani i-Iberdrola Generación Nuclear SA.Lo mzi-mveliso wamandla enyukliya ube neziganeko ezininzi ezenze ukuba kujoliswe kuwo ngabezokusingqongileyo nakwabo bacekisa amandla enyukliya. Ulawulo lwesityalo lulawulwa yimigaqo kunye nokuzibophelela okuvunyiweyo yiBhodi yabaLawuli baseIberdrola.

Kule posi siza kujonga zonke iimpawu zesityalo samandla enyukliya. Siza kuqala ngokuchaza ukuba isebenza njani kwaye inegalelo elingakanani kumbane wombane waseSpain. Okokugqibela, siza kuthetha ngezona ziganeko zibalulekileyo okhe wanazo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi nzulu ngezityalo zenyukliya zeCofrentes? Kufuneka uqhubeke ufunda 🙂

Iinjongo zeCofrentes zamandla enyukliya

Umnini weIberdrola weCofrentes

Amandla enkampani kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo ulandela iinjongo eziphambili, phakathi kwazo zezi:

  • Gcina indawo yamandla enyukliya ikwimeko efanelekileyo.
  • Gcina ukhuseleko olulungileyo kunye nokuphucula itekhnoloji ukuze ihlale isebenza.
  • Qeqesha abasebenzi kwimingcipheko yomsebenzi ukunqanda iingozi ezinokubakho.
  • Ukuphuhlisa imigaqo-nkqubo enceda abasebenzi babe namava abo kunye nabo bangaphandle kwekomkhulu.
  • Yazisa amajelo eendaba ngendlela eyinyani nevulekileyo malunga nemeko esikuyo ngoku isityalo. Ngale ndlela, uluvo loluntu lunokwenziwa kwaye onke amaqela anomdla ayakwaziswa.

Iimpawu zobugcisa

Usebenza njani umzi-mveliso wenyukliya

Isityalo samandla enyukliya iCofrentes sinaso amandla ombane ayi-1.092MW. Oku kuyenza ibe yenye yezona zikhulu kwimveliso kuyo yonke iSpain. Ixhotywe ngohlobo lwe-BWR olubilayo. Yijikelezo ngqo lamanzi ophendulayo. Oku kuthetha ukuba inye kuphela eyona nto iphambili kulwelo okanye isipholisi esinoxanduva lokwenza umphunga kwi-reactor.

Kukwakhona iziko kuphela ezo zezabo babizwa kwisizukulwana sesibini. Ezinye izityalo zisebenzisa inkqubo yoxinzelelo lwamanzi, ngelixa oku kubilayo.

Ukusebenza kweziko lamandla enyukliya iCofrentes

Sizahlulahlula inkcazo yokusebenza kwesityalo samandla senyukliya kwiindawo ezithile. Kwicandelo ngalinye kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukuba kukho iinkqubo ezibuthathaka.

Amafutha asetyenzisiweyo

uranium

Ukufumana amandla, inkqubo ifuna umatshini wokuvelisa umphunga. Lo matshini unoxanduva lokuvelisa umphunga awuyonto ngaphandle kwento yenyukliya. Ibekwe phakathi kwezinto ezincedisayo kunye nolawulo ngaphakathi kwenqanawa yoxinzelelo. Kulapha apho iveliswa khona fission yenyukliya Iiathom zeuranium. Inkqubo iqala ukubonelela ngobushushu ngakumbi nangakumbi de amanzi aphume.

Kule mpendulo i-fuel eyaziwa ngokuba yi I-4,2% ityetyiswe kancinci i-uranium. Yimpahla yeceramic ekwaziyo ukumelana namaqondo obushushu aphezulu kakhulu kunye needosi zemitha ephezulu. Siyakhumbula ukuba i-radiation iyingozi kakhulu ebantwini kwaye ekugxininiseni okuncinci kunokuba yingozi. Le nto yodongwe iqulethwe kumngxunya we-zircaloy-2 (zirconium alloy) iintonga ezidityaniswe zaziiseti ze-11 × 11 zeentonga. Yiyo le nto eyenza ukuba kube lula ukuphatha izinto.

Amanyathelo okufumana amandla

Abasebenzi bamandla enyukliya

Amanyathelo alandelayo okufumana amandla ngala alandelayo.

  1. Into yokuqala kukunyusa ubushushu bamanzi ngaphakathi kwento esebenzayo. Amanzi ahamba ngendlela eya ngasentla. Iirandi zircaloy zifudunyezwa kukufakwa kweeathom zeuranium kwaye zivumela ukuveliswa malunga ne-1,6 Tm ngomzuzwana wesitovu esigcweleyo. Umphunga wahlulwe kwinqanaba lolwelo kwaye womile kwinxalenye ephezulu yenqanawa yereactor. Iyaqhubeka ke nokwanda ukuya kwiinjini zoxinzelelo oluphezulu.
  2. Umphunga owandisiweyo iyomiswa kwaye iyafudunyezwa kwakhona kwizifudumezi ezimbini kunye nezomisi zomswakama.
  3. Umphunga oshushu kakhulu nowomileyo ekugqibeleni wamkelwa ngamalungu amabini oxinzelelo oluphantsi einjini ephelisa ukwanda kwawo ukuya kuxinzelelo lwekholamu ye-75mm ye-mercury eyiyo. Okokugqibela, ithunyelwa kwi-condenser yoxinzelelo oluphindwe kabini apho iphinde iguqulwe ibuyele emanzini ukuyibuyisela kwi-reactor ngomjikelo oqhelekileyo wokuzihlaziya.

Amandla oomatshini anayo iiturbine aguqulwe abe ngumbane ngendlela efanayo kwindlela eyenziwa ngayo kwisityalo samandla ashushu. Isixa samandla esivelisiweyo siyasetyenziswa kwaye sihanjiswe kuguqulelo oluphambili lwenqanaba elinye.

Ukupholisa kwesityalo kuqhutyelwa kwisekethe evaliweyo ngokusebenzisa iinqaba ezimbini zendalo. Iinqaba zinemilinganiselo ye Iimitha ezili-129 ukuphakama kunye neemitha ezingama-90 ubukhulu besiseko. Kwezi nqaba apho amanzi afika ngombhobho ovaliweyo kwaye apholiswe ngokuxubeka nomoya okhulayo. Inqanaba lamandla e-reactor lilawulwa ngokusetyenziswa kweempompo zokujikeleza kunye neentonga zokulawula ezingena kumbindi ukusuka ezantsi.

Iziganeko zezityalo zamandla enyukliya

Amatshantliziyo afuna ukuvalwa kwesityalo samandla enyukliya

Ngexesha lonyaka ka-2017 Kwabhaliswa izehlo ezili-10 ezanyanzela ukuba kuvalwe isityalo. Okona kubi kakhulu yayikukuqhekeka okwamxabisa ngoDisemba ukuhlelwa kwenqanaba 1 ("anomaly") kwiNqanaba leHlabathi leNyukliya kunye neMisitho yeRadiological (INES) ye IBhunga lezoKhuseleko lweNyukliya (CSN).

IiTurbine kunye neebheringi zisilele kwaye isityalo samandla enyukliya kwafuneka sivale amaxesha amaninzi. Kwaye yile reactor yenyukliya esebenza ngayo, Ngokubanzi ngombane, yiyo imodeli efanayo neFukushima enqabileyo. Inenkqubo efanayo yokuqulatha. Ngenxa yokusilela okuqhubekekayo emva kweminyaka engama-35 yenkonzo (imiselwe ukuba nobomi obuluncedo malunga neminyaka engama-40) u-Iberdrola uzimisele ukuqhubeka nokuyenza isebenze.

Abakhuseli bendalo bakhala ngokuvalwa kwesityalo samandla enyukliya ukunqanda iintlekele ezinje ngeChernobyl okanye iFukushima.

Izinto azichazwa ngokuchanekileyo kwaye izinto ezingaphumeleliyo zingundoqo ekusebenzeni kwesityalo.

Masithembe ukuba isityalo samandla enyukliya iCofrentes asibangeli ngxaki kwaye benza izinto kakuhle.

 


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.