Izityalo eziphezulu kakhulu zombane

Amandla ombane avela kwizityalo zamandla umthombo wokuqala ohlaziyekayo kwihlabathi. Okwangoku Ukufakelwa kwamandla kudlula i-1.000 GW kunye nemveliso ngo-2014 yafikelela kwi-1.437 TWh, eyayibalelwa kwi-14% yemveliso yombane wehlabathi ngokweedatha ezivela kwi-Arhente yaMandla yaMazwe ngaMazwe (IEA).

Ukongeza, ngokutsho koqikelelo lwe-arhente enye, amandla ombane we-hydroelectric uya kuqhubeka nokukhula ngezinga elibalulekileyo de kube liphindwe kabini amandla alo akhoyo kunye ngaphezulu kwe-2.000 GW yamandla afakiweyo kwi-2050.

Amandla ombane

Amandla ombane anezibonelelo ezininzi ngaphezulu kweminye imithombo yamandla ombane, kubandakanya inqanaba eliphezulu lokuthembeka, Itekhnoloji eqinisekisiweyo kunye nokusebenza okuphezulu, iindleko zokusebenza eziphantsi kunye nokulondolozwa.

Amandla ombane ngamanzi ngowona mthombo uphinda uvuseleleke, kuba uwuphindaphinda kathathu umoya, othi, kunye ne-350 GW, ingumthombo wesibini. Igalelo lale teknoloji kule minyaka idlulileyo ivelise umbane ongaphezulu kunayo yonke eminye Amandla ahlaziyekayo ngokudibeneyo. Kwaye amandla okuphuhlisa obu buchwephesha mkhulu kakhulu, ngakumbi e-Afrika, eAsia naseLatin America. Imephu yendlela ye-IEA iqikelela ukuba amandla afakiweyo kwihlabathi liphela aza kuphinda kabini ukuya kuma-2.000 2050 GW ngowama-7.000, ngemveliso yombane egqitha kuma-XNUMX TWh.

Ukukhula kokuveliswa kombane kuya kuvela ngokusisiseko iiprojekthi ezinkulu kumazwe asakhasayo nasaphuhlayo. Kula mazwe, iiprojekthi zombane ezinkulu nezincinci zombane zinokuphucula ukufikelela kwiinkonzo zamandla ombane, kwaye zinciphise indlala kwiindawo ezininzi zomhlaba, apho umbane namanzi okusela angafikanga.

Amandla ombane we-Hydroelectric, afunyenwe ngokusetyenziswa kwamandla e-kinetic kunye nokubakho kwemisinga kunye neengxangxasi, yenye yazo Imithombo endala ehlaziyekayo kwaye isetyenziswe yiplanethi ukufumana amandla. I-China namhlanje ingumvelisi omkhulu we-hydroelectric energy, ilandelwa yiBrazil, Canada, i-United States ne-Russia, amazwe anezityalo eziphambili ze-hydroelectric ehlabathini.

Emva koko siza kubona i-5 ephezulu yezityalo zombane

Isikhululo samandla ombane weeGiges ezintathu

Ezi zityalo zinamandla afakelwe amandla angama-22.500 MW. Ime eYichang, kwiphondo laseHubei, kwaye yeyona inkulu ehlabathini. Sisixhobo sombane esiqhelekileyo esisebenzisa amanzi avela kuMlambo iYangtze.

Ukwakhiwa kweprojekthi kufuna utyalomali lwe-18.000 yezigidi zeerandi. Olu lwakhiwo lukhulu lwaqala ngo-1993 lwaza lwagqitywa ngo-2012. Idama sele linjalo Iimitha ezili-181 ukuphakama kunye ne-2.335 yeemitha ubude, yenziwa njengenxalenye yeprojekthi yeeGorge ezintathu, enxulunyaniswe nesikhululo samandla ombane esenziwe ngamanzi sinee-32 turbines ze-700 MW inye, kunye neeyunithi ezimbini zokuvelisa i-50 MW. Okwangoku, imveliso yamandla yonyaka yemveliso isete irekhodi lehlabathi ngo-2014 nge-98,8 TWh, isenza sikwazi ukubonelela ngombane kumaphondo alithoba nakwizixeko ezibini, kubandakanya iShanghai.

Isityalo se-Itaipu sombane

Izixhobo zombane ze-Itaipu, ezinomthamo we-14.000 MW, yeyesibini ngobukhulu emhlabeni. Esi sixhobo simi kuMlambo iParaná, kumda ophakathi kweBrazil neParaguay. Utyalo-mali olwenziwe kulwakhiwo lwesityalo lwaluyi-15.000 yezigidi zeerandi. Imisebenzi yaqala ngo-1975 yaza yagqitywa ngo-1982. Iinjineli zequmrhu le IECO esekwe eUnited States kwaye Umbane we-ELC esekwe e-Itali, yaqhuba ulwakhiwo, iqala imveliso yamandla kwisityalo ngoMeyi 1984.

Isityalo se-Itaipu hydroelectric sibonelela nge-17,3% yokusetyenziswa kwamandla eBrazil kunye ne-72,5% yamandla asetyenzisiweyo eParaguay. Ngokukodwa, iqulethe iiyunithi ezingama-20 ezivelisa amandla angama-700 MW inye.

Isikhululo samandla ombane seXiluodu

isikhululo samandla ombane

Esi sikhululo samandla ombane sime kumjelo woMlambo iJinsha, umlambo iYangtze River kwiziko lawo eliphezulu, sikumbindi wephondo laseSichuan, sisikhululo samandla sesibini ngobukhulu e-China kwaye sesesithathu ngobukhulu emhlabeni. Umthamo wesityalo ofikileyo ufikelele kwi-13.860 MW ekupheleni konyaka wama-2014 xa kufakelwa oomatshini bokwenza izizukulwana ezibini zokugqibela. Le projekthi yaphuhliswa ngu IQumrhu leProjekthi yeGorges ezintathu kwaye kulindeleke ukuba ivelise i-64 TWh yombane ngonyaka xa isebenza ngokupheleleyo.

Iprojekthi ibifuna utyalomali lwe 5.500 million ulwakhiwo lwaqala ngo-2005, ukuqala oomatshini bomoya bokuqala ngoJulayi 2013. Esi sityalo siqulathe idama le-arch curvature ephindwe kabini engama-285,5 eemitha ukuphakama kunye ne-700 yeemitha ububanzi, ukudala idama elinomthamo wokugcina umthamo we-12.670 yezigidi zeekyubhiki mitha. Izixhobo zoncedo, ezinikezelwa ziinjineli zeVoith, zinejenreyitha yeinjini zeFrancis ezili-18 ezinomthamo wama-770 MW inye kunye nomvelisi opholileyo emoyeni onemveliso engama-855,6 MVA.

Isikhululo samandla kagesi seGuri.

Isityalo iGuri, esikwabizwa ngokuba sisityalo samandla ombane iSimón Bolívar, sime njengesinye sezona zikhulu ehlabathini, Umthamo ofakiweyo we-10.235 XNUMX MW. Ezi zakhiwo zikumlambo iCaroní, emi kumazantsi mpuma eVenezuela.

Ulwakhiwo lweprojekthi luqale ngo-1963, lwenziwa ngezigaba ezibini, esokuqala sagqitywa ngo-1978 saza esesibini sagqitywa ngo-1986. Ikhampani alstom Yakhethwa ngeekhontrakthi ezimbini ngo-2007 nango-2009 zokulungiswa kwe-400 MW kunye neeyunithi ezingama-630 MW ezintlanu, kwaye i-Andritz nayo yafumana ikhontrakthi yokubonelela ngee-injini ezingama-770MW Francis ngo-2007. unikezelo lombane olungaphezulu kwe-12.900, XNUMX GW / h.

Isityalo seTucuruí hydroelectric

Eli dama lisezantsi kuMlambo iTocantins, eTucuruí, kaRhulumente wasePará eBrazil, ubekwe njengesityalo sesihlanu sombane omkhulu emhlabeni kunye ne-8.370 MW yayo. Inkqubo ye- ukwakhiwa kweprojekthi, eyayifuna utyalo-mali lwe-4.000 yezigidi ze-euro, yaqalwa ngo-1975 kwaye isigaba sokuqala sagqitywa ngo-1984, esine-gravity dam ye-78 yeemitha ukuphakama kunye ne-12.500 yeemitha ubude, iiyunithi ezili-12 ezivelisa amandla angama-330MW inye kunye nezimbini. Iiyunithi ezincedisayo ezingama-25 MW.

Isigaba sesibini songeze umbane omtsha owaqalwa ngo-1998 wagqitywa ekupheleni kuka-2010, apho kufakelwa iiyunithi ezili-11 zokuvelisa ezinomthamo wama-370 MW nganye. Iinjineli zomanyano olwenziwe Alstom, GE Hydro, Inepar-Fem kunye neOdebrecht kubonelelwe

izixhobo zeli nqanaba. Okwangoku, isityalo sibonelela ngombane kwisixeko saseBelém nakwimimandla ejikelezileyo.


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