I-turbine yomoya eqondile

I-turbine yomoya iguqula umoya ube ngamandla

Un mpo womoya ophendulwa u ovundlile ufana ne-generator kagesi esebenza ukuguqula amandla e-kinetic omoya kumandla wokukhanda nangomoya ophendulwa ngamandla kagesi.

Kunezinhlobo ezimbili eziyinhloko ze- mpo futhi evundlile eksisi umoya ephendulwa. Labo abane-eksisi eqondile bagqamile ngokungayidingi indlela yokuqondisa nokuthi yini i-generator kagesi engahlelwa phansi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, lezo ezine-eksisi evundlile yizona ezisetshenziswa kakhulu futhi zivumela ukumbozwa kwezicelo ezahlukahlukene ezizimele zamandla amancane kuze kufakwe emapulazini amakhulu omoya.

Sizocubungula okubili okuyinhloko, njengalezi zinjini zomoya eziqondile eziqonde phezulu nezingenhla, nokuthi zingaba yini iziphakamiso ezintsha ezizama ukuthola okuningi kukho emoyeni ukukhiqiza amandla kagesi. Sisekule minyaka embalwa lapho ubuchwepheshe buqhubekela phambili futhi sibona iziphakamiso ezintsha njalo njengama-wind turbines angenakuphephela wephrojekthi ye-Vortex noma i-Wind Tree, uhlobo lomuthi womshini odonsa amandla buthule.

Uyini umoya ophendulwa mpo?

Kunezinhlobo eziningi zemishini yomoya

I-turbine yomoya eqonde mpo empeleni ingumoya ophendulwa lapho kufakwa khona i-rotor shaft endaweni eqondile futhi ingakwazi ukukhiqiza ugesi noma ngabe umoya uvelaphi. Ubuhle balolu hlobo lwenjini evundlile yomoya ukuthi ingakwazi ukukhiqiza ugesi ngisho nasezindaweni ezinomoya omncane kanye nezindawo ezisemadolobheni lapho imithethonqubo yokwakha ngokuvamile ivimbela ukufakwa kwama-turbine omoya avundlile.

Njengoba kushiwo, imishini yomoya eqondile noma emi mpo asikho isidingo sendlela yokuqondisa futhi kungaba yini i-generator kagesi engatholakala itholakala phansi. Kwakhe ukukhiqizwa kwamandla kuphansi futhi inabakhubazekile abancane njengokuthi idinga ukuqhutshwa ngemoto ukuze iqhubeke.

Kukhona izinhlobo ezintathu zemishini yomoya emi mpo njengoSavonius, uGiromill noDarrrieus.

Uhlobo lweSavonius

Lokhu kubonakala ngokuba yakhiwa ngamasondo amabili ukuhambisa indawo ngokuvundlile ebangeni elithile, lapho umoya uhamba khona, ngakho-ke iba namandla amancane.

I-Giromil

Kugqame ngokuba ne- iqoqo lezinsimbi eziqondile eziqondile ngemigoqo emibili ku-eksisi eqondile futhi inikeza ibanga lokuphakelwa kwamandla kusuka ku-10 kuye ku-20 Kw.

UDarrieus

Kwakhiwe ngamabili noma amathathu ama-biconvex blades ahlanganisiwe kwi-eksisi ebheke phezulu nangaphezulu, ivumela ukusizakala komoya ongaphakathi kwebhendi ebanzi. Inkinga ukuthi azivuli ngokwazo futhi zidinga i-rotor yeSavonius.

Ngabe isebenza kanjani i-turbine yomoya eqonde ngqo phezulu?

Kumishini yomoya emile, izindwani zijikeleza ngamandla aqhuba umoya. Imishini yomoya emile, ngokungafani naleyo evundlile, ihlala ihambisana nomoya. Akukhathalekile ukuthi iyiphi inkomba efanayo ngoba bangasebenza noma ngabe umoya ushaya isivinini esiphansi. Ubuhle balezi zimishini zomoya ezimile yilokho mancane futhi alula kunama-turbine anezingqimba. Njengoba zincane, zikhiqiza amandla amancane. Kodwa-ke, ziyakwazi ukufudumeza ikhaya, zibe nazo zonke izibani zangaphakathi nezangaphandle zivule futhi zivuselele ibhethri lemoto kagesi.

Imishini yomoya evundlile eksisi evundlile

Labo abane-eksisi evundlile Okusetshenziswa kakhulu futhi yizo esingazithola kulawo mapulazi amakhulu omoya lapho lolu hlobo lwama-wind turbines lungasetshenziswa ngaphezu kwe-1 Mw yamandla.

Ngokuyinhloko kungumshini ojikelezayo lapho ukunyakaza kukhiqizwa khona ngamandla e-kinetic omoya lapho isebenza nge-rotor evamise ukuba nezinhlamvu ezintathu. Ukunyakaza okujikelezayo okukhiqizwayo kuyadluliselwa futhi kwandiswe ngokusebenzisa isiphindaphindo sejubane sikhiqize i-generator esibhekele ukukhiqiza amandla kagesi.

Zonke lezi zinto zime phezu kwegondola Ibekwe ngaphezulu kombhoshongo wokusekela. Yizinto ezijwayelekile ezitholakala ezifundeni ezithile zezwe lethu ezidweba umkhathizwe nezwe elihlukile kepha zinikeza amandla ahlanzekile nashibhile.

I-turbine ngayinye yomoya inayo i-microprocessor ebhekene nokulawula futhi ilawula ukuqala kwayo, ukusebenza nokuvala okuguqukayo. Lokhu kuletha lonke lolu lwazi nedatha esikhungweni sokulawula sokufakwa. Ngayinye yalezi zinjini zomoya zifaka, ezansi kombhoshongo, ikhabethe elinezinto zonke zikagesi (amaswishi wokuzenzakalela, ama-transformer amanje, izivikeli zokweqa amandla, njll.) Ezenza ukuthuthwa kwamandla kagesi akhiqizwe kuze kube yilapho kuxhunywa inethiwekhi amaphuzu.

Amandla atholakala kuphephela womoya kuya ngamandla omoya odlula ku-Rotor futhi ulingana ngqo nobukhulu bomoya, indawo ishaywe ngamakhaba ayo nejubane lomoya.

Ukusebenza kwe-turbine yomoya libhekene namandla alo ijika lokho kukhombisa ububanzi bezivinini zomoya lapho zingasebenza khona namandla adingekayo ecaleni ngalinye.

Yiluphi uhlobo lwomoya ophephela osebenza kangcono?

Ama-wind turbines ayikusasa

Uma kukhulunywa ngokusebenza kahle kwamandla, imishini yomoya evundlile iyona ewina umdlalo. Futhi ukuthi bayakwazi ukufinyelela ejubaneni lokujikeleza eliphakeme ngakho-ke badinga u-gearbox onenani eliphansi lokuphindaphindeka kokujikeleza. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngoba ukwakhiwa kwalezi zindiza zomoya kumele kwenziwe phezulu kakhulu isivinini somoya esandisiwe sisetshenziswa ngezinga elikhulu. Ezingxenyeni ezingenhla zomkhathi, isivinini somoya siphakeme ngoba asinalo uhlobo lwesithiyo.

Yikuphi ukungalungi kwama-VAWT wind turbines?

Okubi kwalezi zinhlobo zomoya ophephela kufaka phakathi okulandelayo:

  • Izindleko zokuqala zokufakwa ziphakeme impela.
  • Uma kufanele endaweni lapho kungekho moya omningi njalo, kungenzeka ukuthi awukwazi ukuthola ukusebenza kahle kwamandla.
  • Ungaba nezinkinga ngomakhelwane ngenxa yenkinga yomsindo.
  • Ama-Turbines ngokuvamile asebenza kuphela cishe ngamandla angama-30%.

Ukusetshenziswa kwemishini yomoya nomlando

Ukusetshenziswa kwamandla kagesi avela emoyeni sekuvele kusetshenziswe ngama-rotor omoya ezindlini ezizimele ezitholakala ezindaweni zasemaphandleni maphakathi nekhulu lama-XNUMX.

Kepha lowo owabheja ngempela lobu buchwepheshe kuma-70s kwakunguDenmark. Leli qiniso lavumela leli lizwe ukuthi libe omunye wabakhiqizi abahamba phambili yalolu hlobo lomoya ophephela njengoba kwenzeka ngeVestas ne-Siemens Wind Power.

Kakade ngo-2013, amandla omoya kukhiqizwe okulingana no-33% ukusetshenziswa kukagesi okuphelele, ngo-39% ngo-2014. Manje inhloso yaseDenmark ukufinyelela kuma-50% ngo-2020 nango-2035 84%.

Ushintsho olukhiqizwe yileli zwe ngenxa yokukhishwa okuphezulu kwe-CO2 ngeminyaka yama-70s, ngakho-ke amandla avuselelekayo abe yisinqumo esikhulu kuleli. Lokhu kuholele ekwehleni kokuncika kwamandla kwamanye amazwe kanye nokwehla kokungcola komhlaba.

Ngokomlando ukufakwa eDenmark kwe umshini ophendulwa ngumoya wokuqala ofike ku-2 Mw. Lesi sitshalo sikagesi sasinombhoshongo oyizigaxa namabhle amathathu. Yakhiwa ngothisha nabafundi besikole iTvind. Futhi into ehlekisayo ngale ndaba ukuthi labo "bafundekayo" bahlekwa usulu ngosuku lwabo ngaphambi kokugcotshwa. Kuze kube namuhla leyo turbine isasebenza futhi inomklamo ofana kakhulu nemishini yomoya yesimanje kakhulu.

Ikusasa lama-wind turbines

Kuze kube namuhla, ubuchwepheshe obusha buqhubeka ukuvela thuthukisa izinhlelo zokusebenza yamandla omoya. Ngo-2015, i-turbine enkulu kunazo zonke efakiwe kwakuyi-Vestas V164 yokusetshenziswa eduze nogu.

Ngo-2014, ngaphezulu kwe- Ama-turbine omoya angama-240.000 bezisebenza emhlabeni, zikhiqiza u-4% kagesi womhlaba. Ngo-2014, amandla aphelele adlula ama-336 Gw neChina, i-United States, iJalimane, iSpain ne-Italy njengabaholi ekufakweni.

Futhi akuwona lawa mazwe kuphela akhulisa inani lawo lama-turbine omoya aqondile noma avundlile, kepha amanye amaningi babheka indlela yokusimama ngokwengeziwe Njengoba kwenzeka eFrance nge-Eiffel Tower, manje ekhiqiza amandla ayo ngenxa yama-turbines asanda kufakwa omoya futhi lapho kuzofakwa khona amalambu e-LED, ama-solar kanye nohlelo lokuqoqa amanzi emvula ukukhuthaza amandla ahlanzekile futhi ashibhile.

Futhi asikwazi ukukhohlwa imizamo emisha ngendlela ye- Ama-turbine omoya ayi-157 amapulazi omoya amathathu amasha eNingizimu Afrika lokho kuzovela esandleni somunye wabakhiqizi abakhulu balolu hlobo lobuchwepheshe njenge-Nokia. Bazokwengeza phakathi kwalaba abathathu umthamo we-3 mW futhi kulindeleke ukuthi bafakwe ekuqaleni kuka-140 ukuhlinzeka ugesi kubantu abaseduze baleli lizwe lase-Afrika.

I-athikili ehlobene:
Konke odinga ukukwazi ngama-wind turbines

Ubuchwepheshe bezintambo zomoya ezintantayo

Njengoba sikwazi ukubona kufayela le- umlando wamandla omoya, umoya wasolwandle yaqala ukunweba ngo-2009 ngenkathi i-turbine yomoya ezintantayo yaseHywind ifakwa eNorway ngemali ebiza cishe ama-dollar ayizigidi ezingama-62.

IJapan, ngemuva kwenhlekelele yenuzi yaseFukushima, waklama ukufakwa kwama-80 imishini yomoya yasolwandle osebeni lolwandle oluseduze ngo-2020.

I-Vortex Propellerless Wind Turbines

Inkampani yaseSpain ebizwa ngeDeutecno inayo idale i-turbine yomoya ngaphandle kwezingxenye ezihambayo owawina umklomelo wokuqala emkhakheni wezaMandla eSouth Summit 2014.

Lezi zinjini zomoya ezingenakuphehla zisebenza babezophatha ukuqeda lezo zinjini ezinkulu zomoya eguqula umkhathizwe nomaphi lapho efakwe khona. Ukusebenza kwayo kuzofana kodwa ngezindleko ezinkulu impela, ngaphandle kokuthi ukugcinwa nokufakwa kwayo kushibhile.

Kufanele futhi kube khona i- ukuncipha komthelela kwezemvelo ngaphandle kwalokhu kuqeda umsindo owenziwa ngumojini bendabuko.

Ubuchwepheshe babo busebenza ngendlela yokuthi isebenzisa ukusonteka okubangelwa ukudlidliza okudalwa wumoya lapho ungena ekuphakameni kwesilinda esiqondile esiqinile futhi esibopheleke emhlabathini.

Ingxenye eyinhloko yeVortex, okuyi-cylinder, ibilokhu ikhona eyenziwe ngezinto zokwenziwa kophayi kanye ne-fiberglass noma i-carbon, namandla kagesi akhiqizwa ukuguqulwa kwalezi zinto.

U-2016 kuzoba unyaka lapho i-unit yokuqala ye-windmill engenacala ilungile.

Isihlahla somoya

Iphrojekthi enobuhlakani obuhle yi-Wind Tree ekhiqizwa yiNewWind futhi lokho yakhiwa ngamaqabunga angama-72 okufakelwa. Ngayinye yazo iyi-turbine evundlile enomumo oyindilinga futhi inesisindo esincane esingakhipha amandla ngomoya opholile omncane wamamitha ama-2 ngomzuzwana.

Lokhu kukuvumela khiqiza amandla izinsuku ezingama-280 ngonyaka futhi ukukhiqizwa kwawo okuphelele kungu-3.1 kW onamandla angama-72 asebenzayo. Amamitha ayi-11 ukuphakama namamitha ayi-8 ububanzi, isihlahla somoya siseduze nosayizi wesihlahla sangempela ukuze sikwazi ukulingana kahle kuleso sikhala sasemadolobheni.

Un iphrojekthi ethile futhi lokho kusibeka phambi kwaleyo ntuthuko yezobuchwepheshe efuna indlela yokusebenza kahle futhi ikwazi ukuhlinzeka amandla anele kugridi kagesi womphakathi noma njengesengezo sesakhiwo.

Izingxenye zomoya ophephela

Izingxenye zomoya ophephela

Isithombe - Wikimedia / Enrique Dans

Imishini yomoya isiyonke zingalinganisa amamitha angama-200 ukuphakama namathani ayi-20 yesisindo. Isakhiwo sayo nezinto eziyinkimbinkimbi kuyinkimbinkimbi futhi kwenziwa ukukhulisa amandla okuphehla amandla kusuka ngejubane le-XNUMX liye phezulu.

Phakathi kwezakhi kanye izingxenye zomoya ophephelar sinawo:

Isisekelo

Izisekelo zomoya ophephela kufanele zibe njalo ifakwe kahle esisekelweni esiqinile. Ngenxa yalokhu, imishini yomoya evundlile ye-eksisi yakhiwe ngesisekelo sikakhonkolo esiqiniswe ngaphansi komhlaba esivumelana nesimo sendawo esikhona futhi esisiza ukumelana nemithwalo yomoya.

Umbhoshongo

Umbhoshongo yingxenye yomoya ophephela ukuthi isekela sonke isisindo futhi yiso esigcina ama-blade emhlabathini. Yakhiwe ngokhonkolo oqinisiwe ngezansi nensimbi ngaphezulu. Ngokuvamile kuyize ukuvumela ukufinyelela ku-gondola. Umbhoshongo uphethe ukukhuphula i-turbine yomoya ngokwanele ukuze ikwazi ukusizakala ngejubane eliphezulu kakhulu lomoya. Insimbi ejikelezayo noma i-fiberglass nacelle inamathiselwe ekugcineni kombhoshongo.

Blades futhi Rotor

Imishini yanamuhla yakhiwa ama-blade amathathu njengoba inikeza ukushelela okukhulu ekuvulekeni. Ama-blade enziwe ngezinto ezihlanganisiwe ze-polyester ngokuqiniswa kwengilazi noma imicu yekhabhoni. Lezi zinhlanganisela zinika ama-blade ukumelana okukhulu. Amacembe angaba ngamamitha ayi-100 ubude futhi axhunywe kuhabhu le-rotor. Ngenxa yalesi sikhungo, izindwani zingashintsha i-engeli yezinhlamvu ukusizakala ngumoya.

Ngokuphathelene nama-rotor, okwamanje avundlile futhi angaba namalunga. Ngokuvamile, lokhu kutholakala ohlangothini olubheke ngumoya lombhoshongo. Lokhu kwenziwa ngenhloso yokunciphisa imithwalo ejikelezayo emaceleni avele uma etholakala ukuze abuyele kuwo, ngoba uma ibhande libekwa ngemuva kokuvuka kombhoshongo, isivinini sezehlakalo sizoguqulwa kakhulu.

Igondola

Kuyi-cubicle ongakusho lokho Yigumbi lenjini lomoya ophephela. I-nacelle izungeza umbhoshongo ukubeka i-turbine ebheke umoya. I-nacelle iqukethe u-gearbox, shaft main, amasistimu wokulawula, i-generator, amabhuleki nezindlela zokujika.

Ibhokisi legiya

Umsebenzi ka-gearbox uku lungisa ijubane lokujika kusuka kushaft enkulu kuye kuleyo edingwa yi-generator.

Umkhiqizi

Emishini yomoya yanamuhla kunezinhlobo ezintathu zama-turbine ezihluka kuphela ngokuziphatha kwe-generator lapho ikwizimo zejubane lomoya eliningi futhi kwenziwa imizamo yokugwema ukulayishwa ngokweqile.

Cishe wonke ama-turbine asebenzisa eyodwa yalezi zinhlelo ezi-3:

  • Isikwele I-Cage Induction Generator
  • I-Biphasic induction generator
  • I-generator evumelanisiwe

Break uhlelo

Uhlelo lwe-Braking uhlelo lokuphepha Inamadiski asiza ezimeni eziphuthumayo noma zokulungisa ukumisa isigayo nokuvikela ukulimala ezinhlakeni.

Uhlelo lokulawula

I-windmill igcwele ilawulwa futhi izenzakalelayo ngohlelo lokulawula. Lolu hlelo lwakhiwa ngamakhompyutha aphatha imininingwane enikezwa i-vane vane kanye ne-anemometer ebekwe ngaphezulu kwe-nacelle. Ngale ndlela, ngokwazi izimo zezulu, ungaqondisa kangcono umshini wokugaya kanye nezindwani ukuze wandise ukukhiqizwa kwamandla ngomoya ovunguzayo. Yonke imininingwane abayitholayo mayelana nesimo se-turbine ingathunyelwa kude kude kuseva emaphakathi futhi konke kube ngaphansi kolawulo. Uma kwenzeka ukuthi isivinini somoya noma izimo zezulu zingalimaza ukwakheka komoya ophephela emoyeni, ngohlelo lokulawula ungasazi ngokushesha isimo bese wenza kusebenze uhlelo lwamabhuleki, ngaleyo ndlela ugweme ukulimala.

Ngenxa yazo zonke lezi zingxenye zomoya ophephela ongakwazi khiqiza amandla kagesi avela emoyeni ngendlela evuselelekayo futhi engangcolisi imvelo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-6, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   UPablo Acevedo G. kusho

    Sinephrojekthi yokukhiqiza ugesi. Ngidinga oxhumana nabo ukuqala. Ucingo 57830415_7383284 Ngiyabonga kakhulu

  2.   UJavier Garcia kusho

    Ngifuna ukuthola uphephela womoya wekhaya ongakhiqiza ama-24kwh ngosuku ngephrojekthi yomuntu siqu futhi ongakhombisa izindleko, ngiyabonga

    1.    pablo kusho

      Sawubona Javier .. embuzweni wakho ngiyabona ukuthi udinga ihora eli-1 kilowatt… Ngikunikeza intengo nekhwalithi engcono kakhulu emakethe
      ngalokhu ngidinga isizinda sakho njengedolobha, izwe, njll.

  3.   UJorge Paucar kusho

    Sawubona NGIYAQALA NGALOKHU KUQALA LOMSEBENZI SEKUNEMIPHUMELA YOKUTHEMBISA KAKHULU SEKUHLOLWE KANYE NOKUBHEKA PHANSI IMEYILI YAMI a_eletropaucar@hotmail.com peru

  4.   UFrancisco Villen. kusho

    Laba behemoths bakajeneretha banendlela emfushane kakhulu, ngoba isiseduze, ukukhiqizwa kukagesi ngamagnetic magnetic currents (odonsa) futhi wonke amakhaya azokwazi ukuba ne-generator yawo, ka-4 noma u-5 kw endaweni efanayo kulowo womshini wokuwasha.

  5.   UMarlon escobar kusho

    Sanibonani, ngifuna ulwazi oluthe xaxa ukusebenzisa isixazululo sakho esakhiweni sokuhlala, sifuna ukunciphisa kanye / noma nokuqeda ukusetshenziswa; sinesifudumezi sikagesi echibini kanye nokukhanyisa kwazo zonke izindawo ezivamile, sicela uthumele imininingwane ephelele yezobuchwepheshe ngama-generator aqondile.