Yintoni amandla ombane

hydraulics kwispain

Zininzi iintlobo zamandla ahlaziyekayo kwihlabathi kwaye nganye inendlela eyahlukileyo yokusebenza. Injongo iyafana: ukuvelisa amandla acocekileyo ngaphandle kokukhutshwa kwerhasi engcolileyo usebenzisa ezinye izibonelelo zomhlaba ezingenamda. Kule meko, siza kuthetha malunga nokuba yintoni amandla ombane.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba yintoni umbane we-hydroelectric, zithini iimpawu zawo, ukuba uveliswa njani kwaye zeziphi izibonelelo kunye nezinto ezingalunganga.

Yintoni amandla ombane

yintoni amandla ombane

Amandla ombane asebenzisa amandla wamandla kumphakamo othile webhedi yomlambo ukuyiguqula ibe ngamandla oomatshini kwindawo esezantsi komandlalo womlambo kwaye ekugqibeleni ibe ngamandla ombane. Ukuguqula amandla amanzi abe ngumbane. Ukusebenzisa la mandla, isiseko esikhulu sogcino lwamanzi sakhiwe ukwandisa ubuchule bolu hlobo lwasekhaya, oluhlaziyiweyo kunye nolungasebenziyo.

Isityalo esivelisa umbane siseti yezixhobo zombane kunye nezixhobo eziyimfuneko ukuguqula amandla ombane we-hydroelectric abe ngamandla ombane kwaye unokusebenza iiyure ezingama-24 ngosuku. Amandla ombane afumanekayo alingana nokuphakama kokuhamba kwamanzi kunye nengxangxasi.

Esona sikhululo samandla sixhaphakileyo sombane ngamanzi ehlabathini into ebizwa ngokuba "yindawo yokugcina amanzi". Kwezi ntlobo zezityalo, amanzi aqokelelana edamini emva koko awe ukusuka kubude obungaphezulu kwenjini yomoya, ebangela ukuba i-turbine ijikeleze kwaye ivelise umbane ngejenreyitha ebekwe kwi-nacelle. Ke umbane wayo uphakanyiswa ukuhambisa amandla ngaphandle kwelahleko enkulu emva koko kongezwe kwigridi. Kwelinye icala, amanzi asetyenzisiweyo abuyela kwinkqubo yawo yendalo.

Enye indlela "kukudlulisa ukutshintshiselana." Ezi ntlobo zezityalo zamandla zithatha ithuba lokungalingani kwendalo komlambo, ze emva koko ugqithisele amanzi ngemijelo kwisikhululo samandla, apho oomatshini bomoya banokuhamba ngokuthe nkqo (ukuba umlambo unethambeka eliqhinqileyo) okanye ngokuthe tye (ukuba ithambeka lisezantsi ) ukufana nezo indawo yokugcina amanzi ngendlela yokuvelisa umbane. Ezi ntlobo zeefektri zisebenza ngokuqhubekayo kuba azinako ukugcinwa kwamanzi.

Icandelo lesikhululo samandla ombane

yintoni amandla ombane

Isityalo se-hydroelectric sinezi ndawo zilandelayo:

  • Idama: Inoxanduva lokunqanda imilambo kunye nokugcina imizimba yamanzi (umzekelo, amadama) ngaphambi kokuqulatha, ukudala umahluko emanzini asetyenziselwa imveliso yamandla. Amadama enziwa ngodaka okanye ikhonkrithi (eyona isetyenzisiweyo).
  • Ukuchitheka: Banoxanduva lokukhupha amanzi amisiweyo ngokungagqithanga kwigumbi leenjini kwaye banokusetyenziselwa iimfuno zokunkcenkceshela. Zibekwe kudonga oluphambili lwedama kwaye zinokuba sezantsi okanye ngaphezulu. Uninzi lwamanzi luye lwalahleka esityeni esisezantsi kwedama ukunqanda umonakalo xa amanzi esiwa.
  • Ukungenisa amanzi: Banoxanduva lokuqokelela amanzi afunekileyo kunye nokuwahambisa kumatshini ngemijelo okanye imibhobho enyanzelekileyo. Ungeno lwamanzi lunomnyango wokulawula ubungakanani bamanzi afikelela kwiturbine kunye nefilitha yokuthintela ukudlula kwezinto zangaphandle (iinkuni, amasebe, njl njl.).
  • Isityalo sombaneOomatshini (abavelisa oomatshini bomoya, oomatshini bomoya abasebenza ngamanzi, iishefti kunye nejenreyitha) kunye nezinto zolawulo kunye nolawulo zibekwe apha. Inokungena kunye neengcango zokuphuma ukushiya indawo yomatshini ngaphandle kwamanzi ngexesha lolondolozo okanye ngokudiliza.
  • Ii-injini zomoya: Banoxanduva lokusebenzisa amandla amanzi adlula kuwo ukuvelisa intshukumo ejikelezayo nge-axis yawo. Zintathu iindidi eziphambili: iivili zePelton, ii-injini zomoya zikaFrancis, kunye neeKurban (okanye zomoya) zomoya.
  • InguquIsixhobo sombane esisetyenziselwa ukunyusa okanye ukunciphisa amandla ombane wesekethe eguqukayo ngoku ugcina amandla.
  • Umgca wokuhambisa umbaneIntambo ehambisa amandla avelisiweyo.

Iindidi zezityalo zamandla ombane

ukusebenza kwesityalo sombane

Kuxhomekeka kuhlobo lophuhliso, izityalo zombane zinokwahlulahlulwa zibe ziindidi ezintathu:

  • Izityalo zombane zeRunoff: ezi zityalo zikhupha amanzi emilanjeni ngokuxhomekeke kwimeko yendalo kunye nokuhamba okukhoyo koomatshini bomoya. Ukungalingani phakathi kweendawo zamanzi kuncinci, kwaye ngamaziko afuna ukuhamba rhoqo.
  • Izityalo ezisebenzisa umbane ngamanzi Ezi zityalo zombane zisebenzisa umthamo othile wedama "ukunyuka" ngakwidama. Nokuba uhamba umlambo, idama lokwahlulahlula isixa samanzi koomatshini bomoya abavelisa umbane unyaka wonke. Olu hlobo lwefektri lungasebenzisa awona mandla kwaye i-kWh ihlala inexabiso eliphantsi.
  • Izikhululo zokumpompa amanzi: Ezi zityalo zombane zinamanzi amabini anamanqanaba ahlukeneyo amanzi, asetyenziswa xa kufuneka amandla ongezelelweyo. Amanzi avela kwitanki ephezulu adlula kwiturbine ukufikelela kwitanki esezantsi kwaye emva koko abuyele kwitanki ephezulu yokumpompa amanzi ngexesha lasemini xa imfuno yamandla iphantsi.

Amandla ombane eSpain

Ukuqhubela phambili kwetekhnoloji kukhokelele kwimithombo yamandla emicrohydraulic eneendleko ezikhuphisanayo kwintengiso yombane, nangona ezi ndleko zohluka ngohlobo lwesityalo kunye nezinto ezenziwayo ekufuneka zenziwe. Ukuba amandla afakiweyo esityalo samandla angaphantsi kwe-10 MW kwaye anokuma amanzi okanye abaleke, isityalo sombane sithathwa njengesityalo esincinci sombane.

Namhlanje, ukukhula kwecandelo le-hydroelectric yaseSpain kujonge ukwanda ukusebenza ngempumelelo ukuze kuphuculwe ukwenziwa kwezinto ezikhoyo. Ezi ngcebiso zenzelwe ukulungisa, ukuphucula, ukuphucula okanye ukwandisa umzi-mveliso ofakiweyo. IiHydraulic microturbines ziphuhliswa ngamandla angaphantsi kwe-10 kW, ezi ziluncedo kakhulu ekusebenziseni amandla e-kinetic emilambo kunye nokuvelisa umbane kwiindawo ezikwanti. Iinjini yomoya ivelisa umbane ngokuthe ngqo ngokutshintshisanayo yangoku kwaye ayifuni manzi awayo, ulwakhiwo olongezelelekileyo okanye iindleko eziphezulu zolondolozo.

ISpain ngoku inezixhobo ezimalunga nama-800 zezityalo ezinobungakanani obahlukeneyo. Zingama-20 izityalo zamandla ombane ezineegawathi ezingaphezulu kwama-200, zidibene zimele ama-50% esimbuku sokuveliswa kombane. Kwelinye icala, ISpain ineedama ezincinci ezinamandla angaphantsi kwe-20 megawatts.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba yintoni amandla e-hydroelectric kwaye isebenza njani.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
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