IGestión de residuos

izikhongozeli zokurisayikilisha

Umntu usoloko evelisa inkunkuma kokusingqongileyo. I Ulawulo lwenkunkuma kubalulekile ukukwazi ukunciphisa ifuthe labo lokusingqongileyo. Kumalunga neseti yemisebenzi efunekayo ukuze ukwazi ukwenza unyango oluchanekileyo lwenkunkuma, ukusuka kwisizukulwana sayo ukuya ekupheliseni okanye ukusetyenziswa kwakhona.

Ngoko ke, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela yonke into okufuneka uyazi malunga nokulawulwa kwenkunkuma, zeziphi iimpawu zayo kunye nokuba kubaluleke kangakanani.

Iinjongo zolawulo lwenkunkuma

ulawulo lwenkunkuma

Oku kubandakanya ukuqokelelwa kwenkunkuma, ukuthuthwa, ukuphathwa kwezinto ezinobungozi obukhethekileyo, ukurisayikilishwa kwezinto ezisebenzisekayo. Ixesha elidlulele, ulawulo lwenkunkuma lubaluleke kakhulu ngenxa yezizathu ze-ikholoji nezoqoqosho. Ukususela kumaxesha amandulo, xa ulawulo lwenkunkuma lusekwe ekuthuthweni kwayo kwindawo efihlakeleyo kunye nokusebenzisa ukutshisa njengendlela yokutshatyalaliswa, siye sahamba kwinkqubo yokubuyisela kwakhona.

Ukongeza, ikhulise ulwazi lwabantu malunga nokuveliswa kwenkunkuma, echaphazela ukuyilwa kwemveliso kunye nokusetyenziswa ukunciphisa ukuveliswa kwenkunkuma. Kwelinye icala, imithetho ejolise ekunciphiseni ukuveliswa kwenkunkuma, indlela yokubiza iingxowa zeplastiki okanye uceba ukuvala ukusetyenziswa kweeplastiki kwi-EU ngo-2021, balutshintshile ulawulo lwenkunkuma.

Ngoko ke, iinjongo zangoku zolawulo lwenkunkuma zezi:

  • Nciphisa ukwakha kwakho kangangoko.
  • Ukwandisa ukusetyenziswa kwakhona kwemathiriyeli kule nkunkuma ngokurisayikilishwa.
  • Ukwazisa nokufundisa ngolawulo lwenkunkuma.
  • Yandisa umda wolawulo lwenkunkuma oluhlanganisiweyo ukuze lubekho kuyo yonke indawo.
  • Sebenzisa unyango kunye neendlela zokulahla ezinokubuyisela amandla kunye nokwenza amafutha. Imizekelo emibini yokuphumeza ezi njongo yiSweden neNorway, eziye zaba ngabathumeli benkunkuma kumazwe angaphandle ukuze benze amandla.
  • Ukwandisa ukusetyenziswa kwakhona kwenkunkuma kwimisebenzi yokwenza umgquba kunye nokuchumisa.
  • Khuthaza ubugcisa obutsha bokulahla obuhambelana nokusingqongileyo kwaye bungenabungozi kuneendlela zesintu ezifana nokutshisa.

Phakathi kwezi njongo, eyona nto ibalulekileyo kukuthintela ukuveliswa kwenkunkuma kunye nokuyinciphisa xa isenzeka. Okulandelayo, siya kufumana ezo mathiriyeli ziphinda zisetyenziswe kwaye ziphinde zisetyenziswe kwakhona ukuya kwinqanaba elikhulu ukugcina imathiriyeli, ukuvelisa amandla kunye nomgquba. Okokugqibela, inkunkuma engaphinda isetyenziswe iyakulahlwa ngeyona ndlela inobungozi. Njengoko sele sibonile, ezi njongo zinxulumene nembono ebaluleke kangaka yoqoqosho olujikelezayo namhlanje.

Izigaba zolawulo lwenkunkuma

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Ulawulo lwenkunkuma luhamba ngokwezigaba ezahlukeneyo:

  1. Qokelela kwindawo yesizukulwana, njengekhaya lethu.
  2. Ukuthutha ukuya kwindawo efanelekileyo kwisigaba esilandelayo sokucubungula.
  3. Yenza inkqubo kangangoko kwifektri elungele ukusetyenziswa kwakhona.
  4. Ukulahlwa kokugqibela kwenkunkuma engenakusetyenziswa kwakhona nangayiphi na indlela.

Ngokwesiko, kukho iindlela ezimbini eziphambili zonyango lwenkunkuma, kwaye ezi ndlela zimbini azifaki igalelo ekusetyenzisweni kwakhona kwezinto okanye ukuveliswa kwamandla. imalunga ne:

  • Iindawo zokugalela inkunkuma: Ngokufutshane, inkunkuma igcinwa kude namaziko oluntu. Umngcipheko wongcoliseko lomhlaba, i-aquifers, okanye inkunkuma enobungozi engacocwanga inokuba nempembelelo enkulu.
  • Ukutshiswa kwenkunkuma: Eyona ndlela indala yokulahla inkunkuma, ukukhutshwa kwayo okungcolisayo kukhutshelwa emoyeni.

Okwangoku, iindlela ezintsha zokulahla inkunkuma zenziwe:

  • I-Pyrolysis: Itshiswa kwitanki evaliweyo kwaye phantse akukho oksijini. Oku kuvelisa ungcoliseko oluncinci kunye nokutshisa okusebenzayo ngakumbi malunga nokuvelisa amandla asebenzisekayo. Kwimeko yenkunkuma ethile yendalo okanye yemifuno, ingasetyenziselwa ukufumana amafutha.
  • Ukusetyenzwa kwakhona kwebhayoloji: izinto eziphilayo, kuquka nephepha, zinokuvundiswa kwaye zisetyenziswe njenge-compost yezolimo.
  • Ukurisayikilisha: sebenzisa izinto ezifumaneka lula (ezifana ne-aluminiyam, iplastiki, okanye iphepha) ukwenza i-aluminiyam entsha, iplastiki, okanye iphepha.
  • Ukucocwa kodaka lwamanzi amdaka: Ngenxa yophuhliso olukhawulezayo lwesi sixeko, umthamo welindle unyuke kakhulu. Ngonyango lwayo, iintlobo ezahlukeneyo ze-sludge zinokufumaneka, ezinokuthi zisetyenziswe njengesichumisi sezolimo.

Ezi zezinye zeendlela ezintsha zokulahla inkunkuma kulawulo lwenkunkuma. Inkqubela phambili iyenziwa ekufumaneni iindlela ezintsha zokwenza uninzi lwenkunkuma, nangona kusekho indlela ende ekufuneka yenziwe.

Indlela yokulawula inkunkuma enobungozi

ulawulo lwenkunkuma ezixekweni

Ezi zizo eziye zabhengezwa ngakumbi ukuba ziyingozi kumazwe ngamazwe:

  • Iziqhushumbisi okanye ezinokutsha.
  • IiCarcinogens
  • Inkunkuma eqhumayo.
  • Iyityhefu ebantwini okanye kwi-ikhosistim kwaye iyingozi kakhulu kwi-biohazard.

Kwezi meko, inkunkuma iya kugcinwa, ibhalwe ilebhile, ithuthwe isiwe kwindawo efanelekileyo ize ilungiswe. Zama ukuphinda usebenzise kangangoko, okanye uyilungiselele ngendlela eyenza umonakalo omncinci.

Kuzo zonke ezi zigaba, iingcali kunye neenjineli zinyamekela le nkqubo, zizama ukuphelisa isongelo ngokusemandleni, ukubuyisela oko kunokubuyiselwa kwaye kuthuthwe ngononophelo.

Njengoko sibonile, ulawulo lwenkunkuma lutshintshe kakhulu mva nje. Enye yezona ndawo zibalulekileyo imalunga nathi. Ukuphakamisa ulwazi malunga nokunciphisa ukuveliswa kwenkunkuma kunye nokuhlaziywa kwakhona kangangoko kunokwenzeka ngundoqo kulawulo oluyimpumelelo lwenkunkuma olukhusela okusingqongileyo.

Ukubaluleka kokurisayikilishwa ekhaya

Ukurisayikilisha yinkqubo ejolise ekuguquleni inkunkuma ibe yimveliso okanye imathiriyeli entsha ukuze isetyenziswe ngokulandelayo. Ngokusebenzisa ngokupheleleyo le nkqubo, sinokukuphepha ukumosha izinto ezinokuba luncedo, sinokunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kwezinto ezintsha ezitsha kwaye, ngokuqinisekileyo, ukusetyenziswa kwamandla amatsha. Ukongeza, sinciphise ukungcoliseka komoya kunye namanzi (ngokutshisa kunye nokulahla inkunkuma, ngokulandelelana) kunye nokunciphisa ukukhutshwa kwegesi ye-greenhouse.

Ukurisayikilisha kuphinda kubaluleke kakhulu kuba zininzi izinto ezinokuphinda zisetyenziswe ezinje ngezinto ze-elektroniki, iinkuni, amalaphu kunye namalaphu, isinyithi esinezinto ezingenantsimbi nezingenantsimbi, kunye nezinto ezidumileyo ezinje ngephepha kunye nekhadibhodi, iglasi kunye neeplastikhi ezithile.

Kubantu abatsha nabanamava ngakumbi, kodwa ngubani osenemibuzo ethile, ngokubanzi kukho amaphulo amaninzi okanye iinkqubo zemfundo yendalo esingqongileyo malunga nenkunkuma kunye nokurisayikilisha (minyaka le) ukwazisa nokufundisa abantu malunga neempembelelo zokusingqongileyo. Ukuveliswa kwenkunkuma kunye namanyathelo okukhusela okusingqongileyo ukunciphisa inkunkuma.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokulawulwa kwenkunkuma kunye neempawu zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.