Amandla enyukliya akhuselekileyo

Amandla enyukliya ngawona akhuselekileyo kuzo zonke

Xa sithetha ngazo zonke iintlobo zamandla akhoyo, sixoxa ngokuba zeziphi ezona zilungileyo, ezona zilula ukuzikhupha, ezona zinamandla amakhulu kwaye, ewe, zezona zikhuselekileyo. Nangona ichasene nayo yonke into ekholelwayo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, amandla akhuselekileyo akhoyo namhlanje yinyukliya.

Kunokwenzeka njani oku? Emva kwesiganeko saseChernobyl ngo-1986 esaziwa njengeyona ntlekele inkulu kwimbali kunye nengozi eyenzeke eFukushima ngo-2011, yomibini inxulumene namandla enyukliya, kunzima ukukholelwa ukuba la mandla akhuselekile kuzo zonke ezikhoyo emhlabeni. Nangona kunjalo, siza kukubonisa ubungqina obunamandla bokuba kunjalo. Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi ukuba kutheni amandla enyukliya ekhuselekile kuzo zonke?

Ukuveliswa kwamandla kunye nophuhliso lwezoqoqosho

amandla enyukliya alahlwa ngokubanzi kwihlabathi liphela

Kuphuhliso loqoqosho lwelizwe, imveliso kunye nokusetyenziswa kwamandla zizinto eziphambili zokuphucula imigangatho yokuphila ngokubanzi. Nangona ukuveliswa kwamandla kunganxulunyaniswa neziphumo ezilungileyo kuphela, kuba kunokubangela neziphumo ezibi zezempilo. Umzekelo, Ukuveliswa kwamandla kunokubangelwa kukufa kunye nokugula kakhulu. Kule nxalenye sibandakanya iingozi ezinokubakho xa kutsalwa izinto zokwenza imveliso, iinkqubo zokulungisa kunye nemveliso kunye nongcoliseko olunokwenzeka.

Injongo evezwe luluntu lwenzululwazi kukukwazi ukuvelisa amandla kunye nefuthe elincinci kwimpilo nakokusingqongileyo. Ukwenza oku, luhlobo luni lwamandla esimele ukuwasebenzisa? Senza uthelekiso phakathi kwamandla asetyenziswayo kwihlabathi liphela afana namalahle, ioyile, igesi yendalo, i-biomass kunye namandla enyukliya. Ngo-2014, Le mithombo yamandla yenza phantse i-96% yabemi behlabathi bamandla.

Ukhuseleko lwamandla

amanqanaba aphezulu okusasazeka kwemitha ayingozi kwimpilo yabantu kwixesha elide

Kukho amaxesha amabini asisiseko okwenza ubungakanani kunye nokuhlela ukusweleka okanye ingozi enokubakho kwimveliso yamandla. Ngokusekwe kwezi zinto zixabisekileyo, inqanaba lomngcipheko lokukhutshwa kolunye uhlobo lwamandla okanye olunye, olunokubakho ebantwini nakwindawo esingqongileyo, inokusekwa.

Isakhelo sokuqala ngu yexeshana elifutshane okanye yokuvelisa. Oku kubandakanya ukusweleka okunxulumene neengozi zokukhupha, ukuqhubekeka okanye isigaba semveliso yemithombo yamandla. Ngokumalunga nokusingqongileyo, iimpembelelo zongcoliseko abanazo emoyeni ngexesha lokuveliswa kwabo, ukuthuthwa kunye nokutsha kuyacazululwa.

Isakhelo sesibini ngu ixesha elide okanye inzala ezinjengeentlekele ezinje ngeChernobyl okanye iziphumo zemozulu.

Ukuhlalutya iziphumo ezifunyenwe kukufa okubangelwe kukungcoliseka komoya kunye neengozi, kuyabonakala ukuba ukufa okuhambelana nongcoliseko lomoya kuxhaphake kangakanani. Kwimeko yamalahle, i-oyile kunye negesi, zimele ngaphezulu kwe-99% yokufa.

Amandla enyukliya yeyona nto ivelisa ukusweleka okuncinci kwimveliso yayo

Inani lokufa okubangelwe kukuveliswa kweentlobo ezahlukeneyo zamandla

Inani eliphambili lesalfure dioxide kunye ne-nitrogen oxides zikhona kumandla akhutshwe kwizityalo eziphehla amandla amalahle. Ezi gesi Ingaphambi kwe-ozone kunye ne-particulate pollution ezinokuba nefuthe kwimpilo yabantu, nakumanqanaba asezantsi. La masuntswana akhoyo kuphuhliso lwezifo zokuphefumla nezentliziyo.

Ukuhlalutya ukusweleka okunxulumene namandla enyukliya, Sibona ukuba kukho amaxesha angama-442 okufa okumbalwa xa kuthelekiswa namalahle kwiyunithi yamandla. Kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba la manani akwathathela ingqalelo ukusweleka okunxulumene nomhlaza ngenxa yokuvezwa yimisebe yenyukliya kwimveliso yamandla enyukliya.

Ulawulo lwenkunkuma yenyukliya

Inkunkuma yenyukliya inolawulo olunzima

Owona mngcipheko mkhulu wamandla enyukliya kwixesha elide ngulo omawukwenze kwaye ulawula njani inkunkuma yenyukliya. Kungumceli mngeni omkhulu ukuphatha inkunkuma eqhumayo, kuba iminyaka emininzi izakuqhubeka ikhupha imitha emininzi. Eli xesha lokukhathalela inkunkuma liqala kwi-10.000 ukuya kwisigidi seminyaka. Ke ngoko, sahlula intsalela ibe ziindidi ezintathu: iintsalela ezisezantsi, eziphakathi neziphezulu. Umthamo okhoyo wokujongana namanqanaba asezantsi nophakathi entsalela uhlala umiselwa kakuhle. Inkunkuma ekumgangatho osezantsi inokudityaniswa ngokukhuselekileyo, itshiswe ize ingcwatyelwe kubunzulu obunzulu. Inkunkuma yenqanaba eliphakathi, equlathe inani eliphezulu lokusasazeka kwemitha, kufuneka ikhuselwe ngebhitumene ngaphambi kokuba ilahlwe.

Umceli mngeni uqala xa inkunkuma ekumgangatho ophezulu kufuneka ilawulwe. Izinto ziba nzima kakhulu, kuba ubomi obude obuluncedo kunye namaxabiso aphezulu e-radioactivity kwi-nuclear fuel athetha ukuba inkunkuma mayingakhuselwa ngokufanelekileyo kuphela kodwa nokuba kwindawo ezinzileyo kwisigidi seminyaka. Uyifumana njani indawo ezinzileyo yokugcina inkunkuma iminyaka esisigidi? Into eqhelekileyo eyenziweyo kukugcina le ntsalela kugcino olunzulu lwejoloji. Ubunzima boku kulele ekufumaneni iindawo ezinzulu zejoloji apho zingagcinwa khona ngendlela ezinzileyo kwaye zingangcolisi ndawo zikuyo. Ukongeza, ayifanelanga ukuba yingozi kwimpilo yabantu. Kuya kufuneka sikhumbule ukuba sithetha ngexesha lesigidi seminyaka kunye neendawo zejoloji, nokuba zizinzile kangakanani na, zinokuguquguquka kwamaqondo obushushu kunye namanqanaba amanzi, okwenza ukuba kungazinzi kangako ixesha elide.

Ukusweleka okubangelwa kukutshintsha kwemozulu

Iziphumo zangaphakathi zokutshintsha kwemozulu njengokunyuka kolwandle

Njengoko bekutshiwo ngaphambili, ukuveliswa kwamandla akubanga neziphumo zexesha elifutshane kwezempilo ezinxulumene neengozi kunye nongcoliseko. Ikwanempembelelo yexesha elide okanye elingeneyo kwimpilo yabantu nakwindalo esingqongileyo. Enye yezona ziphumo zexesha elide ezaziwayo kwimveliso yamandla kukufudumala komhlaba. Ezona mpembelelo zibalaseleyo kolu tshintsho lwemozulu luvelisa iimeko zemozulu ezigqithisileyo, ukwanda kokuhamba rhoqo kunye nokuqina kweziganeko zemozulu ezigqithileyo, ukunyuka kwinqanaba lolwandle, ukuncitshiswa kobutyebi bamanzi amatsha, isivuno esisezantsi sezityalo, njl. Oku kuyacaphukisa yonke indalo kunye nokuguqula iitafile.

Kunzima kakhulu ukubalisela ukufa ngenxa yotshintsho lwemozulu, kuba, kuba lixesha elide, kunzima ngakumbi ukubalisa. Nangona kunjalo, ukwanda kwabantu abafayo okubangelwe ngamaza obushushu aqatha kakhulu kwaye aqhelekileyo kuyabonakala, kwaye ezi zibangelwe kukutshintsha kwemozulu.

Ukunxibelelana nokusweleka kotshintsho lwemozulu nakwimveliso yamandla, sisebenzisa amandla ekhabhoni, elinganisa iigrama zekhabhon dayoksayidi (CO2) ekhutshwa kwimveliso yeyure-kilowatt yeyure enye yamandla (gCO2e nge-kWh nganye). Sebenzisa esi salathisi, kunokucingelwa ukuba imithombo yamandla enobunzulu bekhabhoni ephezulu iya kuba nefuthe elikhulu kumanqanaba okusweleka ukusuka kutshintsho lwemozulu kwinqanaba elinikiweyo lemveliso yamandla.

Eyona mithombo yamandla ingakhuselekanga kwixesha elifutshane nayo ayikhuselekanga kwixesha elide. Ngokuchasene noko, amandla akhuselekileyo kwisizukulwana sangoku akhuselekile nakwizizukulwana ezizayo. I-oyile kunye namalahle anezinga eliphezulu lokusweleka kwabantu kokubini kwixesha elifutshane nelide, kunye noxanduva lokungcoliseka komoya. Nangona kunjalo, Amandla enyukliya kunye ne-biomass ayenzi kakhulu i-carbon, malunga nama-83 nama-55 amaxesha aphantsi kunamalahle ukuba abe ngqo, ngokulandelelana.

Ke ngoko, amandla enyukliya asezantsi ekufeni kwexesha elifutshane kunye nexesha elide okunxulumene nemveliso yamandla. Kubalwa oko ukuya kuthi ga kwi-1,8 yezigidi yokusweleka okunxulumene nongcoliseko lomoya oluye lwathintelwa phakathi kowe-1971 nowama-2009 njengesiphumo semveliso yamandla ngezixhobo zamandla enyukliya endaweni yezinye iindlela ezikhoyo.

Isiphelo kukhuseleko lwamandla

Intlekele yaseChernobyl ngo-1986

I-Chernobyl iminyaka engama-30 emva kwengozi yenyukliya

Xa sithetha ngokhuseleko lwamandla kumhlaba wenyukliya, kuphakama imibuzo enje ngala: bangaphi abaswelekileyo ngenxa yezehlo zenyukliya eChernobyl naseFukushima? Isishwankathelo: Uqikelelo luyahluka kodwa inani lokufa kwabantu baseChernobyl kungenzeka libe ngamashumi amawaka. E-Fukushima, uninzi lokusweleka kulindeleke ukuba lunxulumene noxinzelelo olubangelwa yinkqubo yokukhutshwa kwabantu (ngaphandle kwe-1600 yokufa) endaweni yokuvezwa kwemitha ngokuthe ngqo.

Kufuneka kukhunjulwe ukuba ezi ziganeko zibini zizimele geqe nangona iimpembelelo zazo bezinkulu. Nangona kunjalo, kuthathelwa ingqalelo yonke le minyaka, inani lokufa kwezi ngozi zimbini liphantsi kakhulu kunabo bonke abantu abasweleke ngenxa yongcoliseko lomoya oluvela kweminye imithombo yamandla efana neoyile namalahle. Umbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi uqikelela ukuba Izigidi ezi-3 ziyafa nyaka ngamnye ngenxa yongcoliseko lomoya olukhoyo kunye ne-4,3 yezigidi kubungcoliseko lomoya ngaphakathi.

Oku kunempikiswano ekuboneni kwabantu, kuba iziganeko zaseChernobyl naseFukushima zaziwa njengeentlekele kwihlabathi liphela kunye nezihloko zamaphephandaba ixesha elide. Nangona kunjalo, ukusweleka kongcoliseko lomoya kuqhubeka kuthi cwaka kwaye akukho namnye owaziyo umphumo wazo ngokweenkcukacha.

Intlekele ye-fukushima yenzeka ngo-2011

Ingozi yenyukliya yaseFukushima

Ngokusekwe kumanani akhoyo nawayembali okusweleka okunxulumene namandla, amandla enyukliya kubonakala ngathi abangele owona monakalo mncinci kwimithombo yamandla engamandla yanamhlanje. Le nyaniso inika amandla ubukhulu becala iyaphikisana nembono yoluntu, apho inkxaso yoluntu kumandla enyukliya ihlala iphantsi ngenxa yenkxalabo yezokhuseleko.

Inkxaso yoluntu kwimveliso yamandla ahlaziyekayo yomelele ngakumbi kunezibaso. Utshintsho lwethu lwehlabathi kwiinkqubo zamandla ahlaziyekayo iya kuba yinkqubo ethatha ixesha, ixesha elongeziweyo apho kufuneka senze izigqibo ezibalulekileyo malunga nemithombo yamandla ombane. Ukhuseleko lwemithombo yethu yamandla kufuneka ibe yinto ebalulekileyo kuyilo lweendlela zenguqu esifuna ukuzithatha.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Izimvo ezi-2, shiya ezakho

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

*

*

  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   Cesar Zavaleta sitsho

    Amandla aluncedo kakhulu kwaye acocekile xa kuthelekiswa (namalahle, igesi kunye neoyile) ineyona pesenti isezantsi yokufa kwabantu ephindwe ka-442 ephantsi xa kuthelekiswa namalahle neoyile ngeyunithi nganye yamandla kuthathelwa ingqalelo iingozi zaseFukushima naseChernobyl. Into eyingozi yindlela yokuyiphatha ngokufanelekileyo inkunkuma yenyukliya kuba le nkunkuma iya kuqhubeka nokukhupha imitha emininzi yemitha iminyaka emininzi (i-10000 ukuya kwisigidi seminyaka) eyona inobungozi yinkunkuma ekumgangatho ophezulu ekufuneka ibekwe kukhuseleko kwiindawo ezizinzileyo ze-geological.

  2.   Rana sitsho

    Enkosi, ndinceda umhlobo wam ovela kwiiCanary Islands emsebenzini wakhe ngeebhombu zenyukliya.