Amandla ombane weSpain

Ilizwe lethu linamandla amakhulu ombane, ophuhliswe ngeli xesha ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-100. Siyabulela oku, ngoku kukho inkqubo enkulu yokuvelisa umbane nge-hydroelectric.

Ngaphakathi kwamandla ahlaziyekayo axhatshazwayo eSpain, i amandla ombane Yeyona teknoloji idityanisiweyo kwaye ikhulile, enkosi ekusebenziseni i-orography kunye nobukho bamadama amaninzi.

Amandla ombane

Zimbini iintlobo zokuxhaphaza umbane ophehlwa ngamanzi: eyokuqala, izityalo zamanzi ezithatha inxenye yokuhamba komjelo ziwukhokelele kwisityalo ukuze siphazanyiswe kwaye emva koko babuyela emlanjeni.

Ngokwesiqhelo, basebenzisa uluhlu lwamandla asezantsi (ngokwesiqhelo angaphantsi kwe-5 MW) kunye neakhawunti ye-75% yentengiso. Babandakanya "umjelo wokunkcenkceshela ophakathi", osebenzisa i ukungalingani kwamanzi kwimijelo yokunkcenkceshela ukuvelisa umbane.

Izityalo zonyawo lwamadama zezo, xa kusakhiwa idama okanye kusetyenziswe esele zikhona, zinokulawula ukuhamba kwamanzi. Bahlala benamanqanaba e amandla amakhulu kune-5 MW kwaye zimele malunga ne-20% yentengiso eSpain. Ngaphakathi kwazo kukho ukumpompa okanye ukuguqula izityalo, izityalo, ukongeza ekuveliseni amandla (imowudi yenjini yomoya), ezinesakhono sokukhulisa amanzi kwidama okanye kwidama ngokutya amandla ombane (imo yokupompa).

Lilonke, eSpain kukho umthamo wamanzi opheleleyo we-55.000 hm3, apho i-40% yelo lungelo iyahambelana amadama ngamanzi, lelinye lawona manqanaba aphezulu eYurophu nasehlabathini.

Nciphisa

Ngokwembali, ukuvela kwamandla ombane ophehlwa ngamanzi eSpain ibisanda, kwiminyaka yakutshanje ikubonile ukwehla okukhulu kwigalelo lawo kwi imveliso epheleleyo yombane, okoko amanye amandla ahlaziyiweyo angenisiwe kumxube wamandla.

Nangona kunjalo, iyaqhubeka nokuba yenye yezona zinto zinemveliso ezinokuhlaziywa kunye namandla omoya. Amandla ombane afakelwe amandla kwilizwe lethu le-17.792 MW, oku kubonisa i-19,5% yetotali, amandla agqithe irhasi idityanisiwe imijikelezo ukuba, nge-27.200 MW iyonke, yitekhnoloji yokuqala ngombane ofakiweyo (i-24,8% yetotali), ngokuchaseneyo, amandla omoya, ane-23.002 MW yamandla (22,3%).

Imvelaphi yamandla e-biofuel

Kwi-2014, igalelo lamandla ombane kwimveliso yeli lizwe limele i-15,5%, nge-35.860 GWh iyonke, eli nani libonisa ukunyuka kwe-5,6% kunyaka ophelileyo. Ngaphandle kokulungileyo Ukuziphatha kwe-hydroelectric, yayiyiteknoloji yesine kwimveliso, emva kwenyukliya (22%), umoya (20,3% 9 namalahle (16,5%).

Kwixesha elizayo, kulindeleke ukuba obu buchwephesha buqhubeke nokukhula kwi-avareji yonyaka ephakathi kwama-40 ukuya kuma-60 MW, ukusukela oko amandla ombane ngamanzi anokubakho uzinzo kwezoqoqoshoingaphezulu kwe-1 GW.

ICatalonia, iGalicia kunye neCastilla y León loluntu oluzimeleyo noluphezulu amandla afakiweyo kwicandelo le-hydroelectric, njengoko ziindawo ezinobuninzi bamanzi eSpain

Uphuhliso lwezobuchwepheshe

Inyathelo nenyathelo, uphuhliso lobuchwephesha lukhokelele kumandla ombane omncinci wombane aneendleko ezikhuphisanayo kwintengiso yombane, nangona ezi zahluka ngokwendlela uhlobo lwezityalo kunye nenyathelo eliza kwenziwa. Isityalo sombane sithathwa njenge-mini-hydro ukuba sinamandla afakiweyo angaphantsi kwe-10 MW kwaye sinokuhamba kumanzi omlambo okanye ezinyaweni zedama.

Okwangoku, ii-hydraulic microturbines ziphuhliswa ngamandla angaphantsi kwaleyo 10 kW, ezi ziluncedo kakhulu ekusebenziseni amandla e-kinetic emilambo kunye nokuvelisa umbane kwi iindawo ezikwanti. Iinjini yomoya ivelisa umbane ngokuthe ngqo ngokutshintshisanayo yangoku kwaye ayifuni manzi awayo, ulwakhiwo olongezelelekileyo okanye iindleko eziphezulu zolondolozo.

Namhlanje, ukuphuculwa kwecandelo le-hydroelectric yaseSpain kujolise ekufezekiseni ukusebenza ngokukuko, ukuze kuphuculwe ukusebenza kwezixhobo ezikhoyo. Izindululo zijolise kwi ukuvuselelwa, ukuphuculwa, ukuphucula okanye ukwandiswa kwezityalo esele zifakiwe.

ISpain ngoku inezixhobo ezimalunga nama-800 zezityalo zombane, ezinobungakanani obahlukeneyo. Kukho izityalo ezingama-20 ezingaphezu kwama-200 MW, zidibene zimele ama-50% ombane ophela ngamanzi. Kwelinye icala, kukho inqwaba yamadama amancinci ngamandla angaphantsi kwama-20 MW, asasazwa eSpain yonke.

Presa


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.