Izityalo zeHydroponic, ziyintoni kwaye zenziwa njani ekhaya

izityalo ezikhuliswe ngaphandle komhlaba

Izityalo zeHydroponic zizityalo ezikhulayo zibonakaliswa kukungabikho komhlaba kwaye ziyavela njengenye indlela kwezolimo lwesintu.

Eyona njongo iphambili yezityalo ze-hydroponic kukususa okanye ukunciphisa izinto ezinokuthintela ukukhula kwezityalo ezinxulunyaniswa neempawu zomhlaba, Ukutshintsha endaweni yezinye izixhaso zokulima kunye nokusebenzisa ezinye iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokuchumisa.

Igama lezi zityalo linikezelwa ngegama le-hydroponics, eyinkxaso ye-inert efana ne-peat, isanti, igrabile apho iingcambu zesityalo zixhonyiwe kwisisombululo sesondlo ngokwaso.

Oku kubangela ukuba isisombululo sihlale siphinda-phinda, sithintela inkqubo ye-anaerobiosis enokubangela ukubhubha kwangoko kwenkcubeko.

Kwakhona izityalo zifumaneka ngaphakathi kwigumbi le-PVC okanye nakweyiphi na into egqobhoziweyo yeendonga (ezithi ziziswe ngayo izityalo), kule meko iingcambu zisemoyeni kwaye ziyakukhula ebumnyameni kwaye isisombululo sesondlo sisasazwa ngokusebenzisa ukutshiza okuphakathi okanye okuphantsi.

Izityalo ezikhula ngamanzi kwi-PVC

Enkosi kwizifundo zempembelelo yokusingqongileyo ebiqhutywa kule minyaka idlulileyo kumanzi nakumphezulu wamanzi kunye nokubaleka okanye kwimisebenzi yezolimo ngokwayo kwiatmosfera, sinokuqinisekisa ukuba izityalo zehydroponic okanye izityalo ngaphandle komhlaba baneempawu ezahluke kakhulu xa kuthelekiswa nezityalo zesintu bathanda:

  • Umthamo wokubamba inkunkuma kunye neemveliso eziza kusetyenziswa njengeziza ezikhulayo.
  • Ulawulo olungqongqo lwamanzi akho kunye nonikezelo lwezondlo, ngakumbi xa usebenza ngeenkqubo ezivaliweyo.
  • Ayifuni zikhala zinkulu, yiyo loo nto izuza ngokukodwa ngokombono wezoqoqosho.
  • Inika iingcambu inqanaba lokufuma rhoqo, ngaphandle kwemozulu okanye inqanaba lokukhula kwesityalo.
  • Ukucutha umngcipheko wokunkcenkceshela ngokugqithileyo.
  • Phepha inkunkuma engenamsebenzi yamanzi kunye nezichumisi.
  • Ukuqinisekisa ukunkcenkceshelwa kuyo yonke indawo yengcambu.
  • Iyanciphisa ngokubonakalayo iingxaki zezifo ezibangelwa ziintsholongwane zomhlaba.
  • Ukunyusa isivuno kunye nokuphucula umgangatho wemveliso.

Nangona kunjalo, izityalo zolu hlobo yenza uthotho lwezinto ezingcolisayo, ngakumbi ezo zingenelelwe yimizi-mveliso, zivela:

  • Ukungena kwi-Nutrient kwiinkqubo ezivulekileyo.
  • Ukulahlwa kwenkunkuma.
  • Ukukhutshwa kweemveliso ze-phytosanitary kunye neegesi.
  • Ukusetyenziswa kwamandla ongezelelweyo njengesiphumo sokufudumeza ngokufanelekileyo kunye neenkqubo zokugcina.

Iindidi zezityalo ze-hydroponic

Inkqubo yeFilimu yeZondlo (NFT)

Yinkqubo yemveliso kwizityalo ezingenamhlaba apho isisombululo sezondlo siphinda sibuyele khona.

I-NFT isekwe kwi Ukujikeleza okuqhubekayo okanye okwexeshana kwiphepha elincinci lesisombululo sezondlo Ngeengcambu zesityalo, ngaphandle kokuntywiliselwa nakweyiphi na i-substrate, ke ngoko ziyaxhaswa ngumjelo wokulima, ngaphakathi apho isisombululo sihamba saya kumanqanaba asezantsi ngamandla omxhuzulane.

Iskimu seNFT

Inkqubo ivumela ukongiwa kwamanzi kunye namandla amakhulu kunye nolawulo oluchanekileyo lokutya kwezityalo kwaye ikwanakho nokucoca umhlaba kwaye iqinisekise ukufana okuthile phakathi kwezondlo zezityalo.

Nangona kunjalo, isifundo sokunyibilikiswa kwesondlo kufuneka senziwe, kunye nezinye iiparamicochemical parameter ezinje nge-pH, ubushushu, ukufuma ...

Umkhukula kunye nenkqubo yokuhambisa amanzi

Le nkqubo iqulathe iitreyi apho izityalo ezityalisiweyo zibekwe kumhlaba ongaphantsi (iiperile, iingqalutye, njl.) Okanye i-organic. Ezi tray bakhukula ngamanzi kunye nezisombululo zezondlo, ezifunxwa zeendawana.

Nje ukuba izondlo zigciniwe, iitreyi ziyakhutshwa kwaye ziphinde zikhukule ngezisombululo ezithile.

Inkqubo yokuhambisa ingqokelela yesisombululo sezondlo

Kuyafana nonkcenkceshelo lwesiqhelo lwedriphu kodwa umahluko kukuba Ukugqithisa kuqokelelwa kwaye kuphindiselwe emva kwinkcubeko ngokweemfuno ezifanayo.

Ukuqokelelwa kwemali egqithisileyo kunokwenzeka ukuba kubulelwe sisivuno kwithambeka.

I-DWP (Inkcubeko yaManzi anzulu)

Olu luhlobo lokulima olufana kakhulu nolo lwalusetyenziswa mandulo.

Iqukethe amachibi ngaphezulu izityalo zibekwe epleyitini, Ukushiya iingcambu kunxibelelana namanzi kunye nezisombululo ezongeziweyo. Ukuba ngamanzi amileyo, kuyafuneka ukuba uwuphefumle usebenzisa iimpompo ezifanayo nezo zikwi-aquarium.

Izibonelelo zendalo kwinkqubo yokukhula kwe-hydroponic

Sele sizibonile izibonelelo zezityalo ze-hydroponic kodwa kufuneka sizibone izibonelelo zendalo ezinokuthi zibonelele, ezinje:

  • Inkululeko yobukho bokhula okanye izitshabalalisi kwizityalo ngokwazo.
  • Olu hlobo lokulima luluncedo olukhulu ekusebenziseni kumhlaba osele uguge kakhulu okanye unqabile kuba uthanda umhlaba wonke.
  • Njengokuba ingaxhomekeki kwiimeko zemozulu, ke ngoko iqinisekisa iintlobo zezityalo enyakeni.

Ukwahlulahlulwa kwemiqolo engezantsi

Njengoko benditshilo ngaphambili, kukho izinto ezahlukeneyo zokwenza isityalo se-hydroponic.

Ukhetho olwenziwe ngento okanye ngolunye uhlobo lumiselwa zizinto ezininzi njengokufumaneka kwazo, ixabiso, injongo yokuveliswa kwesityalo esele sithethiwe, iipropathi zekhemikhali ebonakalayo, phakathi kwabanye.

Ezi zinto zingaphantsi zinokwahlulwa zibe Imicu yendalo (ukuba ngaba inemvelaphi yendalo, eyindibaniselwano, yeemveliso ezivela okanye inkunkuma yezolimo, eyorhwebo nasedolophini) kunye kwii-substrates ezingaphiliyo okanye zezimbiwa (yemvelaphi yendalo, eguqulweyo okanye ephathwayo, kunye nenkunkuma evela kwimizi-mveliso okanye imveliso).

Imigca ephantsi

Phakathi kwazo sinokufumana amahlokondiba kunye namaxolo omthi.

Amahlokondiba

Zenziwe ziintsalela ze-moss phakathi kwezinye izityalo, ezithi zikwinkqubo yokucothisa kancinci kwaye ke ngenxa yokunxibelelana neoksijini ngenxa yokugqitha kwamanzi. Ngenxa yoko, bayakwazi ukugcina ulwakhiwo lweatomical ixesha elide.

Kukho iintlobo ezimbini ze-peat, kuxhomekeke kwimvelaphi yokwakheka kwayo, kuba iintsalela zezityalo zingafakwa kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zendalo.

Kwelinye icala, sinayo i-herbaceous okanye i-eutrophic mobs kwelinye icala sinayo Sphagnum okanye i-oligotrophic mobs. Ezi zokugqibela zezona zisetyenziswa kakhulu namhlanje, ngenxa yezinto zazo eziphilayo, kwimithombo yeendaba yenkcubeko ekhula ezimbizeni. Oku kungenxa yeempawu zayo ezintle zeekhemikhali.

Nangona kunjalo, kwaye ngaphandle kweminyaka ephantse ibe ngama-30 ihlokondiba zizinto ezisetyenziswa kakhulu njengemigca engaphantsi, kancinci kancinci ziye zathathelwa indawo zezizinto ezingaphiliyo, esiza kubona ngezantsi.

Ukongeza, oovimba bololu hlobo lwe-substrate banqunyelwe kwaye abanakuhlaziywa, ngenxa yoko ukusetyenziswa kwayo okungaphezulu kunokubangela ifuthe kwindalo esingqongileyo.

Umthi womthi

Olu luhlu lubandakanya zombini i-bark yangaphakathi kunye ne-bark yangaphandle yemithi.

Awona asetyenziswa kakhulu ngamaxolo emithi, nangona amaxolo eentlobo ezahlukeneyo zemithi angasetyenziswa.

Ezi zikhonkwane Zingafumaneka zintsha okanye sele zinomgquba.

Into yangaphambili inokubangela ukunqongophala kwe-nitrogen kunye neengxaki ze-phytotoxicity, ngelixa amaxolo agalelwe umgquba anciphisa ezi ngxaki kakhulu.

Iimpawu zayo ezibonakalayo zixhomekeke kubungakanani be-particle, kodwa i-porosity ihlala idlula i-80-85%.

Imiyalezo engaqhelekanga

Kolu hlobo lwee-substrates sinokufumana uboya belitye, igwebu le-polyurethane, isanti perlite phakathi kwezinye, endingenakukunika nkcukacha nzulu, kodwa ndiza kunika imivumbo emincinci ukuze ube nombono omncinci. Ukuba ufuna ulwazi olungaphezulu, unganqikazi ukunika uluvo.

Uboya belitye

Yimbiwa eguqulweyo kwimizi-mveliso. Ngokusisiseko i-aluminium silicate kunye nobukho be-calcium kunye ne-magnesium, kunye nomkhondo wentsimbi kunye ne-manganese.

Inzuzo:

  • Ukugcinwa kwamanzi okuphezulu.
  • Intsingiselo enkulu

Ukungancedi:

  • Imfuneko yolawulo ogqibeleleyo hydric kunye nezimbiwa isondlo.
  • Ukupheliswa kwenkunkuma.
  • Inokuba yi-carcinogenic nangona ingangqinwanga ngokwenzululwazi.

I-polyurethane foam

Yinto eyenziwe ngeplastikhi eyenziwe ngeplastikhi eyenziwe bubumbano lwamaqamza, ekwabizwa nangamagama ahlanganisiweyo erabha egwebu eSpain.

Inzuzo:

  • Iipropati zayo ze-hydrophobic.
  • Ixabiso layo.

Ukungancedi:

  • Ukulahlwa kwenkunkuma njengoboya bamatye.

itreyi ekhulayo yokuthengisa hydroponic (okanye yokwenza ekhaya)

Pearlite

It is a aluminium silicate yemvelaphi yentaba-mlilo.

Inzuzo:

  • Iimpawu ezintle zomzimba.
  • Iququzelela ulawulo lokunkcenkceshela kwaye icuthe umngcipheko wokufuthaniselwa okanye ukusilela kwamanzi.

Ukungancedi:

  • Ukubakho kokuthotywa ngexesha lomjikelo wokulima, ukuphulukana nokuzinza kwegranulometric, okunokuthi kuthande ukungena kwamanzi ngaphakathi kwesikhongozeli.

Arena

Izinto zendalo ezinobumba kunye nokwakheka okungafaniyo, okuxhomekeke kumacandelo elitye le-silicate yoqobo.

Inzuzo:

  • Ixabiso eliphantsi kumazwe apho lifumaneka ngobuninzi.

Ukungancedi:

  • Iingxaki ezivela ekusetyenzisweni kweesanti ezithile ezikumgangatho osezantsi

Ukulungiswa kwezisombululo zesondlo

Ukulungiswa kwezisombululo zesondlo kusekwe kwi ibhalansi yangaphambili phakathi kwezakhamzimba Ukusuka kumanzi okunkcenkceshela kunye nexabiso elifanelekileyo leso sityalo.

Ezi zisombululo zondlo inokulungiswa kwizisombululo zesitokhwe, ngoxinzelelo oluphindwe ka-200 ngaphezulu kwesisombululo sokugqibela okanye malunga namawaka ali-1.000 aphezulu kwimeko yeemacroelements kunye nezinto ezincinci ngokulandelelana.

Ngaphaya koko, i-pH yezi zisombululo ihlengahlengiswa phakathi kwe-5.5 kunye ne-6.0 ngokongeza i-NaOH okanye i-HCl.

Uyenza njani iNkqubo yokuKhula kweHydroponic eHomemade

Apha ngezantsi kunokwakhiwa kwenkqubo elula yokukhula kwe-hydroponic yee-lettuce ezingama-20 ezine-NFT (ubuchule befilimu enesondlo) esele sibonile.

Siyabona ukuba ngezixhobo ezithile ezilula ezenziwe ekhaya kunye nezinto eziqhelekileyo sinokwakha inkcubeko yethu ye-hydroponic.

Phawula; ividiyo ayinamculo ngoko ke ndicebisa umculo othile ongasemva ukuze ungabonakali unzima ukuwubona.

Le vidiyo yenziwe yiFakhalthi yeSayensi ye-UNAM kwiHydroponics Workshop.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   UKatherine Hidalgo sitsho

    Molo, besele ndiyibonile, kodwa ingcambu yelethisi ihlala ijika ibemdaka xa kuneentsuku ezili-12 emva kokuba le letesi ityalwe, ngoba?

  2.   Sirayeli sitsho

    Esi sihloko sinomdla kakhulu, ndisiphumezile ekhaya kodwa ndinengxaki, iileta zam ziba zinde, andazi ukuba kutheni. Umntu othile unokundinceda?

    Gracias