Amandla e-biofuel

Amandla e-biofuel

Ukuthintela ukusetyenziswa kwezibaso ezibangela ukwanda kobushushu behlabathi ngenxa yokukhutshwa kwegesi eluhlaza, yonke imihla kuphandwa ngakumbi kwaye ezinye iintlobo zamanye amandla ziyaphuhliswa njengamandla ahlaziyekayo esiwaziyo.

Phakathi kwamandla ahlaziyekayo zininzi iintlobo: amandla elanga, umoya, i-geothermal, i-hydraulic, i-biomass, njl. Amandla e-biofuel Luhlobo lwamandla ahlaziyekayo afunyanwa ngento yendalo kwaye enokutshintsha izinto zokubasa. Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi ngakumbi malunga namandla e-biofuel?

Imvelaphi kunye nembali yamandla e-biofuel

Imvelaphi yamandla e-biofuel

Los Iibhayoloji Azikho ntsha njengokuba zikholelwa, kodwa zazalwa phantse ngokufanayo iifosili kunye neenjini zokutsha.

Ngaphezulu kweminyaka eli-100 eyadlulayo, uRudolf Diesel wenza umatshini wenjini owawusebenzisa amandongomane okanye ioyile yamandongomane, eyathi kamva yaba yidizili, kodwa njengoko ioyile yayilula kwaye ingabizi kakhulu ukuyifumana, la mafutha aqala ukusetyenziswa.

Ngo-1908 uHenry Ford kwi-Model T yakhe wasebenzisa i-ethanol ekuqaleni kwayo. Enye iprojekthi enomdla ngeli xesha kukuba inkampani yeoyile esemgangathweni kwisithuba esisusela kowe-1920 ukuya kowe-1924 yathengisa ipetroli nge25% ethanol, Kodwa amaxabiso aphezulu wombona enza ukuba le mveliso ingabi nakuphumelela ngokwezoqoqosho.

Ngama-30, iFord kunye nabanye bazama ukuvuselela ukuveliswa kwe-biofuel ukuze bakhe i Isityalo se-biofuel e-Kansas evelise malunga ne-38.000 yeelitha ze-ethanol ngemini esekwe ekusetyenzisweni kombona njengempahla eluhlaza. Ngeli xesha, ngaphezulu kwezikhululo zeenkonzo ezingama-2000 ezithengise le mveliso.

Ngeminyaka yoo-40, esi sityalo kwafuneka sivaliwe kuba sasingenako ukukhuphisana namaxabiso e- petroleum.

Ngeminyaka yee-70 ngenxa ye- ingxaki yeoyile I-US iqala kwakhona ukuxuba ipetroli kunye ne-ethanol, inika ukwanda okubalulekileyo kwii-biofuels ezingayekanga ukukhula ukusukela kule minyaka ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kweli lizwe kodwa naseYurophu.

Kuze kube phakathi kwe-80s, abantu babesebenza kwaye bezama nge-biofuels yokuqala kunye neyesibini ngokusekelwe kuyo izityalo zokutya, kodwa kwavela amacandelo ahlukeneyo alumkisa ngengozi yokusebenzisa ukutya ukwenza ipetroli.

Bajongane nale meko, baqala ukukhangela ezinye izinto ezingasasebenzi ezingazichaphazeliyo ukhuseleko lokutya ezinje nge-algae kunye neminye imifuno engadliwayo, enika isizukulwane sesithathu se-biofuels.

Ii-biofuels ziya kuba zii-protagonists zekhulu lama-XNUMX kuba zininzi kakhulu kune-fosili.

I-Biofuel njengamandla ahlaziyekayo

IBiofuel

Ukusukela kuguquko kwimizi-mveliso, abantu baxhase kwaye bakhuthaza isayensi kunye netekhnoloji ngamandla avela kwizibaso. Zezi i-oyile, amalahle kunye negesi yendalo. Ngaphandle kokusebenza kwala mandla kunye namandla awo amandla, ezi fuels zigqityiwe kwaye ziyaphela ngereyithi ekhawulezayo. Ukongeza, ukusetyenziswa kwezi fuel kuvelisa ukukhutshwa kwegesi engcolileyo kwiatmosfera egcina ubushushu obungaphezulu kuyo kwaye inegalelo kubushushu behlabathi nakwinguqulelo lwemozulu.

Ngezi zizathu, kwenziwa ilinge lokufumana amandla ongezelelweyo anceda ukunciphisa iingxaki ezinxulumene nokusetyenziswa kwezibaso. Kule meko, ii-biofuels zithathwa njengohlobo lwamandla ahlaziyekayo, Kuba ziveliswa kwi-biomass yesityalo. I-biomass yokutyala, ngokungafaniyo neoyile, ayithathi izigidi zeminyaka ukuvelisa, kodwa endaweni yesikali esilawulwa ngabantu. Ii-biofuels zihlala ziveliswa kwizityalo ezinokuphinda ziphinde zenziwe.

Phakathi kwezinto eziphilayo esinazo i-ethanol kunye ne-biodiesel.

I-Ethanol njenge-biofuel

I-ethanol yeyona biofuel yaziwa kakhulu emhlabeni. Iveliswa ngombona. I-Ethanol idityaniswa nepetroli ukuze yenze ipetroli esebenzayo necocekileyo yokusetyenziswa kwizithuthi. Phantse isiqingatha sayo yonke ipetroli e-United States yi-E-10, umxube we-10 yeep ethanol kunye neepesenti ezingama-90 zepetroli. I-E-85 yiipesenti ezingama-85 ze-ethanol kunye neepesenti ezili-15 zepetroli kwaye isetyenziselwa ukunika amandla izithuthi zepetroli.

Njengoko iveliswa ngombona, singatsho ukuba iyavuseleleka, kuba amasimi ombona ayahlaziywa. Oku kunceda ukuyenza ibe ngumthombo ongaphelelanga njengeoyile okanye amalahle. Inayo inzuzo yokuba iyanceda ekukhutshweni kwegesi eluhlaza, ukusukela ngexesha lokuvelisa umbona, ifotosinthesisi iyenzeka kwaye ifunxa i-CO2 kwiatmosfera.

IBiodiesel

Biodiesel

I-Biodiesel lolunye uhlobo lwe-biofuel eveliswa kuzo zombini iioyile zemifuno ezisetyenzisiweyo kunye namafutha ezilwanyana. IBiodiesel ibisaziwa kwaye isasazeke kwihlabathi liphela ngenxa yento yokuba abantu abaninzi baqala ukuzenzela ipetroli ekhaya ukunqanda ukuchitha imali eninzi ekugcwaliseni izithuthi zakho.

IBiodiesel inokusetyenziswa kwizithuthi ezininzi eziqhutywa yidizili ngaphandle koguqulelo oluninzi lwenjini. Nangona kunjalo, iimodeli ezindala zedizili zinokufuna ukulungiswa okuthile ngaphambi kokuba zibambe i-biodiesel. Kwiminyaka yakutshanje ishishini elincinci le-biodiesel likhule ngaphakathi e-United States kwaye i-biodiesel sele ifumaneka kwezinye izikhululo zeenkonzo.

Izibonelelo zokusebenzisa amandla e-biofuel

Zininzi izibonelelo esizifumana ekusebenziseni amandla e-biofuel. Phakathi kwezo zinto sinazo:

  • Luhlobo lwamandla ahlaziyekayo kwaye luveliswa ekuhlaleni. Oku kunceda ngeendleko zokuhamba nokugcina, Ukongeza ekunciphiseni ukukhutshwa kwegesi emoyeni.
  • Isinceda ukunciphisa ukuxhomekeka kwabantu kwioyile okanye kolunye uhlobo lweoyile yeefosili.
  • Kumazwe angavelisi ioyile, ubukho be-biofuel bunceda uqoqosho, kuba kwiindawo ezinje ngeoyile amaxabiso anyuka kuphela.
  • I-Ethanol, ekubeni yi-oxygenate kwipetroli, iphucula umlinganiso wayo we-octane kakhulu, esinceda ukutshabalalisa izixeko zethu kunye nokunciphisa ii-greenhouse gases.
  • I-ethanol Inqanaba le-octane eli-113 kwaye utshise ngcono koxinzelelo oluphezulu kunepetroli. Oku kunika amandla ngakumbi kwiinjini.
  • I-Ethanol isebenza njenge-antifreeze kwiinjini, ukuphucula ukubanda kweinjini ezibandayo kunye nokukhusela ukubanda.
  • Ngokuvela kwimithombo yezolimo, ixabiso leemveliso liyonyuka, ukwandisa umvuzo wabemi basemaphandleni.

Ukungancedi ekusebenziseni amandla e-biofuel

Ungcoliseko oluvela kwi-ethanol

Nangona izibonelelo zibonakala ngokucacileyo kwaye zilungile, ukusetyenziswa kwamandla e-biofuel nako kuneengxaki ezithile ezinje:

  • I-Ethanol itshisa iipesenti ezingama-25 ukuya kuma-30% ngokukhawuleza kunepetroli. Oku kubangela ukuba ibe nexabiso eliphantsi.
  • Kumazwe amaninzi i-biofuel iveliswa kummoba. Nje ukuba iimveliso ziqokelelwe, iintonga zokuvuna zitshisiwe. Oku kubangela ukukhutshwa kwemethane kunye ne-nitrous oxide, eyonyusa ubushushu behlabathi, kuba zimbini iigesi zegreenhouse ngenxa yamandla azo okugcina ubushushu. Ke ngoko, oko sikugcina sikhupha kwelinye icala, sikhupha kwelinye.
  • Xa i-ethanol iveliswa ngombona, igesi yendalo okanye amalahle asetyenziselwa ukuvelisa umphunga ngexesha lokuveliswa kwawo. Yintoni egqithisile, Izichumisi ze-nitrogen kunye ne-herbicides zichitheka kwinkqubo yokulima ingqolowa engcolisa amanzi kunye nomhlaba. Oku kungasombululwa ngokusebenzisa iinkqubo zemveliso yezolimo okanye yendalo. I-CO2 evela kwii-distilleries ingasetyenziselwa ukuvelisa i-algae (enokuthi isetyenziselwe ukuvelisa ii-biofuels). Ukongeza, ukuba kukho iifama ezikufuphi, i-methane esuka emgqubeni ingasetyenziselwa ukuvelisa umphunga (eneneni oku kulingana nokusebenzisa i-biogas ukuvelisa i-biofuel).

Njengoko ubona, amandla e-biofuel iqhubela phambili kwindlela yayo njengamandla ahlaziyekayo. Nangona kunjalo, kukho uphuculo oluninzi kunye nophuhliso oludinga ukuba ngumthombo omtsha wamandla kwizithuthi kwihlabathi liphela.


Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa. ezidingekayo ziphawulwe *

*

*

  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.