Iintlobo zongcoliseko lwamanzi

ungcoliseko lweekhemikhali

Ungcoliseko lwamanzi lulo naluphi na utshintsho lwekhemikhali, lomzimba okanye lwebhayoloji kumgangatho wamanzi oluneziphumo ezibi neziyingozi kwizinto eziphilayo eziwasebenzisayo. Ingqikelelo yamanzi angcolisekileyo ibhekisa ekuqokeleleni nasekuhlanganiseni into enye okanye ngaphezulu ngaphandle kwamanzi ngendlela efanayo kangangokuba ibangela ukungalingani kubomi bebhayoloji, ukusetyenziswa komntu, ishishini, ezolimo, ukuloba kunye nemisebenzi yolonwabo kunye nemiba yezilwanyana. Zininzi iintlobo zongcoliseko lwamanzi kuxhomekeke kwimvelaphi kunye nomonakalo.

Ngoko ke, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela ukuba zeziphi iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zokungcola kwamanzi ezikhoyo kwaye zithini iziphumo zazo.

Iintlobo zongcoliseko lwamanzi

iintlobo zongcoliseko lwamanzi ezikhoyo

Iihydrocarbons

Ukuchitheka kweoyile phantse kuhlala kunefuthe lasekhaya kwizilwanyana zasendle okanye zasemanzini, Kodwa amathuba okusasazeka makhulu kakhulu.

Ioli inamathela kwiintsiba zeentaka zaselwandle, inciphisa amandla azo okudada okanye okubhabha, nto leyo ebulala iintlanzi. Ukwanda kokuchitheka kwe-oyile kunye nokuchithwa kwiinqanawa kukhokelele kungcoliseko lolwandle. Inqaku elibalulekileyo: I-oyile ayinyibiliki emanzini kwaye iya kwenza umaleko oshinyeneyo we-oyile emanzini, ukufuthanisela iintlanzi kunye nokuthintela ukukhanya kwizityalo zasemanzini zephotosynthetic.

Amanzi angaphezulu

Amanzi angaphezulu aquka amanzi endalo afumaneka phezu komhlaba, njengemilambo, amachibi, amachibi kunye neelwandle. Ezi zinto zidibana namanzi kwaye nyibilikisa okanye udibanise ngokwasemzimbeni kuyo.

Izinto zokufunxa ioksijini

Kukho ii-microorganisms kumzimba wamanzi. Ezi ziquka izinto eziphilayo ezinomzimba kunye ne-anaerobic.. Amanzi akholisa ukuqulatha iimicroorganisms, nokuba yi-aerobic okanye i-anaerobic, ngokuxhomekeke kwizinto ezinokonakala eziphilayo ezinqunyanyiswe emanzini.

Iimicroorganisms ezigqithisileyo zidla kwaye zichithe ioksijini, zibulala i-aerobic organisms kwaye zivelise i-toxins enobungozi njenge-ammonia kunye nesulfure.

Ungcoliseko oluphantsi komhlaba

Izibulali-zinambuzane nemichiza enxulumene nomhlaba zivuzwa ngamanzi emvula zize zifunxeke emhlabeni, ngaloo ndlela zingcolisa amanzi aphantsi komhlaba.

Usulelo lweMicrobial

Kumazwe asakhasayo, abantu basela amanzi angacocwanga aphuma ngokuthe ngqo emilanjeni, kwimisinga okanye kweminye imithombo. Ngamanye amaxesha kuya kubakho ukungcoliswa kwendalo okubangelwa yi-microorganisms ezifana neentsholongwane, ibhaktheriya kunye neprotozoa.

Kusenokwenzeka ukuba oku kungcoliseka kwendalo kubangela isifo esibi sabantu kunye nokufa kweentlanzi kunye nezinye iintlobo.

Ungcoliseko ngezinto ezinqunyanyisiweyo

Ayizizo zonke iikhemikhali ezinyibilika lula emanzini. Ezi zibizwa ngokuba yi "particulate matter." Ezi ntlobo zezinto zinokonakalisa okanye zide zibulale izinto eziphila emanzini.

Ukungcoliswa kweekhemikhali zamanzi

Kudume kakubi ukubona indlela imizi-mveliso eyahlukahlukeneyo esebenzisa ngayo imichiza elahlwa ngokuthe ngqo kwimithombo yamanzi. Imichiza yezolimo esetyenziswa kakhulu kwezolimo ukulawula izitshabalalisi kunye nezifo ekugqibeleni ziya kuphumela emilanjeni, zityhefe izinto eziphila emanzini, zicima iintlobo-ntlobo zezityalo nezilwanyana eziphilayo kwaye zibeke emngciphekweni ubomi babantu.

Usulelo lwezondlo

Amaxesha amaninzi sithi amanzi anesondlo esisempilweni kwizinto eziphilayo, ngoko akuyomfuneko ukuwacolisa. Kodwa ukufunyanwa kwezichumisi zezolimo nezemizi-mveliso kumanzi okusela kwatshintsha yonke le meko.

Uninzi lwamanzi amdaka, izichumisi kunye nogutyulo luqulathe isixa esikhulu sezondlo ezinokukhuthaza ukukhula kwe-algae kunye nokhula emanzini, ukuyenza ukuba ingaselwa kwaye ivale izihluzo.

Amanzi aphuma kwisichumiso esisuka kumafama angcolisa amanzi emilanjeni, emilanjeni, nasemachibini de aye kufika elwandle. Izichumisi zizityebi kwizondlo ezahlukeneyo eziyimfuneko kubomi bezityalo, kwaye amanzi amatsha avelisiweyo atshintsha ibhalansi yendalo yezondlo eziyimfuneko kwizityalo zasemanzini.

Imithombo kunye neendidi zongcoliseko lwamanzi

iintlobo zongcoliseko lwamanzi

Imithombo yongcoliseko lwe-anthropic echaphazela umgangatho wamanzi idla ngokuhlulwa ibe ziindidi ezimbini:

  • Imithombo yeengongoma zongcoliseko
  • Imithombo engeyiyo indawo yongcoliseko

Makhe sibone nganye kuzo:

  • Imithombo yosulelo: Umthombo wongcoliseko ubhekiselele kumthombo wongcoliseko okhupha ungcoliseko olunye okanye olungacacanga kwindawo enye ekwanti okanye enothintelo lwejografi. Unokuba njani: ukukhutshwa kwamanzi amdaka asekhaya, ukukhutshwa kwamanzi amdaka kwimizi-mveliso, imisebenzi enobungozi enkunkuma, ukukhutshwa kwamanzi omgodi, ukuvuza, ukukhutshwa ngengozi, njl.
  • Ukusasaza imithombo yongcoliseko: Ziyimithombo yokwanda, kuquka imisebenzi egubungela imimandla emikhulu enokubangela ungcoliseko olungaphantsi komhlaba, kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo ayinakuchazwa ngokuqinisekileyo nangokuchaneka. Eminye imizekelo esekwe kumthombo: ezolimo nemfuyo, ukuhanjiswa kwamanzi ezidolophini, ukusetyenziswa komhlaba, iindawo zokugalela inkunkuma, i-atmospheric deposition, kunye nemisebenzi yolonwabo.
  • Imithombo yendalo yongcoliseko: Babhekisela kwimililo okanye kwimisebenzi yentaba-mlilo.
  • Imithombo yongcoliseko lobuchwephesha: Olu hlobo lomthombo wongcoliseko lusekwe kusetyenziso lwemizi-mveliso kunye nekhaya, kubandakanywa uthutho lweemoto olufuna izithambiso.

Iintlobo zongcoliseko

iintsalela emanzini

Iintsholongwane zePathogenic

Olu hlobo longcoliseko luveliswa ngu microorganisms, ezifana ibhaktheriya, iintsholongwane, protozoa Isenokukhokelela kwizifo eziyingozi ezifana nekholera, i-typhus, nehepatitis.

Inkunkuma yezinto eziphilayo

Imvelaphi yayo yinkunkuma eveliswa yimisebenzi yabantu, efana nemfuyo. Ubukho bezinto ezibolayo okanye ezinokubola ngokulula emanzini zikhuthaza ukukhula kwebhaktiriya ye-aerobic edla ioksijini ekhoyo. I-Hypoxia yenza kube nzima ukuba izinto eziphilayo ziphile, kwaye i-anaerobic organisms ikhupha izinto eziyityhefu ezifana ne-ammonia okanye isulfure.

Iikhemikhali ezingaphiliyo

Kukwanjalo nangeeasidi, iityuwa, kunye neentsimbi ezinetyhefu. Kwiindawo eziphezulu, zinokubangela umonakalo omkhulu kwizinto eziphilayo, ukuncipha kwemveliso yezolimo kunye nokubola kwezixhobo zokusebenza.

Inorganic phytonutrients

Okufanayo kuya kwi-nitrate kunye ne-phosphates. Zizinto eziyimfuneko ezinyibilikayo kuphuhliso lwezityalo kwaye inokukhuthaza ukukhula kwe-algae kunye nezinye izinto eziphilayo. Olu hlobo longcoliseko lunokukhokelela kwi-eutrophication yemizimba yamanzi, efuna ukusetyenziswa kwayo yonke ioksijini ekhoyo. Oku kuthintela imisebenzi yezinye izinto eziphilayo kwaye kunciphisa i-biodiversity emanzini.

Iikhompawundi eziphilayo

Njengeoyile, ipetroli, iiplastiki, izibulali zinambuzane, njl. Zizinto ezinokugcinwa emanzini ixesha elide kwaye kunzima ukuba ii-microorganisms ziphule.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neentlobo zongcoliseko lwamanzi ezikhoyo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
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