Iindidi zezityalo zamandla

izityalo zombane

Umbane yinto yendalo enokwenzeka ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo ngokusebenzisa amaziko ombane. Umbuzo wemvelaphi yombane awulula: ukusetyenziswa njengamandla, kufuneka uhambe umgama omde. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, amandla abo okuvelisa kunye nenqanaba elisebenzayo, oko kukuthi, ubungakanani bombane abanokuthi bawuvelise ekuguquleni amandla okuqala, kuya kuxhomekeka kwizinto ezibonakalayo kunye neteknoloji esetyenziswayo. Esi sizathu sokuba kutheni izityalo zamandla ziya kuxhomekeka kumandla. ESpeyin, eyona nto iphambili iintlobo zezityalo zamandla Ziyi-thermal, inyukliya, i-atmospheric kunye ne-solar photovoltaic.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into oyifunayo ukuba uyazi malunga neentlobo ezahlukeneyo zezityalo zamandla ezikhoyo kunye neempawu zazo.

Iindidi zezityalo zamandla

iintlobo zezityalo zamandla

Iplanti yamandla eshushu

Ii-injini zomoya ezi zityalo ziqala ukuhamba ngenxa yeejethi ezixinzelelekileyo zomphunga ezifunyenwe ngokufudumeza amanzi. Izityalo zamandla ezishushu zivelisa umbane ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo: phakathi kwazo ubushushu

  • Okuqhelekileyo: Bafumana amandla abo ekutshiseni izibaso zefosili.
  • Ukusuka kwi-biomass: Bafumana amandla abo ngokutshisa amahlathi, iintsalela zezolimo okanye izityalo zamandla ezaziwayo.
  • Ukususela ekutshisweni kwenkunkuma eqinileyo kamasipala: Bafumana amandla ngokutshisa inkunkuma ecociweyo.
  • amaziko amandla enyukliya: Bavelisa amandla ngokusabela kwe-fission yeeathom ze-uranium. Kwelinye icala, izifudumezi zamanzi elanga zifudumeza amanzi ngokujolisa amandla elanga yaye, ekugqibeleni, izityalo eziphuma kwi<em>geothermal zisebenzisa ithuba lobushushu obungaphakathi emhlabeni.

umzi-mveliso wamandla omoya

Njengoko umoya usebenza kumagqabi einjini yomoya, i-injini yakho yomoya iyahamba. Ukwenza oku, i-rotor enamagqabi amaninzi ifakwe kwindawo ephezulu yenqaba, ejoliswe kwicala lomoya. Zijikeleza kwi-axis ethe tye esebenza kwijenereyitha. Ukusebenza kwayo kukhawulelwe ngesantya somoya, kwaye iifama zomoya zifuna iindawo ezinkulu zomhlaba. ESpain, kwelinye icala, iiyure zokusebenza zokuvelisa umbane ziphakathi kwama-20% nama-30% onyaka, ixabiso eliphantsi xa lithelekiswa nezixhobo zamandla ezishushu kunye nezenyukliya, ezifikelela kwi-93%.

Nangona kunjalo, kufuneka kukhunjulwe ukuba ngumthombo wamandla acocekileyo kwaye olu fakelo alubangeli nawuphi na umonakalo kwindalo. Ifama yomoya efakwe kwizibuko laseBilbao ePonta Lucero yenze i-7,1 yezigidi ze-kWh zamandla omoya eSpain kwiinyanga zayo zokuqala ezintlanu zokusebenza. Kuluncedo ngakumbi ukuba ezi paki zakhiwe ngaselwandle, kuba umoya uthande ukujikeleza ngokugqabhuka kwaye uzinze ngakumbi kunasemhlabeni.

umzi-mveliso wamandla elanga

ipaki yelanga

Kukho iindidi ezahlukeneyo zezi zixhobo zombane. Phakathi kwazo, izityalo zamandla obushushu belanga zithatha ithuba lobushushu belanga ukufudumeza amanzi kwaye zisebenzise umphunga oveliswa sisifudumezi ukuhambisa iiinjini zomoya. Kukho kwakhona izityalo zamandla elanga ze-photovoltaic, ukususela Iiseli ze-Photovoltaic zinoxanduva lokuguqula amandla elanga abe ngumbane.. ESpain sineefektri ezimbini ezibalulekileyo: iPuertollano kunye ne-Olmedilla de Alarcón photovoltaic parks. Bobabini baseCastilla-La Mancha.

umzi-mveliso wamandla ombane ngamanzi

Ii turbines zezi zityalo ziqhutywa kukuhamba kwamanzi ngesantya esiphezulu. Ezi zithatha ithuba leengxangxasi, nokuba zezendalo, oko kukuthi, iingxangxasi ezingalinganiyo kunye nemilambo, okanye iingxangxasi ezenziweyo ezidityaniswe kumadama. Ukongeza kumandla ombane zikwazi ukuvelisa, zikwahlulwe okanye zahlulwe ngokwamandla ezinawo. Kwelinye icala kukho izityalo ezinkulu ezivelisa umbane ngamanzi, izityalo ezincinci ezivelisa umbane ngamanzi kunye nezityalo zombane ezincinci.

isikhululo samandla olwandle

Ukusebenza kwayo kufana nezixhobo zombane osebenza ngamanzi. Kodwa ezi zithatha ithuba lomahluko womgangatho wolwandle phakathi kwamaza aphezulu naphantsi. Izityalo zamandla olwandle zikwathathwa njengezo zithatha ithuba lokushukuma kwamaza ukuhambisa iiinjini zomoya. Kwelinye icala, kukwakho nemisinga yolwandle, ethatha ithuba amandla ekinetic emisinga yolwandle okanye ulwandle. Le ndlela yokwenza inefuthe elincinane kokusingqongileyo kuba akukho madama akhelwe ukuphazamisa inkqubo yendalo.

Zisebenza njani iintlobo zezityalo zamandla

Iplanti yamandla e-thermal yiplanti yamandla e-thermal enenjongo yokuguqula amandla e-thermal abe ngumbane. Olu guqulelo lwenziwa ngumjikelo weijini yomphunga/i-thermal yamanzi. Ngumjikelo weRankine lowo. Kule meko, umthombo womphunga uya kuvelisa umphunga oqhuba i-injini yomoya.

Olunye uhlobo lweplanti yamandla ashushu ngumjikelo odibeneyo. Kwisityalo somjikelezo odibeneyo kukho imijikelo emibini ye-thermodynamic:

  • Umjikelo wamaBreton. Lo mjikelo usebenza nge turbine yegesi evuthayo, edla ngokuba yigesi yendalo.
  • Umjikelo we-Rankine. Lo ngumjikelo oqhelekileyo weinjini yomoya wamanzi ngomphunga.

Kuzo zonke izixhobo zombane ezishushu, kufuneka izinto ezintathu ukuvelisa umbane:

  • iturbine yomphunga. Iiturbines ziguqula amandla obushushu abe ngamandla ekinetic.
  • I-alternator eguqulayo amandla oomatshini kumandla ombane.
  • Isiguquli esimodareyitha yangoku efunyenwe ngokutshintshana ngoku nge umahluko onokwenzeka ofunekayo.

Ukubaluleka kwesixhobo senyukliya

iintlobo zezityalo zamandla espain

Isixhobo sokudibanisa i-reactor sisixhobo apho intshukumo yokuhlangana kwenyukliya yenzeke kwizibaso ezenziwe nge-isotopi ye-hydrogen (i-deuterium kunye ne-tritium), ikhupha amandla ngendlela yobushushu, emva koko ijike ibe ngumbane.

Okwangoku akukho zixhobo zokudibanisa umbane ezinokuvuna umbane, nangona kukho izibonelelo zophando zokufunda iimpendulo zengxubevange kunye nobuchwepheshe obuya kusetyenziswa kwezi zityalo kwixesha elizayo.

Kwixesha elizayo, i-reactors ye-fusion iya kwahlulwa ibe ziindidi ezimbini: abo basebenzisa ukuvalelwa kwemagnethi kunye nabo basebenzisa ukuvalelwa okungaphakathi. I-magnetic confinement fusion reactor inala malungu alandelayo:

  • Igumbi lokusabela liboshwe ngodonga lwentsimbi.
  • Ukucinga ukuba i-fuel kwigumbi lokuphendula i-deuterium-tritium, i-maleko yezinto ezenziwe nge-lithium ezitsala ubushushu kwiindonga zetsimbi kwaye zivelise i-tritium.
  • Ezinye iikhoyili ezinkulu zivelisa amandla emagnethi.
  • Uhlobo lokhuseleko lwemitha.

I-inertial confiction fusion reactor iya kubandakanya:

  • igumbi lokuphendula, incinci kuneyangaphambili, ikwanqunyanyiswa ngeendonga zetsimbi.
  • Ukhuseleko lweLithium.
  • Isetyenziselwa ukuququzelela ukungena kwamasuntswana okukhanya okanye ion ukusuka laser.
  • Ukhuselo lweRadio.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neentlobo zezityalo zamandla ezikhoyo kunye neempawu zazo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
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