Yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga ne-biogas

biogas

Kukho imithombo emininzi yamandla ehlaziyekayo ngaphandle kwento esiyaziyo njengomoya, amandla elanga, ubushushu obuphuma emhlabeni, umbane, njl. Namhlanje siza kuhlalutya kwaye sifunde malunga namandla ahlaziyekayo, mhlawumbi angaziwa njengabanye, kodwa ngamandla amakhulu. Imalunga ne-biogas.

I-Biogas yirhasi enamandla ekhutshwe kwinkunkuma yendalo. Ukongeza kwizibonelelo zayo ezininzi, luhlobo lwamandla acocekileyo kwaye ahlaziyekayo. Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi ngakumbi nge-biogas?

Iimpawu zebiogas

I-Biogas yirhasi eveliswa kwimeko yendalo okanye kwizixhobo ezithile. Yimveliso yempendulo ye-biodegradation yezinto eziphilayo. Zivame ukuveliswa kwindawo zokugcwalisa umhlaba njengoko yonke into edipozithiweyo ihla. Xa kuthethwa ngezinto eziphilayo kuveliswa kwii-arhente zangaphandle, isenzo se-microorganisms ezifana ne-methanogenic bacteria (ibhaktheriya ebonakala xa kungekho oksijini kunye nokutya kwi-methane gesi) kunye nezinye izinto ziyonakalisa.

Kule mimandla apho ioksijini ingekhoyo kwaye ezi bhaktiriya zitya izinto eziphilayo, imveliso yazo yenkunkuma yigesi yemethane kunye ne-CO2. Ke ngoko, ukwenziwa kwee-biogas ngumxube owenziwe nge-40% kunye ne-70% yemethane kunye nezinye i-CO2. Inezinye izixa ezincinane zegesi ezifana ne-hydrogen (H2), i-nitrogen (N2), i-oksijini (i-O2) kunye ne-hydrogen sulfide (H2S), kodwa azibalulekanga.

Iveliswa njani i-biogas

imveliso biogas

I-Biogas iveliswa kukubola kwe-anaerobic kwaye iluncedo kakhulu ekunyangeni inkunkuma ebolayo, kuba ivelisa ipetroli enexabiso eliphezulu kwaye ivelisa amanzi amdaka anokusetyenziswa njengesixhobo sokuthambisa umhlaba okanye umgquba oqhelekileyo.

Ngale gesi Amandla ombane anokuveliswa ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo. Eyokuqala kukusebenzisa iiturbines ukuhambisa irhasi kunye nokwenza umbane. Enye kukusebenzisa irhasi ukuvelisa ubushushu kwiionti, kwizitovu, kwizomisi, kwiibhoyila okanye kwezinye iinkqubo zomlilo ezifuna irhasi.

Njengoko iveliswa njengesiphumo sokubola komcimbi wezinto eziphilayo, ithathwa njengohlobo lwamandla ahlaziyekayo anokukwazi ukubuyisela endaweni yezibaso. Ngayo unokufumana amandla okupheka kunye nokufudumeza njengoko igesi yendalo isebenza. Kwangokunjalo, i-biogas iqhagamshelwe kumvelisi kwaye yenza umbane ngokusebenzisa iinjini zomlilo zangaphakathi.

Amandla amandla

Ukukhutshelwa kwe-Biogas kwiindawo zokulahla inkunkuma

Ukukhutshelwa kwe-Biogas kwiindawo zokulahla inkunkuma

Ukuze kuthiwe i-biogas inezinto ezinokubuyisela endaweni yezibaso zefosili kungenxa yokuba inamandla amakhulu. Ngeemitha zetyhubhu zebiogas inokuvelisa ukuya kuthi ga kwiiyure ezingama-6 zokukhanya. Ukukhanya okuvelisiweyo kunokufikelela kwi-bulb ye-watt ezingama-60. Ungabaleka nesikhenkcezisi semitha esiyi-cubic iyure enye, i-incubator kwimizuzu engama-30, kunye nemoto ye-HP iiyure ezi-2.

Ke ngoko, i-biogas ithathelwa ingqalelo igesi enamandla kunye namandla angakholekiyo.

Imbali yeBiogas

ukufumana ii-biogas ezenziwe ngabantu

Into yokuqala ekhankanyiweyo enokubonwa yile gesi ibuyela emva kunyaka we-1600, xa izazinzulu ezininzi zachonga le gesi njengeya ivela ekuboliseni izinto eziphilayo.

Ukutyhubela iminyaka, ngo-1890, yakhiwa i-biodigester yokuqala apho i-biogas iveliswa khona kwaye yayiseIndiya. Ngo-1896 izibane zasesitratweni e-Exeter, eNgilani, zanikwa amandla yigesi eyayiqokelelwa kwizitshisi ezazibilisa udaka kumjelo ohambisa amanzi amdaka esixeko.

Ukuphela kweemfazwe ezimbini zehlabathi, oko kwakubizwa ngokuba yimveliso ye-biogas eqala ukusasazeka eYurophu. Kwezi fektri i-biogas yenzelwe ukuba isetyenziswe kwiimoto zelo xesha. Iitanki ze-Imhoff zaziwa njengalezo zinakho ukunyanga amanzi amdaka kunye nokubila kwezinto eziphilayo ukuvelisa i-biogas. Irhasi evelisiweyo yayisetyenziselwa ukusebenza kwezityalo, kwizithuthi zikamasipala kwaye kwezinye iidolophu yatofelwa kwinethiwekhi yegesi.

Ukusasazeka kweBiogas yathintelwa kukufikelela ngokulula kunye nokusebenza kwezibaso Kwaye, emva kwengxaki yamandla yee-70s, uphando lwe-biogas kunye nophuhliso lwaqalwa kwakhona kuwo onke amazwe ehlabathi, kugxilwe ngakumbi kumazwe aseLatin America.

Ngexesha leminyaka engama-20 edlulileyo, ukukhula kwe-biogas kuye kwaba nenkqubela phambili ebalulekileyo ngenxa yokufumanisa malunga nenkqubo ye-microbiological kunye ne-biochemical esebenza kuyo kwaye ngenxa yophando malunga nokuziphatha kwee-microorganisms ezingenelela kwiimeko ze-anaerobic.

Yintoni i-biodigesters?

izityalo zebiogas

Ii-biodigesters ziindidi zezikhongozeli ezivaliweyo, zehermetic kunye nezingangeni manzi apho izinto eziphilayo zibekwa kwaye zivunyelwe ukubola kwaye zivelise i-biogas. Isilinganisi sendalo kufuneka ivaliwe kunye nehermetic ukwenzela ukuba iintsholongwane ze-anaerobic zisebenze kwaye zihlaziye izinto eziphilayo. Iibhaktheriya zeMethanogenic zikhula kuphela kwiindawo apho kungekho oksijini.

Ezi zixhobo zisebenza ngobukhulu ngaphezulu kwesigidi se-cubic metres yomthamo kwaye basebenza phantsi kwamaqondo obushushu be-mesophilic (phakathi kwama-20 nama-40 degrees) kunye ne-thermophilic (ngaphezulu kwama-40 degrees).

I-Biogas ikhutshiwe kwiindawo zokulahla inkunkuma apho, njengoko iziseko zezinto eziphilayo zigcwalisiwe kwaye zivaliwe, iimeko ezingenayo ioksijini ziyilelwe apho iibacteria ze-methanogenic zehlisa umbandela wezinto eziphilayo kwaye zivelise ii-biogas ezikhutshelwa ngemibhobho eqhubayo.

Izibonelelo ezinazo i-biodigesters zinamanye amaziko okuvelisa amandla kukuba anefuthe elisezantsi lokusingqongileyo kwaye awadingi abasebenzi abafanelekileyo. Ukongeza, njengemveliso ephuma kumachiza okonakalisa izinto eziphilayo, kunokufumaneka izichumisi ezisetyenziselwa ukuchumisa izityalo kwezolimo.

IJamani, iTshayina kunye ne-India lelinye lamazwe aphambili ekungeniseni olu hlobo lwetekhnoloji. KwiLatin America, eBrazil, eArgentina, e-Uruguay naseBolivia babonakalise inkqubela ebonakalayo ekubandakanyeni kwabo.

Isicelo seBiogas namhlanje

Ukusetyenziswa kwee-biogas namhlanje

KwiLatin America, i-biogas isetyenziselwa ukunyanga i-stillage e-Argentina. I-Stillage yintsalela eveliswa kwimizi-mveliso yeswekile kwaye phantsi kweemeko ze-anaerobic iyathotywa kwaye ivelise i-biogas.

Inani lee-biodigesters emhlabeni alikagqitywa kakhulu. EYurophu kukho kuphela ii-biodigesters ezili-130. Nangona kunjalo, oku kusebenza njengentsimi yamanye amandla ahlaziyekayo afana nelanga kunye nomoya, okt, njengoko itekhnoloji ifunyenwe kwaye yaphuhliswa, iindleko zemveliso ziyancipha kunye nokuthembeka kokuveliswa kwe-biogas kuyaphucuka. Ke ngoko, kukholelwa ukuba baya kuba nenqanaba elibanzi lophuhliso kwixesha elizayo.

Ukusetyenziswa kwe-biogas kwiindawo ezisemaphandleni kubaluleke kakhulu. Eyokuqala isebenze ukuvelisa amandla kunye nezichumiso zendalo kumafama kwezona ndawo zisemacaleni ezinengeniso encinci kunye nokufikelela okunzima kwimithombo yamandla yesiqhelo.

Kwimimandla yasemaphandleni, itekhnoloji iye yaphuhliswa efuna ukufikelela kwizicukucezo ngexabiso elincinci kunye nokugcinwa ngokulula kokusebenza. Amandla afunekayo ukuveliswa awekho kangako kwiindawo ezisezidolophini, ke ngenxa yoko ayinemiqathango kangangokuba ukusebenza kwawo kuphezulu.

Enye indawo apho kusetyenziswa i-biogas namhlanje Kwicandelo lezolimo kunye noshishino lwezolimo. Injongo ye-biogas kula macandelo kukubonelela ngamandla nokusombulula iingxaki ezinzulu ezibangelwa ngongcoliseko. Ngee-biodigesters ungcoliseko lwezinto eziphilayo lunokulawulwa ngcono. Ezi biodigesters zinokusebenza ngakumbi kunye nokusetyenziswa kwazo, ukongeza ekubeni neendleko zokuqala eziphezulu, zinendlela zokugcina ezintsonkothileyo kunye neenkqubo zokusebenza.

Ukuqhubela phambili kwezixhobo zokuzibandakanya kuye kwavumela ukusetyenziswa ngokukuko kwerhasi evelisiweyo kunye nenkqubela phambili eqhubekayo kubuchule bokubila kuqinisekisa ukukhula okuzinzileyo kule ndima.

Xa olu hlobo lwetekhnoloji lufakiwe, kunyanzelekile ukuba iimveliso ezikhutshelwe kuthungelwano lwelindle lwezixeko Zizinto eziphilayo kuphela. Ngaphandle koko, ukusebenza kweenkumba kunokuchaphazeleka kwaye imveliso ye-biogas inzima. Oku kwenzeke kumazwe aliqela kwaye ii-biodigesters ziye zalahlwa.

Umkhwa osasazeke kakhulu kwihlabathi liphela ngulowo wokulahlwa kwenkunkuma ngococeko. Injongo yalo mkhuba kukuba yokuphelisa inkunkuma enkulu eveliswa kwizixeko ezikhulu Ngale nto, ngobuchule bale mihla, kunokwenzeka ukukhupha nokucoca igesi yemetane evelisiweyo kwaye kumashumi eminyaka eyadlulayo oku kwabangela iingxaki ezinzulu. Iingxaki ezinje ngokufa kwezityalo ezazikwindawo ezikufutshane nezibhedlele, ivumba elibi kunye nokudubula okunokwenzeka.

Ukuqhubela phambili kweendlela zokukhupha i-biogas kuvumele izixeko ezininzi emhlabeni, ezinje ngeSantiago de Chile, ukuba zisebenzise ii-biogas njengomthombo wamandla kwinethiwekhi yokuhambisa igesi yendalo kumaziko asezidolophini.

I-Biogas inolindelo olukhulu kwikamva, kuba ingamandla ahlaziyekayo, acocekileyo anceda ukunciphisa ukungcoliseka kunye nonyango lwenkunkuma. Ukongeza, inegalelo elihle kwezolimo, inika isichumiso semveliso yezichumiso ezincedisayo kumjikelo wobomi bemveliso kunye nasekuchumeni kwezityalo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Izimvo, shiya eyakho

Shiya uluvo lwakho

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   U-Jorge Bussi sitsho

    Boas,
    Ndiphanda ukwenza i-biodigester.
    Ukusebenza kwifama yeehagu eneentloko ezingama-8000, ndifuna inkampani enamava kulwakhiwo lwee-biodigesters.
    Oku kukummandla osemazantsi.
    Ozithobileyo
    G.Busi