Amandla amaza okanye amandla amaza

Amandla amaza

Amaza olwandle aqukethe isixa esikhulu samandla ivela kwimimoya, ukuze umphezulu wolwandle ubonakale njenge umqokeleli omkhulu wamandla omoya.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, iilwandle zifunxa izixa ezikhulu zamandla elanga, ekwa negalelo ekuhambeni kwemisinga yolwandle kunye namaza.

Amaza ngamaza amandla ziveliswe, njengoko senditshilo, ngumoya kunye nobushushu belanga, obuhanjiswa ngumphezulu wolwandle nolunokuhamba nkqo nangokuthe tye kweemolekyuli zamanzi.

Amanzi akufutshane nomphezulu angahambi nje kuphela ukusuka phezulu ukuya ezantsi, kunye nokuhamba kwento (lelona candelo liphezulu, lihlala ligutyungelwe ngugwebu) kunye nesono (elona candelo lisezantsi lamaza), kodwa, ukudumba okuthambileyo, iya phambili kwindalo yokutshangatshangisa kwaye ibuye umva esifubeni.

Iimolekyuli ezizodwa ke ngoko zinesindululo esijikeleze isetyhula, esonyukayo xa isondelelo sisondela, emva koko siye phambili kunye nokuhla, siyehla xa sishiya ngasemva, kwaye sibuyele umva ngaphakathi kumaza.

La maza amandla phezu komhlaba, amaza, banokuhamba kwizigidi zeekhilomitha nakwezinye iindawo, njenge North Atlantic, inani lamandla agciniweyo linokufikelela kwi-10 KW kwimitha nganye yesikwere yolwandle, emele isixa esikhulu ukuba uthathela ingqalelo ubungakanani bomphezulu wolwandle.

Iindawo zolwandle nelona nani liphezulu lamandla aqokelelwe kumaza yileyo mimandla ingaphaya kwe Ububanzi nobubanzi emazantsi, xa umoya uvuthuza ngamandla.

Kulo mfanekiso ulandelayo ungabona ukuba ukuphakama kweliza kwahluka njani kuxhomekeke kulwandle ngendlela yalo yomhlaba.

Amplitude atshintsha amaza

Ukubophelela amandla amaza

Olu hlobo lwetekhnoloji lwaluqale lwenziwa lwaza lwasetyenziswa ngeminyaka yoo-1980, kwaye belusamkelwa kakuhle ngenxa yalo Iimpawu ezinokuhlaziywa, kunye nokusebenza kwayo okukhulu ukumiliselwa kungekudala.

Ukuphunyezwa kwayo kuya kusebenza ngakumbi phakathi kobude obungama-40 ° kunye nama-60 ° ngenxa yeempawu zamaza.

Ngesi sizathu sinye, kwenziwe ilinge ixesha elide ukuguqula ukuhamba ngokuthe nkqo nangokuthe tye kwamaza abe ngamandla anokusetyenziswa ngabantu, amandla omoya ngokubanzi, nangona iiprojekthi zenziwe ukuguqula kube kukuhamba koomatshini.

Iprojekthi yamandla egagasi

Iprojekthi yobuvulindlela kwiiCanary Islands

Kukho iintlobo ngeentlobo zezixhobo eziyilelwe iinjongo ezinjalo, ezinokufumaneka kwi amanxweme, kwiilwandle eziphakamileyo okanye emanzini.

Okwangoku, la mandla aphunyeziwe kumazwe amaninzi aphuhlileyo, ngaloo ndlela kufezekiswa izibonelelo ezinkulu kuqoqosho lwala mazwe athethiweyo, oku kungenxa yokuba Ipesenti ephezulu yamandla obonelelwe ngokunxulumene namandla ewonke afunekayo ngonyaka.

Umzekelo:

  • EUnited States kuqikelelwa ukuba ngeenxa zonke I-55 TWh ngonyaka batshintshwa ngamandla avela ekuhambeni kwamaza. Eli xabiso li-14% yexabiso lamandla lilonke elifunwa lilizwe ngonyaka.
  • Kwaye ngaphakathi Europe Kuyaziwa ukuba ngeenxa zonke I-280 TWh Zivela kumandla aveliswa kukuhamba kwamaza enyakeni.

Amanqwanqwa ombane wamaza onshore

Kwiindawo apho imimoya yorhwebo (Le mimoya ivuthuza ngokuthe gqolo ehlotyeni, emantla e-hemisphere, kwaye ingaphantsi ebusika. Zijikeleza phakathi kweetropiki, ukusuka ku-30-35itude ukuya kwi-ikhweyitha. Zijolise kuxinzelelo oluphezulu lwethropikhi, ukuya kwingcinezelo esezantsi yeikhweyitha.) Zibonelela ngokuqhubekayo. ukuhamba kumaza, unako yakha idama elinodonga oluthambekileyo Ikhonkrithi ejonge elwandle, apho amaza anokutyibilika khona ukuze aqokeleleke kwidama eliphakathi kwe-1,5 ne-2 yeemitha ngaphezulu komphakamo wolwandle.

La manzi anokuphazanyiswa, awenze ukuba abuyele elwandle, avelise umbane.

Ukunyuka nokuwa kwamaza, kwezinye iindawo apho obu buchwephesha bunokusebenza khona, zincinci kakhulu, ke ayizukuvelisa nakuphi na ukuphazamiseka.

Kwiindawo eziselunxwemeni apho amaza anamandla amaninzi aqokelelweyo, amaza anokukhokelwa ziibhloko zekhonkrithi ezinamathele kulwandle oluvulekileyo, olunokuthi gxila phantse kuwo onke amandla eliza elingaphambi kweekhilomitha ezili-10 ububanzi kwindawo encinci yeemitha ezingama-400 ububanzi.

Amaza kule meko anokuphakama kwe-15 ukuya kwi-30 yeemitha xa usiya ngaselunxwemeni, ukuze amanzi aqokeleleke lula kwidama elikwiqondo elithile.

Ngokukhupha la manzi elwandle, umbane unokuveliswa kusetyenziswa izixhobo eziqhelekileyo zombane.

Ukusetyenziswa kokuhamba kwamaza

Kukho izixhobo ezahlukeneyo zolu hlobo.

Kulo mfanekiso ulandelayo unokubona esele isetyenzisiwe kwaye inike iziphumo ezonelisayo.

uxinzelelo lwamaza kunye nokudakumbaYinkqubo yokubambisa amandla amaza asebenza ngokulula kwaye aqukethe oku kulandelayo:

  • Amaza enyuka kwakha uxinzelelo lomoya ngaphakathi kwesakhiwo esivaliweyo. Ngokuchanekileyo ngokufanayo nokuba sicinezele isirinji.
  • Izivalo "zinyanzela" umoya ukuba udlule kwiinjini yomoya ukuze ujike kwaye uhambise umvelisi, uvelise amandla ombane.
  • Xa umtshangatshangiso uyehla uvelisa ukudakumba emoyeni.
  • Izivalo ziphinda "zinyanzele" umoya ukuba udlule kwiinjini kwicala elinye njengakwimeko yangaphambili, apho iiturbine iqala khona ukujikeleza kwayo, ihambisa umvelisi kwaye iqhubeke ngokuvelisa umbane.

Lo mgaqo mnye usetyenzisiwe kwifayile ye- Inqanawa Kaimei inikwe amandla ngumoya oxineneyo womoya, iprojekthi edibeneyo kurhulumente waseJapan kunye neArhente yaMandla yaMazwe ngaMazwe.

Iziphumo zale projekthi zinemveliso kakhulu, nangona ukusetyenziswa kwayo kungasasazekanga.

Itekhnoloji efanayo isandula kusetyenziswa, kodwa kusetyenziswa iibhloko zekonkriti ezinkulu ezidadayo, kwiprojekthi eyakhiwe eScotland.

Kukho ezinye izixhobo nazo guqula ukunyuka okuya ngasezantsi yomtshangatshangiso ukuvelisa umbane onje:

Isihlenga seCockerell

Esi sixhobo siqulathe isihlenga esicacisiweyo esigobayo ngokudlula kwamaza, ngaloo ndlela sithathe ithuba lokuhamba kwempompo ye-hydraulic.

amaza esihlenga

Idada leSalter

Enye into eyaziwa ngcono lelidada leSalter, elenziwe ngothotho oluqhubekayo lwemizimba emile okweqanda eya kwelinye icala iye phambili nangasemva, xa "ibethwa" ngamaza.

Ukuhamba kwamaza

Ibhegi yomoya yaseLancaster

Ingxowa yomoya iqulethe ityhubhu yegumbi yerabha eqinisiweyo yeemitha ezili-180 ubude. Njengokuba amaza enyuka esiwa, umoya utsalelwa kumacandelo ebhegi ukuqhuba iiturbine.

IYunivesithi yaseBristol cylinder

Esi silinda sinoqwalaselo olufana nolomgqomo obekwe ecaleni kwawo odada ngoko nangoko phantsi komphezulu. Umgqomo ujikeleza ngokuhamba kwamaza, utsala imixokelelwane edityaniswe neempompo ze-hydraulic ezibekwe elwandle.

Ukusetyenziswa ngokuthe ngqo kokuhamba kwamaza

Sele kuvavanyiwe ezinye iinkqubo ezisebenzisa ngokuthe ngqo ukunyuka nokunyuka kwamaza.

Omnye wazo, isekwe ekuhambeni kwehlengethwa neminenga, ungayibona kulo mzobo.

Ukulinganisa kwehlengethwa

Umgaqo wokusebenza ulula kwaye unezi zinto zilandelayo:

  • Xa iliza liphuma lityhala itywina, elinokuthi lifuduswe phakathi kwe-10 ne-15º.
  • Okulandelayo, i-fin ifikelela esiphelweni sohambo kwaye iliza liyaqhubeka ukunyuka, nantsi inyusa phezulu ngumtshangatshangiso ogqityiweyo ube ngumva wokubuyisa.
  • Emva kwexesha, xa iliza lisihla, lihambisa ezantsi ezantsi kwaye kwenzeka into efanayo nakwimeko yangaphambili.

Ukuba isikhephe sineenkqubo zolu hlobo, siqhutywa sisiphumo samaza ngaphandle kokusebenzisa isixa esincinci samandla.

Uvavanyo lokuvavanywa kwale nkqubo lwanelise, nangona kunjalo, kwimeko yayo yangaphambili, ukusetyenziswa kwayo akukwenziwanga ngokubanzi.

Izinto eziluncedo kunye nokungalunganga kwamandla ombane

Amandla amaza anawo iinzuzo ezinkulu bathanda:

  • Ngumthombo we amandla avuselelwe kwaye ayipheli kumgangatho womntu.
  • Impembelelo yayo kwindalo esingqongileyo ayisebenzi, ukuba ngaphandle kweenkqubo zokuqokelela amandla kumaza emhlabeni.
  • Izixhobo zonxweme ezininzi zinokuba njalo ifakwe kwizakhiwo zezibuko okanye olunye uhlobo.

Ujongene nezi zinto ziluncedo unayo Ezinye zezinto ezingalunganga, ezinye ezibaluleke ngakumbi zezi:

  • Iinkqubo zokwanda Amandla amaza emhlabeni angomelela ifuthe kwindalo esingqongileyo.
  • Phantse Isebenziseka ngokukodwa kumazwe ahambele phambili kwezoqoqosho, kuba ulawulo oluthandekayo lwamaza alufane lufumaneke kwiLizwe lesiThathu; Amandla amaza afuna utyalo-mali oluphezulu kunye nesiseko setekhnoloji ephucukileyo engenamazwe ahluphekayo.
  • Amandla amaza okanye amaza ayinakuxelwa kwangaphambili ngokuchanekileyo, kuba amaza axhomekeke kwimeko yemozulu.
  • Ezininzi izixhobo okhankanyiweyo basenengxaki yokusebenza kwaye bajongene neengxaki zobuchwephesha ezintsonkothileyo.
  • Izixhobo zonxweme zine impembelelo enkulu ebonakalayo.
  • Kwizibonelelo zonxweme kakhulu ubunzima bokuhambisa amandla aveliswe kwilizwekazi.
  • Izixhobo kufuneka ukumelana neemeko ezibi kakhulu ixesha elide.
  • Amaza ane-torque ephezulu kunye ne-angular velocity ephantsi, ekufuneka iguqulwe ibe yi-torque ephantsi kunye ne-angular velocity ephezulu, esetyenziswa phantse kubo bonke oomatshini. Le nkqubo ine ukusebenza okuphantsi kakhulu, usebenzisa iitekhnoloji zangoku.

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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