Amandla enyukliya: izibonelelo kunye nezinto ezingalunganga

Izinto eziluncedo nezingeloncedo kumandla enyukliya

Ukuthetha ngamandla enyukliya kukucinga ngeentlekele zaseChernobyl naseFukushima ezenzeke ngo-1986 nango-2011, ngokwahlukeneyo. Luhlobo lwamandla oluvelisa uloyiko oluthile ngenxa yokuba yingozi kwalo. Zonke iintlobo zamandla (ngaphandle kokuphinda zihlaziyeke) zivelisa isiphumo sendalo esingqongileyo kunye nabantu, nangona abanye besenza oko ukuya kuthi ga kumgangatho omkhulu kunabanye. Kule meko, amandla enyukliya akaphumi iigesi zegreenhouse ngexesha lokuveliswa kwayo, kodwa oku akuthethi ukuba akuchaphazeli okusingqongileyo kunye nabantu ngendlela engeyiyo. Zininzi izinto eziluncedo nezingeloncedo kumandla enyukliya kwaye umntu kufuneka avavanye nganye yazo.

Ke ngoko, kweli nqaku siza kugxila ekucaciseni ukuba zeziphi izibonelelo kunye nezinto ezingalunganga zamandla enyukliya kunye nokuba ubachaphazela njani abantu.

Yintoni amandla enyukliya

umphunga wamanzi

Okokuqala kukukwazi ukuba loluphi uhlobo lwamandla. Amandla enyukliya ngamandla esiwafumanayo kwifission (ukwahlulwa) okanye ukudityaniswa (ukudityaniswa) kweeathom ezenza umbandela. Inyaniso, Amandla enyukliya esiwasebenzisayo afunyanwa kuthungelwano lweeathom zeuranium. Kodwa ayisiyiyo nayiphi na i-uranium. Eyona isetyenziswa kakhulu yi-U-235.

Ngokuchasene noko, ilanga eliphuma yonke imihla sisixhobo esikhulu senyukliya sokudibanisa esinokuvelisa amandla amaninzi. Nokuba icocekile kwaye ikhuselekile kangakanani, amandla afanelekileyo enyukliya kukudibanisa okubandayo. Ngamanye amagama, inkqubo yokudibanisa, kodwa iqondo lobushushu lisondele kubushushu begumbi kunasebusweni obugqithisileyo belanga.

Nangona i-fusion ifundwa, inyani kukuba olu hlobo lwamandla enyukliya luthathelwa ingqalelo kuphela njengethiyori kwaye akubonakali ngathi sikufezekisile. Kungenxa yoko le nto amandla enyukliya ebesoloko esiva kwaye ekhankanywa apha kukufayilwa kweeathom zeuranium.

Izinto eziluncedo nezingalunganga kumandla enyukliya

izinto eziluncedo nezingalunganga kumandla enyukliya

Inzuzo

Nangona ineentsingiselo ezimbi, akufuneki kugwetywe ziindaba kunye nakwimiboniso bhanyabhanya malunga neengozi kunye nenkunkuma eqhumayo. Inyani yile yokuba amandla enyukliya anezibonelelo ezininzi. Ezona zibalulekileyo zezi zilandelayo:

  • Amandla enyukliya ahlambulukile kwinkqubo yokuvelisa. Ngapha koko, uninzi lwezixhobo zenyukliya zikhupha umphunga wamanzi ongenabungozi emoyeni. Ayisiyo icarbon dioxide okanye imethane, okanye nayiphi na irhasi okanye igesi engcolisayo ebangela utshintsho lwemozulu.
  • Iindleko zokuveliswa kwamandla ziphantsi.
  • Ngenxa yamandla amakhulu amandla enyukliya, isixa esikhulu samandla sinokuveliswa kumzi-mveliso omnye.
  • Iphantse yaphela. Ngapha koko, ezinye iingcali zikholelwa ekubeni kufanelekile ukuba sizicwangcise njengamandla ahlaziyekayo, kuba oovimba be-uranium ngoku banokuqhubeka nokuvelisa amandla afanayo nalawo ngoku kumawaka eminyaka.
  • Isizukulwana sakhe sihlala sihleli. Ngokungafaniyo nemithombo emininzi yamandla ehlaziyekayo (njengamandla elanga angenakuveliswa ebusuku okanye umoya ongenakuveliswa ngaphandle komoya), imveliso yawo inkulu kakhulu kwaye ihlala ihleli ikhulu leentsuku. I-90% yonyaka, ngaphandle kokucwangciswa kwakhona kokucwangciswa kunye nokucinywa kokugcinwa, amandla enyukliya asebenza ngokupheleleyo.

Iingxaki

Njengoko unokulindela, amandla enyukliya nawo aneengxaki ezithile. Ezona ziphambili zezi zilandelayo:

  • Inkunkuma yayo iyingozi kakhulu. Ngokubanzi, azilunganga kwimpilo nakwimo engqongileyo. Inkunkuma eqhumayo iyingozi kakhulu kwaye iyabulala. Ukuthotywa kwayo kuthatha amawaka eminyaka, nto leyo eyenza ukuba ulawulo lwayo lubuthathaka. Ngapha koko, le yingxaki engekasonjululwa okwangoku.
  • Ingozi ingaba nzima kakhulu. Izixhobo zamandla enyukliya zixhotyiswe ngemilinganiselo yokhuseleko elungileyo, kodwa iingozi zinokwenzeka, kule meko ingozi inokuba mandundu kakhulu. IsiQithi iMile Mithathu eUnited States, iFukushima eJapan okanye iChernobyl kwindawo eyayisakuba yiSoviet Union yimizekelo yento enokwenzeka.
  • Zijolise ekujoliseni. Nokuba yintlekele yendalo okanye isenzo sobunqolobi, isityalo samandla enyukliya sijolise kuko, kwaye ukuba sitshatyalalisiwe okanye sonakele, siya kudala ilahleko enkulu.

Indlela amandla enyukliya ayichaphazela ngayo indalo

Inkunkuma yenyukliya

Emisiones de CO2

Nangona iphambili inokubonakala ngathi ngamandla angakhuphi iigesi zegreenhouse, oku akuyonyani ngokupheleleyo. Ukuba kuthelekiswa namanye amafutha, inezinto ezikhutshwayo eziphantse zingabikho, kodwa zisekhona. Kwisityalo samandla ashushu, igesi ephambili ekhutshelwa kwiatmosfera yi-CO2. Kwelinye icala, kumzi-mveliso wamandla enyukliya ezinto ezikhutshwayo ziphantsi kakhulu. I-CO2 ikhutshwa kuphela ngexesha lokukhutshwa kwe-uranium kunye nokuhanjiswa kwayo kwisityalo.

Ukusetyenziswa kwamanzi

Kufuneka isixa esikhulu samanzi ukupholisa izinto ezisetyenzisiweyo ngexesha lenkqubo yokuchithwa kwenyukliya. Oku kwenzelwa ukuthintela amaqondo obushushu ayingozi ekubeni afikeleleke kwizixhobo zokuphendula. Amanzi asetyenzisiweyo athatyathwa emilanjeni okanye elwandle. Kwizihlandlo ezininzi unokufumana izilwanyana zaselwandle emanzini ezigqibela zife xa amanzi eshushu. Ngokufanayo, amanzi abuyiselwa kwindalo enobushushu obuphezulu, obangela ukuba kufe izityalo nezilwanyana.

Iingozi ezinokwenzeka

Iingozi kwizityalo zamandla enyukliya zinqabile, kodwa ziyingozi kakhulu. Yonke ingozi inokuvelisa intlekele enkulu kakhulu, zombini kwinqanaba lendalo nabantu. Ingxaki kwezi ngozi ilele kwimitha evuzayo kwindalo esingqongileyo. Le radiation iyabulala nasiphi na isityalo, isilwanyana okanye umntu obhencekileyo. Ukongeza, iyakwazi ukuhlala kwindalo esingqongileyo amashumi eminyaka (iChernobyl ayikahlali ngenxa yobushushu bayo).

Inkunkuma yenyukliya

Ngaphandle kweengozi zenyukliya ezinokubakho, inkunkuma eveliswayo inokuhlala iminyaka engamawaka kude kube kungasekho radioactive. Oku kuyingozi kwizityalo nezilwanyana zeplanethi. Namhlanje, unyango olu lwenkunkuma luza kuvalwa emangcwabeni enyukliya. La mangcwaba agcina inkunkuma ivaliwe yodwa kwaye ibekwa phantsi komhlaba okanye emazantsi olwandle ukuze ingangcolisi.

Ingxaki kolu lawulo lwenkunkuma kukuba sisisombululo sethutyana. Yi le, Ithuba elihlala inkunkuma yenyukliya linemitha yexesha elide kunexesha lokuphila kweebhokisi apho batywinwa.

Ukuthandwa ngumntu

Imitha, ngokungafani nezinye izinto ezingcolisayo, awunuki, ungaboni. Iyingozi kwimpilo kwaye inokugcinwa kangangamashumi eminyaka. Isishwankathelo, amandla enyukliya anokuchaphazela abantu ngezi ndlela zilandelayo:

  • Kubangela iziphene zemfuza.
  • Ibangela umhlaza, ngakumbi idlala lengqula, kuba eli dlala lifunxa iodine, nangona ikwabangela amathumba engqondo kunye nomhlaza wamathambo.
  • Iingxaki zomongo wethambo, ethi yona ibangele i-leukemia okanye i-anemia.
  • Ukukhubazeka kosana olungekazalwa.
  • Ukungachumi
  • Iwenza buthathaka amajoni omzimba, nto leyo eyandisa ingozi yosulelo.
  • Iingxaki zesisu.
  • Iingxaki zengqondo, ngakumbi uxinzelelo lwemitha.
  • Kwiindawo eziphezulu okanye ezinde zibangela ukufa.

Ngokusekwe kuko konke okubonileyo, eyona nto ifanelekileyo kukufumana ulungelelwaniso phakathi kokusetyenziswa okungafaniyo kwamandla ngelixa usonyusa amandla ahlaziyekayo kunye nokuqhubela phambili utshintsho lwamandla. Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga noncedo kunye nokungalunganga kwamandla enyukliya.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
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