Amandla egesi yendalo nawo avelisa ungcoliseko

Ukuxhatshazwa kwegesi

La amandla egesi yendalo ibonwa ngamehlo alungileyo kuba imalunga amafutha amaninzi acocekileyo kunamalahle kwaye ngamanye amaxesha asetyenziswa njengendawo yawo yendalo.

Kodwa olu dumo luqinisekileyo aluyonyani kangako njengoko kubonakala ngokweengxelo ezahlukeneyo kunye neengxelo, apho kucaciswa ukuba amandla avela kwirhasi yendalo avelisa njani ungcoliseko olukhulu xa inkqubo yokukhupha yenziwe. Ngokuchanekileyo xa itshisa kwinkqubo yokutsha icacile kuba ukukhutshwa kwayo kwerhasi kusezantsi ngelo xesha.

Kuya kufuneka ulumke nge Ixabiso leemveliso ezithile, kuba ayisiyiyo kuphela icandelo lokugqibela apho ungcoliseko luvelisiweyo alubonakali, kodwa kuyo yonke inkqubo. Ukuqhekeka okanye ukuqhekeka ngesanti kubunzulu baphantsi kanye kanye lelona xesha lalo lingcolisayo.

Ukuqhekeka kubandakanya ekudaleni izithuba elulwalweni ukwenzela ukuba inxenye yegesi iye ngaphandle ize ikhutshwe ngendlela ebhetele kamva equleni. Ukongeza, ingxaki ngale nkqubo kukuba iikhemikhali zisetyenziswa kule nxalenye yemveliso ethi ikhutshelwe emoyeni.

Enye yeengxaki ezinzima kukuba kungcolisa amanzi okusela angaphantsi komhlaba kwaye ibangela ukukhutshwa okukhulu kwe-CO2 kunye ne-methane, nto leyo eyenza mandundu ubushushu behlabathi kunye nokutshintsha kwemozulu. Ngenxa yongcoliseko lwamanzi okusela aphantsi komhlaba, kuyenzeka ukuba impilo yabemi kufutshane namachibi iwohloke kakhulu ngaphandle kwezo nkunkuma ziya emoyeni.

Ifosili

Amadangatye erhasi endalo

Irhasi yendalo sisibaso, nangona ikhutshwa emhlabeni kukutsha kwayo abayoninzi yengxaki yokuba ukuba ibangela amalahle okanye ipetroleum.

Kukhutshwa igesi yendalo Iipesenti ezingama-50 ukuya kuma-60 ngaphantsi kwe-CO2 Xa sitshisiwe kumzi-mveliso omtsha wamandla egesi xa kuthelekiswa nezinto ezikhutshwayo ezivela kwisityalo samalahle. Ikwanciphisa iigesi ezikhutshelwe kwiatmosfera nge-15 ukuya kwiipesenti ezingama-20 xa kuthelekiswa nezo zibangelwe yinjini yepetroli emotweni.

Apho ewe izinto ezikhutshwayo zifunyanwa ekufunxweni nasekulombeni irhasi irhasi yendalo ephuma emithonjeni kunye nokuthuthwa kwayo ngemibhobho ekhokelela ekucoceni kwemethane, igesi enamandla ngakumbi kune-CO2. Izifundo zokuqala zibonisa ukuba iakhawunti yokukhutshwa kwemethane ye-1 ukuya kwi-9 yepesenti yokukhutshwa ngokupheleleyo.

Ungcoliseko lomoya ngokuvelisa amandla avela kwirhasi yendalo

Ungcoliseko

Irhasi yendalo ichaza njalo ukutsha komlilo kunamanye amafutha, njengoko ivelisa isixa esincinci sesalfure, imekyuri kunye namanye amasuntswana. Ukutsha kwegesi yendalo kuvelisa i-nitrogen oxide, nangona ikumanqanaba asezantsi kunepetroli kunye nedizili esetyenziswe kwiinjini zezithuthi.

Amakhaya ama-10.000 XNUMX aseMelika asebenzayo Ngegesi yendalo endaweni yamalahle, ithintela ukukhutshwa konyaka kwe-1.900 yeetoni ze-nitrogen oxide, i-3.900 yeetoni ze-SO2 kunye neetoni ezingama-5.200 zamasuntswana. Ukunciphisa ezo zinto zikhutshiweyo ziba zibonelelo zempilo yoluntu, njengoko ezo zinto zingcolisayo zinxulunyaniswa neengxaki ezifana nesifuba, i-bronchitis, umhlaza wemiphunga, nokunye okuninzi.

Nangona kukho ezi zibonelelo, ukukhula kwegesi engaqhelekanga kunako zichaphazela umgangatho womoya wengingqi nakwingingqi. Ukuxinana okuphezulu kongcoliseko lomoya kuye kwenzeka kwezinye iindawo apho kusombiwa khona.

Ukubonakaliswa kumanqanaba aphezulu ezi zinto zingcolisayo khuthaza iingxaki zokuphefumla, iingxaki zentliziyo kunye nomhlaza.

Ukuqhekeza

Umzobo wokuqhekeka

Fracturing fracturing kukuba ubuchule bokunyusa ukukhutshwa kweoyile kunye negesi phantsi komhlaba. Ukusukela ngo-1947, malunga ne-2,5 yezigidi zamanzi aphuliweyo okwenzekile kwihlabathi liphela, kubandakanya isigidi e-United States.

Obu buchule buqulathe yenza enye okanye ngaphezulu kwamajelo okupasa ngokusebenzisa inaliti yamanzi oxinzelelo oluphezulu, ukuze yoyise ukuxhathisa kweliwa kwaye ivule uqhekeko olulawulwayo emazantsi equla, kwicandelo elifunwayo lehydrocarbon equlathe ukwakheka.

Ukusetyenziswa kwale ndlela kuvumele imveliso yeoyile iya kunyuka nge-45% ukusukela ngo-2010, eyenza i-United States yaba ngumvelisi wesibini ngobukhulu emhlabeni.

Kukwaphawulwe ukuba ifuthe lokusingqongileyo kobu buchule, Okubandakanya ukungcola kwemithombo yamanzi amdaka, ukusetyenziswa kwamanzi okuphezulu, ungcoliseko lomoya, ungcoliseko lwengxolo, ukufuduka kweegesi kunye neekhemikhali ezisetyenziselwa umphezulu, ungcoliseko lomphezulu ngenxa yokuchitheka, kunye neziphumo ezinokubakho zempilo ezivela kulo.

Elinye lawona matyala mabi e-fracking yile ukwanda kwenyikima, uninzi lunxulunyaniswa nenaliti enzulu yolwelo.

Ungcoliseko lwamanzi amdaka

Ikhonkco

Ngokuqhekeka kwe-hydraulic yequla kubangele ukuvuza kweegesi, izinto ezinemitha yeathom kunye nemethane kunikezelo lwamanzi okusela.

Kukho amatyala abhaliweyo emithombo yamanzi amdaka kufutshane nemithombo yegesi engcoliswe zizinto zokuqhekeza ulwelo kunye negesi, kubandakanya imethane kunye nezinto eziguqukayo zezinto eziphilayo. Esinye sezona zinto zibangela ungcoliseko kukuba ulwakhiwo olwenziwe kakubi okanye imithombo eqhekekayo evumela igesi ukuba ingene kumthombo wamanzi.

Amanzi asetyenziswa kukwaqhekezwa ngamanzi bafikelele kumaqula alahliweyo, kunye nokutywinwa okungafanelekanga, okukhokelela ekugqibeleni ekubeni le mijelo yasemanzini ingcoliswe.

Iinyikima

Ukuqhekeka kwendlela yenyikima

I-Fracking idityaniswe imisebenzi esezantsi yobukhulu benyikima, kodwa iziganeko ezinjalo azibonakali ngaphezulu.

Nangona ukusetyenziswa kwamanzi amdaka xa kutofa in uxinzelelo oluphezulu kwimithombo yenaliti yeklasi II inayo inxulunyaniswa neenyikima zomhlaba ezinkulu kakhulu eUnited States. Ubuncinane isiqingatha seenyikima ezinobukhulu obuzi-4.5 okanye ngaphezulu ziye zabetha ngaphakathi e-United States kule minyaka ilishumi idlulileyo yenzekile kwimimandla apho ukugqobhoza kwenzeka khona.

Isifundo esitsha esapapashwa ngo-2016 saze saqhutywa liqela leengcali zejioloji kunye neenyikima zenyikima ezivela kwiTexas Methodist University yase Mzantsi nase United States Geological Survey, zabonisa ukuba inaliti yomthamo omkhulu wamanzi amdaka kunye ne ukukhutshwa kwe-brine kumhlaba ongaphantsi equleni Igesi ephelileyo yayiyeyona nto ibangelwe kukuzamazama komhlaba okungama-27 phakathi kukaDisemba 2013 nentwasahlobo ka-2014 abavakalelwa ngabantu baseAzer, eTexas, apho babengazange banxibelelane nezo nyikima.

Iziphumo ezinokubakho

Ngaphandle kokunyuka kwenyikima, iikhompawundi zemichiza ezisetyenzisiweyo kolu hlobo zinokwenzeka Ungcolisa umhlaba kunye nemithombo yamanzi amdaka phantsi komhlaba, ngokutsho kweBritish Royal Society kwi2012.

Unokufumana amaphepha amathathu enzululwazi apapashwe kwi-2013 ahambelana nokubonisa oko Ungcoliseko lwamanzi aphantsi komhlaba ayinakwenzeka ngokwasemzimbeni. Into ecace gca yeyokuba ukuze ingenzeki, eyona ndlela isebenzayo kufuneka ihlale isenzeka. Kuyenzeka ukuba oku akusoloko kunjalo, kungoko ke kukho ingxaki enkulu yokungcolisa imithombo yamanzi yangaphantsi komhlaba.

Amaxwebhu kumandla erhasi yendalo

Uxwebhu lweGasland

Kukho amaxwebhu amaninzi apho kunokufunyanwa inkcaso ecacileyo Ukukhangela njengeGasland kaJosh Fox. Kule nto iveze iingxaki zongcoliseko lwamanzi amdaka kufutshane nemithombo yokutsala kwiindawo ezinjengePennsylvania, Wyoming neColorado.

Into ehlekisayo kukuba yayiyimboni yeoyile kunye negesi eyamkelayo loo nto ubuze abo baqokelelwe kwifilimu Fox ukuze iwebhusayithi yeGasland iphikise amabango enziwe liqela le-lobbyist.

Enye ifilimu enomdla liLizwe Lesithembiso., eboniswe nguMat Damon malunga nomxholo wokuqhekeka ngesanti kubunzulu baphantsi. Kwakhona ngo-2013, uGasland 2 waziswa, icandelo lesibini lamaxwebhu apho aqinisekisa khona imbonakalo yoshishino lwegesi yendalo, apho wayibeka njengeyona ndlela icocekileyo nekhuselekileyo yeoyile, yintsomi. Ukuvuza kwexesha elide kunye nomoya kunye nongcoliseko lwamanzi ekugqibeleni zenzakalisa uluntu lwendawo kwaye zibeka imozulu emngciphekweni ngenxa yokukhutshwa kwemethane, igesi enobushushu obunamandla.

Ukukhangela indawo yamandla egesi yendalo

Iipaneli zelanga njengenye indlela yamandla egesi yendalo

Ngayo yonke le nto ithe, i igesi yendalo ayihlambulukanga kangako Njengoko ibizamile ukubonisa, kodwa kwinkqubo yayo ikhupha izinto ezingcolisayo kwiatmosferi, kanye njengoko isenzeka xa kusetyenziswa indlela yokuqhekeza.

Kungenxa yoko le nto kufanelekile ukwazi ubunyani obujikeleze amandla erhasi yendalo kunye qhubeka utsala nzima kakhulu kweminye imithombo yamandla ezicoceke ngokupheleleyo kwaye zizinzile ekuhambeni kwexesha njengomoya okanye ilanga, kulapho kufuneka siye khona ukuze sigcine umhlaba ukhuselekile kwaye uzolile.

Onke la mafutha asekwe kwi Ngokuqinisekileyo iifosili zisikhokelela kule Ngqungquthela yeMozulu yaseParis apho uninzi lwamazwe kuye kwafuneka ukuba lubhenele kwizigqibo ezithile zokubeka unyaka olandelayo apho amandla ahlaziyekayo kufuneka abe yeyona njongo iphambili.

Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi ukuba zeziphi iibhoyili zerhasi yendalo kwaye zisebenza njani? Ungaphoswa leli nqaku:

Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga neebheyili zerhasi yendalo

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Izimvo ezi-15, shiya ezakho

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa. ezidingekayo ziphawulwe *

*

*

  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   UDiana Alvarez sitsho

    Adriana ndilithandile inqaku lakho kwaye ndifuna ukulisebenzisa kwithisisi yam, ungandidlulisela idatha yakho ukubhekisa kuwe ngokuchanekileyo kunye nomhla opapashe eli nqaku. Enkosi

  2.   Vicardiag sitsho

    Abathengi abatsha be-Fracking eChiapas, iibhasi ezihamba ngerhasi yendalo, kwaye bambalwa abawaziyo umonakalo wendalo okubandakanya ilizwe, ngaphandle kokuba ithwele "i-ECO" ngegama layo. Ukuqhekeka kweHydraulic kutshabalalisa indalo yelizwe lethu

  3.   sblibsi sitsho

    Ingxaki enkulu kumaqela okusingqongileyo kweli lizwe kukungabikho koqeqesho lobuchwephesha kunye nokusilela kobungqongqo bengqondo kwiingxoxo zabo. Kubalulekile ngaphambi kokujongana nobuchule okanye ukuxhaphazwa kwesibonelelo, ukuze usazi kakuhle, ukuba akunjalo njengoko benditshilo ngaphambili, iimpikiswano azinangqondo kwaye ngenxa yoko nakuphi na ukunyaniseka.
    Ingxoxo-mpikiswano iyimfuneko kakhulu, uluntu kufuneka lubenolwazi kwaye uphuhliso lwangoku alunakubeka emngciphekweni wokuphuhliswa kwezizukulwana ezizayo, kodwa ukungazi kunye noloyiko alunakho ukuthintela uphuhliso lwangoku.
    Irhasi yendalo xa itshisiwe ivelisa i-1/5 yokukhutshwa kwe-CO2 ethi ezo ziveliswe ngokutsha kwamalahle, ewe ayicocekanga nge-100% kodwa lolona khetho lubhetele.
    Kuyinyani ukuba ukuqhekeka kwe-hydraulic kuyimfuneko ekukhutsheni irhasi yendalo, inokuveliswa ngendlela eqhelekileyo ukuba idiphozithi iyakuvumela, kwaye oku kwenziwe de kube ngoku.
    Okokugqibela, ukukhutshwa kwemethane engalawulekiyo ngexesha lokuveliswa kwegesi yendalo kuzanywa ukucuthwa kangangoko kunokwenzeka, oku kuyaqondakala ngokulula, xa inkampani yokutsala ichitha isixa esikhulu semali equleni lemveliso, into yokugqibela eyifunayo yinto yophando lwakho. ndiya kukubalekela. Nangona kunjalo, ngamanye amaxesha akunakuphepheka, kodwa ukunciphisa oku kwizityalo zemveliso kukho iitotshi ezitshisa i-methane ephuncuka (iyingozi kakhulu kwaye inesiphumo sendawo yokugcina izityalo amaxesha angama-8 aphezulu kune-CO2) kwi-CO2, enesiphumo esisezantsi kakhulu sendawo yokugcina izityalo.
    Ubushushu behlabathi yingxaki enzulu ekufuneka ithathelwe ingqalelo, kwaye ukukhutshwa kweegesi ezingcolileyo emoyeni kufanele kuncitshiswe kangangoko kunokwenzeka. Ngokwam, ndiyakholelwa kutshintsho oluya kuluntu olunamanqanaba okuphuma aphantsi nangaphantsi okuphuma kwekhabhoni de lufike kwi-0. Kodwa ukuba kwithuba elifutshane kunzima kwaye kubalulekile ukuba ngqongqo kwingxoxo-mpikiswano kwaye sithathele ingqalelo iimodeli ezinomdla kakhulu.
    Phendula nge quote

  4.   UCarlos Fabian sitsho

    Manuel Ramirez mandikuxelele ukuba inqaku lakho lilungile, bendicinga ukuba irhasi "yendalo" ayingcolisanga kodwa ndiyabona ngoku yahluke ngokupheleleyo, kubuhlungu indlela ekwenziwa ngayo amadini ngamanzi, ngenxa yoku.
    Unyanisile malunga namandla omoya, kodwa le ikwanayo nengxaki yayo kuba xa befumana ixesha elide lasebusika la mandla angaphela, ngoku ndingathanda ukukubuza ukuba zeziphi ezinye iindlela ezingangcolisiyo esinokuzisebenzisa?

    1.    UManuel Ramirez sitsho

      Enkosi ngengcaciso yakho uCarlos!

  5.   maria morinigo sitsho

    ukukhathalela okusingqongileyo kukuzikhathalela

  6.   Ukubonisana noMgangatho sitsho

    Umxholo obalaseleyo kunye nenqaku elilungileyo ... yonke into eyi-fossil ayisoze ibe luhlaza

  7.   Brayan sitsho

    Kuyinyani ukuba yirhasi yendalo kodwa ayinabungozi (yile nto abantu bacinga ngayo). Kodwa ngamafutha asefosili oko kuthetha ukuba iyaphela iyangcolisa

  8.   UDanilo Martinez Olivo. sitsho

    Ukupapashwa kwenqaku kuhle kakhulu. Ndibhalisela abambalwa abanomdla «ukusuka kwisizwe sogqatso», ngokubhekisele kwimpembelelo yegreenhouse kunye nokufudumala kwehlabathi okusichaphazelayo sonke kwaye ekugqibeleni kuyakusibulala ukuba singabunqandi bokukhangela ubutyebi obungenakuthathwa mntu. bethuna kodwa ewe iya kushiya imbuyekezo, intsebenziswano yayo ityhefile iplanethi. Oku kundikhokelele ekubeni ndikhuthaze kungekudala iprojekthi yombane ebalulekileyo kwiRiphabhlikhi yaseDominican, ukuqala ngokuwa simahla kwamanzi oLwandle lweCaribbean ngomxhuzulane kwinqanaba lokuqala ngokusebenzisa iitonela ezinee-turbines zokulwa umhlwa eziphantsi. Inqanaba elinenani elifanayo lamanzi ngokungena kwigumbi lomatshini elikhulu lokubuyisela umva, eligcinwe kwidama elikhulu liya kuvelisa inqanaba lesibini. Amanzi akhokelela sele sele ekwi-44 yeemitha ngaphantsi komphakamo wolwandle (kwintlambo yaseLa Bahía de Neiba) aya kwenziwa amashishini kwaye asetyenziselwe ukusetyenziswa kunye nomzi mveliso wezolimo kunye neekloride kunye nezinye iimveliso eziza kukhutshwa nge-electrolysis efana negolide yeemolekyuli, njl. .

  9.   UAlexander ocampo sitsho

    Ndingathanda ukwazi ukuba yeyiphi kwezi gesi, ipropane kunye nendalo, evelisa ngakumbi ikhabhon monoksayidi xa itshisiwe?
    Ndiyabuza kuba bendihlala ndisebenzisa i-propane gas yeebhotile kwaye kutshanje nditshintshele kwindlu yendalo.
    Oko ndatshintshela kwirhasi yendalo, ndiye ndafumanisa ivumba elithile elitshisayo elenza ndibenesiyezi, esingakhange senzeke kum xa ndisebenzisa ipropane. Ndiyaqonda ngakumbi ukuba c. ayinakuvumba ... ngaba umntu unokundinceda?

  10.   Yosefu sitsho

    Molo, ungandinika ulwazi lwakho ukuze ndikubhekise kwinxalenye yophando lwam. Enkosi

  11.   yeka ukutshaya nge-laser malaga sitsho

    Ibhlog enomdla. Ndifunda into kwiwebhusayithi yonke imihla. Kuhlala kuyonwabisa ukukwazi ukufunda umxholo wabanye ababhali. Ndingathanda ukusebenzisa into evela kwiposti yakho kwiwebhusayithi yam, ngokwendalo ndiza kushiya ikhonkco, ukuba uyandivumela. Enkoso ngokwabelana.

  12.   ULuis Antonio Riaño sitsho

    Molo ngokuhlwa ndenza uphando malunga nongcoliseko lwegesi yendalo kwaye ndiyalithanda inqaku lakho ungandinika idatha yophando lwam.
    I gracias

  13.   Yitsho sitsho

    ok dick bekungancedi nto kum: v

  14.   UMARITZA MORALES sitsho

    Manuel Ramírez, ndilithandile inqaku lakho ku "amandla egesi yendalo nawo avelisa ungcoliseko" kwaye ndiyayithanda kwaye ndifuna ukuyisebenzisa kwithisisi yam, ungandidlulisela idatha yakho ukuze ubhekise kuwe ngokuchanekileyo kunye nomhla opapashe eli nqaku. Enkosi