Inkqubo yendalo yomhlaba

Inkqubo yendalo yomhlaba

Kwiplanethi yethu zininzi iintlobo zezinto eziphilayo, nokuba zezasemanzini, zasemhlabeni okanye zemozulu. Inkqubo ye- Inkqubo yendalo yomhlaba yindawo apho zombini izinto zebhayoloji kunye neziphilayo zinxibelelana. Owona mgaqo uphambili apho ubomi bukhula khona ngumhlaba ovelileyo. Olona phawu luphambili ekufuneka luphuhlisiwe ngumhlaba njengenkxaso ebonakalayo. Naku ukutya kunye nendawo ezihlala kuyo ezifunekayo ukuze ziphile kwaye zinike ukutya.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ngazo zonke iimpawu, ukusebenza kunye nokubaluleka kwendalo esemhlabeni.

Iimpawu zendalo esemhlabeni

izityalo kwi-savanna

Indawo evulekileyo inyanzelisa uthotho lweempawu kwezi ndawo ziphilayo, zikhokelela kwiindlela ezithile zokuziqhelanisa nezinto eziphilayo. Ngokukodwa kuba imeko-bume yomhlaba ichaphazeleka ngokuthe ngqo yimozulu.

Olona tshintsho lukhulu lubangelwa zizinto ezinje ngeqondo lobushushu, ifuthe lezaqhwithi kunye nokutshintsha kobushushu. Konke oku kwenza ukuba uhlengahlengiso lwezinto eziphilayo lubonakale ngakumbi kule ndawo. Izinto eziphilayo kwizinto eziphilayo zasemhlabeni zikhula kwindawo enomoya. Kukuxinana okuphantsi, okuchaphazeleka kukutshintsha okunamandla kubushushu nakwimozulu, kwaye kulawula ukulungelelaniswa kwezinto eziphilayo.

Ezi nkqubo zendalo zikhula ngokuvela kwamalungu omhlaba, adala iimeko ezizodwa zokuphuhliswa kwendalo. Ukongeza ekunikezeleni ngenkxaso yezinto eziphathekayo, umhlaba ukwamele ubonelelo lwamanzi oluphambili kunye namanzi kunye nezakha-mzimba kwaye wenza inkqubo yendalo ethile yawo.

Indawo evulekileyo ichaphazeleka yimozulu yomoya, oko kukuthi, utshintsho lwezinto kunye nezinto ezinje ngeqondo lobushushu, imvula kunye nomoya. Imozulu iyahluka kakhulu ngexesha, kubude kunye nokuphakama enyakeni, okukhokelela kukwahluka kwendibaniselwano ethile yendalo esingqongileyo.

Oku kukhuthaza ukwahlukahlukana kweentlobo ezahlukeneyo ukuhlangabezana neemfuno ezahluka-hlukeneyo zomhlaba. Ubomi buvela elwandle, ke izinto eziphilayo kufuneka zenze iindlela ngeendlela zokuziqhelanisa nendawo evulekileyo.

Oku kukhuthaza ukwahlukahlukana kweentlobo ezahlukeneyo ukuhlangabezana neemfuno ezahluka-hlukeneyo zomhlaba. Ubomi bavela elwandle, ke izinto eziphilayo kufuneka iphuhlise iindlela ngeendlela zokuziqhelanisa nendawo evulekileyo. Kwimeko yezityalo njengabavelisi bokuqala, bakhulisa izicwili ezisebenza ngomatshini ezibavumela beme nkqo.

Kungenxa yokuba emhlabeni, iatmosfera ayinikezeli ngenkxaso enikezelwa ngamanzi ukuze ihlale ime nkqo. Baye bavelisa ii-radicals zasimahla kunye neenkqubo zokuhambisa amanzi ukufumana nokuhambisa amanzi kunye neeminerali.

Ngokunjalo, kukho inkqubo yokutshintshiselana ngegesi ngamagqabi. Xa kuziwa kwizilwanyana, phuhlisa iinkqubo zokuphefumla ezivela kumoya kunye neenkqubo zokuhamba emhlabeni.

Iindidi zezinto eziphila emhlabeni

I-ecosystem yomhlaba kunye neempawu

Kuxhomekeka kuhlobo lwemozulu ekhoyo kunye neentyatyambo nezilwanyana ezikhulayo, kukho iindidi ezahlukeneyo zezinto eziphila emhlabeni. Masibone ukuba zeziphi ezona ziphambili:

emathafeni

Eli biome likhaya lezinto eziphilayo ezisemhlabeni ezisemantla omhlaba okanye kweminye imimandla esemazantsi. Iimeko zemozulu zigqithile, nge amaqondo obushushu asondele okanye ngaphantsi ko 0ºC ubukhulu becala enyakeni, kwaye kukho umaleko womhlaba ongumkhenkce ngokusisigxina.

Oku kunciphisa ukubakho kophuhliso lwezityalo, ezijika zibe bubulembu, ubuqhetseba kunye nezinye iintlobo zeherbaceous.

hlathi

Emazantsi etundra, i-ecosystems ikhula kwihlathi le-coniferous okanye le-boreal. La ngamahlathi amakhulu e-coniferous phantse ahluke ngokwahluka kulwakhiwo. Izilwanyana zahluke kakhulu kunetundra, kunye nezilwanyana ezinkulu ezifana nereindeer, iingcuka, iibhere kunye neelk.

Ihlathi elipholileyo

Izibalo kude neepali ziindawo eziphila kakuhle zehlathi. Oku kubandakanya amahlathi apholileyo aphakathi, amahlathi e-coniferous, amahlathi axubekileyo kunye namahlathi aseMeditera. Okokugqibela kufumaneka kwiimeko zemozulu ezizodwa kwaye kuchaphazeleka ulwandle, komile kwaye kushushu ehlotyeni kwaye kupholile ebusika. Amahlathi akwiMeditera abekwe kuphela kunxweme lwePasifiki lolwandle lweMeditera, eCalifornia naseChile.

Kwakhona kwenzeka eMzantsi Afrika nakumazantsi-ntshona e-Australia. Amahlathi aphakathi ashushu ahanjiswa kwiindawo ezinkulu zase-Eurasia naseMntla Melika. Iindidi zezityalo zibandakanya i-oki, i-birch, kunye ne-beech. IConifers ibandakanya ipayini, umsedare, umsipres, umsipres, kunye nomjunipha. Nangona izilwanyana zihlala kwezinye iintlobo ezininzi ezinjengeengcuka, iibhere kunye nexhama.

Inkqubo yendalo yomhlaba: isteppe

Izilwanyana zasemhlabeni

Ezi zinto ziphilayo zikhula kumhlaba othe tyaba onemozulu ebandayo neyomileyo, phakathi kwamahlathi e-coniferous okanye amahlathi atyabulayo namahlathi afudumeleyo. Babonakaliswa ziintlobo zengca kunye neengcongolo kunye nezihlahla ezimbalwa.

Zisasazwe kwilizwekazi lase-Eurasian, ngakumbi kwezinye iindawo zaseSiberia kunye neCone eseMazantsi eMzantsi Melika. Phakathi kwale nkqubo yezinto eziphilayo e-Eurasia, kukho amahashe asendle aseMongolia okanye amahashe asendle ePrzewalski kunye ne-saiga antelopes.

Ihlathi elinemvula

Kwisakhelo sale biome, i-ecosystem ineyona yantlukwano inkulu, enamahlathi ashinyeneyo kunye namahlathi omileyo kwindawo yayo yendalo. Amahlathi afumileyo aquka amafu anamafu okanye anamafu asentabeni kunye namahlathi emvula ashushu.

Kuphela ngokujonga amahlathi emvula athile, anjengehlathi laseAmazon, apho iyantlukwano yezinto eziphilayo neziphilayo inokwahluka. Oku kubandakanya i-várzea okanye imilambo emhlophe yamanzi, indalo ephantsi kwehlathi, imilambo yamanzi amnyama kunye nehlathi lesanti elimhlophe amahlathi okanye amahlathi aphantsi kwamanzi

Moor kunye ne-savanna

Iipáramos zii-tropical alpine shrub ecosystems zaseMelika naseAfrika, uninzi lwazo luphuculwe kwiiAndes, phakathi kweemitha ezingama-3.800 ngaphezulu komgangatho wolwandle kunye nomda wekhephu elisisigxina. Babonakaliswa ngokuba namatyholo asezantsi naphakathi kwaye Zizityebi kwiintlobo ezinje ngezityalo ezimbaxa, iirhododendrons, kunye nemidumba. Kukho iintlobo zezidalwa ezikumgangatho ophezulu apha, ezizodwa kule mimandla.

Zininzi izinto eziphilayo nendawo ezihlala kuzo ezisasazwa kwi-savanna, kwaye i-matrix esisiseko yithafa eligutyungelwe ikakhulu yingca. Nangona kunjalo, kukho indalo eyahlukeneyo ye-savanna, kubandakanya ne-savanna engenamithi kunye ne-savanna enehlathi. Kule yokugqibela, i-ecosystem ikwahluka ngokusekwe kudidi oluphezulu lomthi, mhlawumbi imithi yesundu. Yinkqubo yezinto eziphilayo ze-savanna yaseAfrika.

Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba yintoni imeko yendalo kunye neempawu zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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