Amandla eTidal okanye amandla olwandle

Amandla olwandle

Amandla amaza okanye ngaphezulu kwezesayensi abizwa ngokuba ngamaza omsinga ngulowo ubangelwa kukudityaniswa kwamazaOko kukuthi, umahluko kubude obumndilili beelwandle ngokweendawo ezinxulumene noMhlaba neNyanga kwaye oko kubangelwe ngumtsalane womxhuzulane wamva kunye nelanga kumaza olwandle.

Ngeli xesha sinokuthi ukuhamba kwamanzi, eveliswa ngumtsalane weNyanga kabini ngemini, kunokwenzeka ukuba uyisebenzise njengomthombo wamandla.

Le ntshukumo iqulathe ukunyuka kwenqanaba lolwandle, ethi kwezinye iindawo ibonakale.

INyanga iphulukana namandla, ngokuthe ngcembe, kwaye ivelisa imisinga yolwandle, ethi yona ibangele ibekwe kummahluko omkhulu ngakumbi nomhlaba.

Ukuchithwa komndilili wamandla ngohlobo lwamandla amaza malunga ne-3,1012 i-watts, okanye malunga namawaka ayi-100.000 XNUMX ngaphantsi kwelanga eliqhelekileyo elithe lafunyanwa emhlabeni.

Imikhosi yamaza ayichaphazeli kuphela iilwandle, idala ulwandle, kodwa bona nanjalo zichaphazela izinto eziphilayo, Ukuvelisa izinto ezintsonkothileyo zebhayoloji eziyinxalenye yezinto eziphilayo zendalo.

Umsinga oveliswa yiNyanga kwiilwandlekazi ungaphantsi kwemitha enye ukuphakama, kodwa kwezo ndawo apho ubumbeko lwendawo leyo lukhulisa isiphumo samanzi, utshintsho lwenqanaba elikhulu kakhulu lunokwenzeka.

Oku kwenzeka kwinani elincinci leendawo ezinzulu, ezibekwe kwishelfu yelizwekazi kwaye zezi ndawo ezinokusetyenziswa ngumntu ukufumana amandla ngamandla olwandle.

Ukusetyenziswa kwamandla olwandle

Ngokuchasene noko umntu anokucinga ngamandla amaza, sele isetyenziswa kudala, kwi-Egypt yamandulo yayisetyenziswa kwaye eYurophu yaqala ukusetyenziswa ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX.

Ngomnyaka we-1580, iivili ezi-4 eziguqukayo ze-hydraulic zafakwa phantsi kweengqameko zeLondon Bridge ukupompa amanzi., eyaqhubeka isebenza de kwangowe-1824, kwada kwaliMfazwe yeSibini yeHlabathi, uninzi lwezigayo lwalusebenza eYurophu, olwalusebenzisa amandla amaza.

Omnye wokugqibela wayeka ukusebenza eDevon, e-UK, ngo-1956.

Nangona kunjalo, ukusukela ngo-1945 kuye kwabanomdla omncinci kumbane wamaza amancinci.

Ukusetyenziswa kwamandla olwandle

Ukusetyenziswa kwamandla olwandle kumgaqo kulula kwaye kulula kakhulu efanayo naleyo yamandla ombane.

Nangona kukho iinkqubo ezahlukeneyo, eyona ilula inedama, elinamasango kunye nee-hydraulic turbines, ezibekwe ukuvala ichweba  (umlomo, elwandle, womlambo obanzi nonzulu, kwaye utshintshiselana ngala manzi anetyiwa kunye namanzi amatsha, ngenxa yamaza. Umlomo wechweba wenziwa ngengalo enye ebanzi ngendlela yefele ebanzi), apho amaza anokubaluleka kokuphakama okuthile.

Ukuhlalutya umsebenzi wenkqubo kunokubonwa kule mifanekiso mibini ilandelayo.

Inkqubo yolwandle kunye nedama

Umsebenzi ulula kakhulu kwaye uqukethe:

  • Xa kunyuka umsinga kuthiwa i umsinga omkhulu (elona lizwe liphezulu okanye ukuphakama okuphezulu kufikelelwe ngumoya), ngeli xesha Amasango avuliwe kwaye amanzi aqala i-turbine engena echwebeni.
  • Xa umsinga ophakamileyo udlula kwaye intlawulo eyaneleyo yamanzi yakhe, amasango ayavalwa ukuthintela ukubuyela kwamanzi elwandle.
  • Okokugqibela, xa umsinga ophantsi (elona lizwe liphantsi okanye ubuncinci bokuphakama okufikelelwe ngumsinga) amanzi akhutshwa ziinjini.

Yonke inkqubo yokungena emanzini kwizibuko kunye nokuphuma, oomatshini bomoya abaqhuba umbane ovelisa amandla ombane.

Ii-injini zomoya ezisetyenzisiweyo kufuneka ke zibuyiselwe umva ukuze zisebenze ngokuchanekileyo kokubini xa amanzi engena echwebeni okanye ekungeneni kunye naxa ehamba.

Ukuhanjiswa kwamaza emhlabeni

Njengoko benditshilo ngaphambili amaza akhuliswa luqwalaselo lolwandle kweminye imimandla ethile, apho kuya kubakho ukusebenzisa amaza omoya njengomthombo wamandla, nto leyo enomdla kuthi ekugqibeleni.

Ezona ndawo zibalulekileyo zokwenza oku zezi:

  • EYurophu, kwichweba laseLa Ranee eFrance, eKislaya Guba eRashiya, kwizibuko laseSevern eUnited Kingdom. Zonke ezi ndawo zinamaza aphezulu kakhulu, ngokunyuka kwemihla ngemihla ukuwa kwe-11 ukuya kwi-16 yeemitha.
  • Ukuba siya eMzantsi Melika siyabona ukuba kukho amaza angaphezu kwama-4 eemitha kunxweme lwaseChile nakwingingqi esemazantsi eArgentina. Amaza afikelela kwiimitha ezili-14 ePuerto Gallegos (eArgentina). Kukho iindawo ezifanelekileyo kufutshane neBelern neSao Luiz, eBrazil.
  • KuMntla Melika, eBaja California, eMexico, kunye namaza afikelela kwiimitha ezili-10, kuye kwakhankanywa njengendawo enokusetyenziselwa amandla ombane. Ukongeza, eCanada, kwi-Bay of Fundy, kukho iilwandle ezingaphezu kweemitha ezili-11.
  • EAsia, amaza aphakamileyo abhalwe kuLwandle lweArabia, kwiBay yaseBengal, kuLwandle lwase China lwase China, ecaleni konxweme lwaseKorea nakuLwandle lwase-Okhotsk.
  • Nangona kunjalo eRangoon, eBurma, amaza afikelela kubude beemitha ezi-5,8. EAmoy (Szeming, China), 4,72 iimitha zamaza zenzeka. Ukuphakama kwamaza eJinsen, Korea, kudlula iimitha eziyi-8,77 kwaye eBombay, eIndiya, amaza afikelela kwiimitha ezi-3,65.
  • E-Australia, uluhlu lwamaza luziimitha ezi-5,18 ePort Hedland nakwiimitha ezi-5,12 ePort Darwin.
  • Okokugqibela, eAfrika akukho ndawo intle, mhlawumbi izityalo ezinamandla aphantsi zinokwakhiwa emazantsi eDakar, eMadagascar nakwiiComoro Islands.

Ehlabathini lonke, kukho malunga neendawo ezili-100 ezifanelekileyo zokwakha iprojekthi enkulu kakhulu, nangona kukho ezinye ezininzi apho iiprojekthi ezincinci zinokwakhiwa khona.

Banokusetyenziselwa ukwenza umbane amaza angaphantsi kweemitha ezi-3, nangona inzuzo yayo ingaphantsi.

kunjalo, ukufakelwa kwesikhululo samandla olwandle (ukuze isebenze) kunokwenzeka kuphela kwiindawo ezinomahluko wobuncinci beemitha ezi-5 phakathi kwamaza aphezulu naphantsi.

Kukho amanqaku ambalwa kwihlabathi apho le nto yenzeke khona. Ezi zezona ziphambili:

amaza amakhulu

Lilonke, inokufakwa kwimveliso yombane, kwiindawo eziphambili zehlabathi malunga I-13.000 MW, inani elilingana ne 1% yamandla aphehlwa ngamanzi ehlabathini.

Amandla eTidal eSpain

E-Spain ukufundwa kwala mandla kuqhutywa ngakumbi yi Iziko leHydraulic kwiYunivesithi yaseCantabria, ene tanki yovavanyo enkulu ngokwaneleyo yophando kunye nokulinga kwinto eyaziwa ngokuba yi Unxweme lweCantabrian kunye noLwandlekazi (ubunjineli baselwandle).

Itanki ekhankanywe ngasentla imalunga neemitha ezingama-44 ububanzi kunye neemitha ezingama-30 ubude, yiyo loo nto ikwazi ukulinganisa amaza ukuya kuthi ga kwi-20 yeemitha kunye nemimoya ye-150 km / h.

Kwelinye icala, asikho mva kakhulu, kuba ngo-2011 Isityalo sokuqala samaza esiseMotrico (IGuipúzcoa).

Izixhobo

Icandelo lolawulo linayo Iinjini zomoya ezili-16 ezikwazi ukuvelisa i-600.000 kWh ngonyaka Oko kukuthi, ngabantu abangama-600 abadla ngokomndilili.

Ukongeza, enkosi kweli ziko amakhulu eetoni ze-CO2 azizukuya emoyeni ngonyakaKuqikelelwa ukuba ineziphumo ezifanayo zokucoca ezinokubangela Ihlathi elimalunga neehektare ezingama-80.

Le projekthi ibinotyalo-mali olupheleleyo olumalunga ne-6,7 yezigidi zeerandi, apho i-2,3 yayo yeyesityalo kunye nentsalela yomsebenzi wedock.

Oomatshini bomoya, abavelisa nganye malunga ne-18,5 KWh, Zahlulwe zangamaqela ezi-4 kwaye zibekwe kwigumbi lomatshini, ngaphezulu kwejeti.

Ukongeza, indawo ebakhuselayo ikwelo candelo liphakathi ligophe ledike ngobude bamanzi obuyi-7 yeemitha kwaye malunga ne-100 leemitha ubude.

Izinto eziluncedo nezingeloncedo kumaza olwandle

Amandla omsinga amaninzi ezintle kwaye ezinye zazo zezi:

  • Ngumthombo ongapheliyo wamandla kunye ehlaziyekayo.
  • Lo isasazwe kwiindawo ezinkulu womhlaba
  • Iqhelekile ngokugqibeleleyongaphandle kwexesha lonyaka.

Nangona kunjalo, olu hlobo lwamandla lubonisa uthotho lwe iingxaki ezinzulu:

  • Inokwenzeka ubungakanani kunye neendleko ngenxa yezixhobo zayo.
  • Isidingo se iisayithi zinobume bendawo  evumela ukwakhiwa kwedama ngokulula nangokungabizi mali ininzi.
  • La ukuveliswa okwethutyana, nangona kuqikelelwa, ngamandla.
  • Inokwenzeka iziphumo ezinobungozi kwindalo esingqongileyo njengokuhla komhlaba, ukuncitshiswa kwamanxweme amachweba, apho iintaka ezininzi kunye nezinto eziphila elwandle zixhomekeke khona, ukuncitshiswa kweendawo zokuzalela zeentlobo zaselwandle kunye nokuqokelelwa kweentsalela ezingcolisayo kumachweba anikelwe yimilambo.
  • Uthintelo lokufikelela kumazibuko emi phezulu.

Iingxaki zolu hlobo lwamandla zenza ukusetyenziswa kwawo kube nempikiswano enkulu, ke ukuphunyezwa kwayo akunakulungeleka ngaphandle kweemeko ezithile, apho kufunyaniswe ukuba iimpembelelo zayo zincinci kakhulu xa kuthelekiswa nezibonelelo zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Izimvo, shiya eyakho

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   clemente imvukelo sitsho

    Kwiminyaka emininzi eyadlulayo ndakwazi ukukhwaza "Eureka!" (Archimedes) xa ndisebenzisa iimvavanyo zasekhaya ndiphumeza indlela elula kakhulu ye-EOTRAC, esebenzisa amandla omoya aphezulu kuphela, amandla amakhulu angenasiphelo, athintelwe kuphela kukuchasana nezinto. Ke ndiphumeze indlela elula kakhulu ye-GEM evumela ukusebenzisa ngokwahlukileyo amandla angenasiphelo okuhamba okusebenza ngamacangci aphezulu (iibhleyidi) zamakhulu okanye amawaka eemitha zesikwere kunye nomsebenzi ofanayo uzalisekisa ukwehla kwamaza, njalo njalo - nangaphezulu. phezulu - ndakhwaza "Eureka!, Eureka!", ukuba le ngqolowa incinci yesanti ivelise amandla acocekileyo, ngelishwa amandla e-Global warming athi cwaka okanye andijonge njenge "nut". BONA izinto ezenziwa ngokutsha kwifowuni
    Ndingumntu odla umhlala-phantsi ozelwe ngo-1938, AKUKHO MNTU ONDINIKA IBHOLA, ndifuna bonke kunye ukuze ndibone, ndiqonde kwaye ndiphikisane ngendlela amandla endalo ngokwawo anokuvelisa ngayo amandla acocekileyo ukunciphisa i-GHG kunye nokuthintela ubushushu behlabathi (umlilo jikelele) ukutshabalalisa ngakumbi nangakumbi ubomi obunokwenzeka emhlabeni.