A tsaye injin turbin

Motar iska tana canza iska zuwa makamashi

Un a tsaye injin turbin u kwance kamar injin janareta ne mai aiki da wuta canza makamashin motsi na iska a cikin makamashin inji da kuma ta injin turbine a cikin wutar lantarki.

Akwai manyan nau'i biyu a tsaye da kuma kwance axis iska injin turbin. Wadanda ke da tsaka-tsakin tsaye sun fita daban don basa bukatar hanyar fuskantarwa kuma menene janareta na lantarki ana iya shirya shi a kasa. A gefe guda, waɗanda ke da ƙa'idar kwance suna amfani da su sosai kuma suna ba da damar rufe ɗakunan aikace-aikacen keɓe na ƙananan ƙarfi har zuwa shigarwa a cikin manyan gonakin iska.

Zamu shiga cikin manyan biyun, kamar abubuwan da muka ambata a sama da kuma wadanda suke a kwance, da abin da zasu kasance sabbin shawarwari wadanda suke kokarin cin moriyar hakan zuwa iska don samar da makamashin lantarki. Mun kasance a cikin fewan shekaru inda fasaha ke ci gaba kuma muna ganin sabbin shawarwari a kowane lokaci irin su turbin iska mara ƙarancin aiki na aikin Vortex ko kuma waccan Itacen Iska, wata bishiyar inji da ke samar da ƙarfi shiru.

Menene turbine mai tsaye a tsaye?

Akwai nau'ikan iska da yawa

Jirgin iska wanda yake tsaye shine ainihin turbine wanda ake saka rotor rotor a tsaye kuma yana iya samar da wutar lantarki komai daga inda iska take zuwa. Amfanin wannan nau'in turbine na iska a tsaye shine na iya samar da wutar lantarki koda a wuraren da suke da iska kadan da kuma yankuna birane inda ƙa'idojin gini gabaɗaya suka hana sanya na'urorin injinan iska.

Kamar yadda aka ambata, turbin iska na tsaye ko a tsaye babu buƙatar tsarin fuskantarwa kuma menene zai iya zama janareta na lantarki a ƙasa. Nasa samar da makamashi yana da ƙasa kuma yana da wasu ƙananan nakasassu kamar yana buƙatar motsa jiki don tafiya.

Akwai iri uku na iska masu aiki a tsaye kamar yadda Savonius, Giromill da Darrrieus suke.

Nau'in Savonius

Wannan halin halin ne kafa ta biyu zagaye ƙaura a kwance a wani ɗan tazara, ta inda iska ke tafiya, don haka yana haɓaka ƙaramin ƙarfi.

Giromil

Ya tsaya waje don samun saitin ruwan wukake a haɗe tare da sanduna biyu a kan igiyar tsaye kuma yana ba da damar samar da makamashi daga 10 zuwa 20 Kw.

Darrieus

Kafa ta ruwan wukake biyu ko uku da aka haɗa zuwa ga matattarar tsaye a ƙasan da saman, yana ba da damar yin amfani da iska a cikin babban saurin gudu. Kuskuren shine basu kunna kansu ba kuma suna buƙatar mai ba da hanya mai juyi na Savonius.

Ta yaya injin turbin iska na tsaye?

A cikin injin turke na tsaye, ruwan wukake suna juyawa tare da karfin da ke tafiyar da iska. Aikin injinan iska na tsaye, sabanin na kwance, koyaushe suna jituwa da iska. Babu matsala wacce ita ce alkiblar daya tunda suna iya aiki koda iska ta busa ƙarancin gudu. Amfanin wadannan injinan iska na tsaye shine sun fi ƙanana da haske fiye da turbin da ke da kwance. Kasancewa karami, suna haifar da rashin kuzari. Koyaya, suna da ikon dumama gida, suna da dukkan hasken ciki da na waje da kuma sake cajin batirin motar lantarki.

Takamaiman na'urori masu amfani da iska

Wadanda suke da axis a kwance sune Mafi amfani kuma sune waɗanda zamu iya samu a waɗancan manyan gonakin iska inda za'a iya amfani da wannan nau'in injinan iska sama da 1 Mw na iko.

Yana da mahimmanci injin juyawa wanda motsawar ke samarda shi ta ƙarfin kuzarin iska lokacin da take aiki a kan rotor wanda yawanci yake da ruwan wukake uku. Ana watsa motsi da juzuwar da aka samar kuma an ninka shi ta hanyar ninka saurin gudu zuwa janareto wanda ke da alhakin samar da makamashin lantarki.

Duk waɗannan abubuwan haɗin suna tsaye a kan gondola Ana sanya shi a saman hasumiyar tallafi. Su ne na yau da kullun waɗanda za a iya samu a wasu yankuna na ƙasarmu suna zana sararin samaniya da wuri daban-daban amma suna ba da tsafta da arha mai arha.

Kowane injin turbin yana da microprocessor wanda ke da alhakin sarrafawa kuma daidaita tsarin farawa, aiki da masu canjin kashewa. Wannan yana ɗaukar duk waɗannan bayanan da bayanan zuwa cibiyar sarrafawar shigarwa. Kowane ɗayan waɗannan injinan iska suna haɗawa, a gindin hasumiyar, majalissar tare da duk kayan haɗin lantarki (masu sauya atomatik, masu canza wuta a yanzu, masu kare tsauraran wuta, da dai sauransu) waɗanda ke sauƙaƙe jigilar makamashin lantarki da aka samar zuwa haɗin yanar gizo ko amfani maki.

Thearfin da aka samu daga injin iska ya dogara da ƙarfin iska wanda ke wucewa ta cikin na'ura mai juyi (rotor) kuma yana dacewa kai tsaye da yawan iska, yankin da ruwa da kuma saurin iska ke shafawa.

Aikin injin turbin iska an nuna shi da ikon ƙarfinsa hakan yana nuna kewayon saurin iska da za'a iya aiki da shi da kuma ƙarfin da ake buƙata ga kowane harka.

Wani irin injin turbin ne ya fi inganci?

Wuraren iska sune makomar gaba

Idan ya zo game da ingancin makamashi, injinan iska masu kwance suna cin wasan. Kuma shine cewa suna iya kaiwa ga saurin juyawa mafi girma don haka suna buƙatar gearbox tare da ƙananan haɓakar juyawa ƙasa. Bugu da kari, saboda dole ne a yi aikin wadannan matuka iska sosai windara saurin iska ana amfani dashi zuwa mafi girma. A cikin matakan sama na sama, saurin iska ya fi haka tunda ba shi da wata matsala.

Mene ne rashin fa'idar amfani da iska mai karfin iska?

Rashin dacewar waɗannan nau'ikan injin iska sun haɗa da masu zuwa:

  • Farashin farko na shigarwa yayi tsada sosai.
  • Idan dole ne a yankin da babu iska mai yawa koyaushe, akwai damar hakan ba za ku iya samun ingantaccen makamashi ba.
  • Kuna iya samun matsala tare da maƙwabta saboda batun amo.
  • Turbines yawanci suna aiki ne da damar kusan 30%.

Amfani da injin iska da tarihi

Amfani da makamashin lantarki daga iska an riga an yi amfani dashi tare da rotors na iska a cikin keɓaɓɓun gidaje da suke a yankunan karkara a tsakiyar karni na XNUMX.

Amma wanda ya faɗi gaske akan wannan fasaha a cikin shekarun 70 shine Denmark. Wannan gaskiyar ta ba da izinin wannan ƙasar ta kasance daya daga cikin manyan masana'antun na wannan nau'in iska ta iska kamar yadda lamarin yake da Vestas da Siemens Wind Power.

Tuni a cikin 2013, makamashin iska samar da kwatankwacin 33% na yawan amfani da wutar lantarki, tare da kashi 39% a cikin 2014. Yanzu burin Denmark shine ya kai kashi 50% nan da shekarar 2020 kuma nan da shekarar 2035 84%.

Canjin da wannan kasar ta samar shine saboda yawan hayakin CO2 a ƙarshen 70s, don haka sabuntawar makamashi ya zama babban zaɓi ga wannan ƙasar. Wannan ya haifar da raguwar dogaro da makamashi ga wasu kasashe da raguwar gurbatar duniya.

Tarihi shine shigarwa a Denmark na injin iska na farko da ya isa 2 Mw. Gidan wutar lantarki yana da hasumiyar tubular da ruwan wukake uku. Malamai da ɗaliban makarantar Tvind ne suka gina shi. Kuma wani abin birgewa game da wannan labarin shine cewa waɗannan "atean koyo" an musu ba'a a ranar su kafin rantsarwar. Har wa yau wannan injin injinan yana aiki har yanzu kuma yana da tsari mai kamanceceniya da na'uran zamani na zamani.

Makomar matatun iska

Har wa yau, sababbin abubuwan fasaha na ci gaba da bayyana inganta aikace-aikace na makamashin iska. A cikin 2015, mafi girman injin turbin shine Vestas V164 don amfani kusa da bakin teku.

A cikin 2014, fiye da 240.000 na iska sun kasance suna aiki a duniya, suna samar da kashi 4% na wutar lantarki a duniya. A cikin 2014, yawan adadin ya wuce G336 XNUMX tare da China, Amurka, Jamus, Spain da Italiya a matsayin jagororin shigarwa.

Kuma ba wai kawai waɗannan ƙasashe ke ƙaruwa da yawan su ta iska ko kuma ta iska ba, amma wasu da yawa hakan suna neman hanyar da zasu zama masu dorewa kamar yadda yake faruwa a Faransa tare da Hasumiyar Eiffel wanda yanzu ke samar da nata makamashi ta hanyar godiya ga wasu sabbin na'urori masu iska da aka girka kuma wanda za'a ƙara musu fitilun LED, bangarorin hasken rana da tsarin tara ruwan sama don inganta ta wannan hanyar mai tsafta da arha.

Kuma ba za mu iya manta da sabon yunƙuri a cikin hanyar 157 masu amfani da iska don sabbin gonakin iska 3 a Afirka ta Kudu wanda zai fito daga hannun ɗayan manyan masana'antun wannan nau'in fasaha kamar Siemens. Zasu kara tsakanin 3 karfin mW 140 kuma ana sa ran za'a girka su a farkon shekara ta 2016 don samar da wutar lantarki ga jama'ar dake kusa da wannan ƙasar ta Afirka.

Labari mai dangantaka:
Duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da injin iska

Fasahar injin iska mai yawo

Kamar yadda muke gani a cikin tarihin makamashin iska, iska daga teku fara fadada a cikin 2009 lokacin da aka shigar da injin tururin iska mai suna Hywind a kasar Norway akan kudi kusan dala miliyan 62.

Japan, bayan bala'in nukiliyar Fukushima, tana da tsara dabarun 80 Kamfanonin iska masu amfani da iska a gabar tekun da ke kusa da 2020.

Vortex Mara Injin iska mara izini

Wani kamfani na Sipaniya mai suna Deutecno yana da ƙirƙirar injin iska ba tare da motsa abubuwa ba wanda ya ci kyauta ta farko a rukunin Makamashi a Babban Taron Kudancin 2014.

Wadannan injinan iska marasa iska sune sune zasu kula da kawar da wadancan manya-manyan injinan iska wanda ke gyara sararin samaniya duk inda aka girka su. Ayyukanta zasu kasance iri ɗaya amma tare da tsada mai tsada, banda gaskiyar cewa kiyaye shi da girke shi sun fi rahusa.

Har ila yau dole ne a raguwar tasirin muhalli baya ga hakan yana kawar da hayaniyar da injinan iska na gargajiya ke samarwa.

Fasahar su tana aiki ne ta irin wannan hanyar yana amfani da nakasawa sakamakon lalacewa wanda iska ke haifarwa yayin shiga yanayin rawa a cikin silinda mai tsaka-tsalle kuma an kafa shi a cikin ƙasa.

Babban ɓangare na Vortex, wanda shine silinda, ya kasance anyi da kayan piezoelectric da fiberglass ko carbon, kuma makamashin lantarki ana samar dashi ta lalacewar waɗannan kayan.

2016 zai zama shekara a cikin wacce aka fara shirye-shiryen injin iska mai ƙarancin iska.

Itacen iska

Wani ingantaccen aikin kirki shine Itacen Iska wanda NewWind ke haɓaka kuma wannan shine wanda ya hada da ganyayyaki 72 na roba. Kowannensu turbine ne na tsaye tare da sifa mai zafin nama kuma yana da ƙaramin taro wanda zai iya samar da ƙarfi tare da iska mai haske na mita 2 a sakan ɗaya.

Wannan yana ba ka damar samar da wuta na tsawon kwanaki 280 a cikin shekara kuma yawann samarwar shi yakai 3.1 kW tare da injinan turbin 72 suna gudana. Tsayin mita 11 da mita 8 a diamita, Itacen Iskar yana kusa da girman bishiyar gaske don haka zai iya dacewa daidai a wannan sararin biranen.

Un quite musamman aikin kuma hakan yana sanya mu a gaban waɗancan ci gaban na fasaha waɗanda ke neman hanyar da za ta zama mafi inganci da kuma iya samar da wadataccen makamashi ga layin wutar lantarki na jama'a ko kuma kari don gini.

Sassan injin injin iska

Sassan injin injin iska

Hoton - Wikimedia / Enrique Dans

Kayan aikin iska gaba daya za su iya aunawa har zuwa mita 200 a tsayi da tan 20 na nauyi. Tsarinta da kayan aikinta suna da rikitarwa kuma an ƙera su don haɓaka ƙarfin wuta daga saurin XNUMX zuwa matsakaici.

Tsakanin kayan aikin da sassan injin turbin iskamuna da:

Tushe

Abubuwan yau da kullun don injin turbin ya zama da kyau haɗe da tushe mai ƙarfi. Saboda wannan, ana gina matatun iska na kwance a kwance tare da tushe mai ƙarfi na kankare wanda ya dace da filin da yake ciki kuma yana taimakawa tsayayya da nauyin iska.

Hasumiyar

Hasumiyar wani ɓangare ne na injin turɓin iska wanda yana goyan bayan dukkan nauyin kuma shine ke hana ruwan wukake daga ƙasa. An gina shi da ƙarfafa kankare a ƙasan kuma ƙarfe a sama. Kullum rami ne don ba da damar shiga gondola. Hasumiyar tana da alhakin ɗaga bututun iska yadda yakamata don ya iya amfani da iyakar saurin iska. An haɗa ƙarfe ko fiberglass mai juya nacelle zuwa ƙarshen hasumiyar.

Ruwan wukake da na'ura mai juyi

Aikin injinan na yau sun kunshi ruwan wukake uku kamar yadda yake bayar da mafi sassauci a cikin juyawa. Ana yin ruwan wukake da kayan haɗin polyester tare da ƙarfafa gilashin ko zaren carbon. Wadannan mahaɗan suna ba da ruwan wukake ƙarfi. Wukake na iya yin tsayin mita 100 kuma an haɗa su da mahaɗan rotor. Godiya ga wannan cibiya, wukake na iya canza kusurwar abin da ke faruwa don amfani da iska.

Game da rotors, a halin yanzu suna kwance kuma suna iya samun haɗin gwiwa. A yadda aka saba, wannan yana gefen gefen hasumiyar. Ana yin hakan ne don rage ɗimbin buɗaɗɗen abubuwa a kan ruwan wukake waɗanda suke bayyana idan yana wurin ne don kallon ta, tunda idan an sanya ruwa a bayan farfajiyar hasumiyar, saurin abin da ya faru zai canza sosai.

Gondola

Kukuni ne da zaka iya cewa Yana da dakin injin iska. Nacelle yana juyawa kusa da hasumiyar don sanya turbine yana fuskantar iska. Nacelle ya ƙunshi gearbox, babban shaft, tsarin sarrafawa, janareta, birki, da hanyoyin juyawa.

Gearbox

Aikin gearbox shine daidaita saurin juyawa daga babbar shaft zuwa wacce janareta ke bukata.

Mai Ganawa

A cikin injin iska na yau akwai nau'ikan turbin uku wannan ya bambanta ne kawai da halayen janareta lokacin da yake cikin yanayin saurin iska da yawa kuma ana ƙoƙari don kauce wa cika nauyi.

Kusan dukkanin turbines suna amfani da ɗayan waɗannan tsarin 3:

  • Kunkuru Cage Induction Generator
  • Biphasic janareta mai janareta
  • Aiki tare na janareta

Hutu tsarin

Tsarin birki tsarin tsaro ne Yana da fayafai wanda ke taimakawa cikin gaggawa ko yanayin kulawa don dakatar da niƙa da hana lalacewar tsarin.

Tsarin sarrafawa

Mashin din iska ya cika sarrafawa da sarrafa kansa ta tsarin sarrafawa. Wannan tsarin ya qunshi kwamfutoci masu kula da bayanan da kayan aikin iska da kuma anemometer suka ajiye a saman nacelle. Ta wannan hanyar, sanin yanayin yanayi, zaku iya daidaita niƙan da ruwan wukake don inganta samar da wuta tare da iska mai iska. Duk bayanan da suka karɓa game da matsayin injin turbin ana iya aika su nesa da babban sabar kuma suna da iko da komai. A yayin da saurin iska ko yanayin yanayi na iya lalata tsarin injin turbin, tare da tsarin sarrafawa da sauri zaku iya sanin halin da ake ciki kuma kunna tsarin taka birki, don haka guje wa lalacewa.

Godiya ga dukkan waɗannan sassan iska mai ƙarfin iska zaka iya samar da wutar lantarki daga iska a cikin hanyar sabuntawa da rashin gurɓatar yanayi.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  1.   Pablo Acevedo G. m

    Muna da aikin samar da wutar lantarki Ina bukatan tuntuɓa don farawa Waya 57830415_7383284 Na gode sosai

  2.   Javier Garcia m

    Ina so in samo injin turbine na gida wanda zai iya samar da 24kwh kowace rana don aikin mutum kuma hakan na iya nuna farashin, godiya

    1.    Pablo m

      Barka dai Javier .. daga tambayarku na ga kuna buƙatar awa 1 kilowatt… Ina ba ku mafi kyawun farashi da inganci a kasuwa
      saboda wannan ina buƙatar asalinku kamar birni, ƙasa, da dai sauransu.

  3.   Jorge Paucar m

    SANNU NI INA FARKON WANNAN SHIRIN TUNA DA KYAUTA ALKALAMI MAI ALKAWARI Tuni aka Gwada KUMA KASAN KUDI MAILINA a_eletropaucar@hotmail.com Peru

  4.   Francisco Villen. m

    Wadannan gemman janareto suna da gajeriyar hanya, saboda ta kusa da kusurwa ne, samar da wutar lantarki ta hanyar magnetic maganadisu (maganadisu) kuma duk gidaje zasu iya samun janareta na su, na 4 ko 5 kw a sarari makamancin haka zuwa na na'urar wanki.

  5.   Marlon escobar m

    Gaisuwa, Ina son ƙarin bayani don aiwatar da maganarku a cikin gidan zama, muna son ragewa da / ko kawar da amfani; muna da hita ta lantarki don wurin wanka da hasken dukkan wuraren gama gari, da fatan za a aiko da cikakkun bayanai na fasaha game da janareto a tsaye.