Menene makamashin geothermal, tsarin kwandishan da makoma

Oarfin makamashi

Tabbas kun san menene makamashin geothermal a cikin cikakkun sharuɗɗa, amma Shin kun san dukkanin abubuwan yau da kullun game da wannan makamashi?

A cikakkiyar hanyar da muke cewa ƙarfin geothermal shine makamashin zafi daga cikin Duniya.

A takaice dai, makamashin da ke karkashin kasa shi ne kawai makamashin da ake sabuntawa wanda ba ya samu daga Rana.

Bugu da kari, zamu iya cewa wannan makamashi ba shine makamashi mai sabuntawa kamar haka, tunda sabunta shi bashi da iyaka, Duk da haka ba ya karewa a ma'aunin ɗan adam, don haka ana daukarta sabuntawa don dalilai masu amfani.

Asalin zafi a cikin Duniya

Babban dalilin zafi a cikin Duniya shine ci gaba da lalacewar wasu abubuwa masu tasirin rediyo kamar su Uranium 238, Thorium 232 da Potassium 40.

Wani daga cikin asalin makamashin geothermal su ne karo na faranti tectonic.

A wasu yankuna, kodayake, yanayin zafi na ƙasa ya fi karkata, kamar yadda yake faruwa a kusancin duwatsu masu aman wuta, magma, gishiri da maɓuɓɓugan ruwan zafi.

Amfani da makamashin geothermal

An yi amfani da wannan makamashin aƙalla shekaru 2.000.

Romawa sunyi amfani da maɓuɓɓugan ruwan zafi wanka kuma, kwanan nan, ana amfani da wannan makamashi don dumama gine-gine da greenhouses da kuma samar da wutar lantarki.

A halin yanzu akwai nau'ikan ajiya guda 3 wanda zamu iya samun makamashin geothermal:

  • Babban matattarar zafin jiki
  • Temperatureananan tafkunan zafin jiki
  • Busassun wuraren ajiyar dutsen zafi

Babban matattarar zafin jiki

Mun ce akwai ajiya babban zazzabi idan ruwan tafki ya isa yanayin zafi sama da 100ºC saboda kasancewar tushen zafi mai aiki.

Idan zafin rana zai iya samar da makamashi, to dole ne yanayin kasa ya bada damar samarda wani madatsar ruwa, kwatankwacin waɗanda ke cikin mai ko gas, wanda ya ƙunshi a permeable dutse, sandstones ko farar ƙasa misali, wanda aka byaura da a Layer mai hana ruwa, kamar yumbu.

babban zazzabi makirci

Ruwan ƙasa mai ɗauke da duwatsu yana wucewa zuwa sama zuwa tafki, inda suke zama a cikin ƙarkon ƙarƙashin layin da ba zai iya yuwuwa ba.

Lokacin akwai fasa a cikin faɗin da ba zai iya yuwuwa ba, tserewar tururi ko ruwa zuwa saman mai yiwuwa ne, bayyana a cikin hanyar maɓuɓɓugan ruwan zafi ko gishiri.

Anyi amfani da waɗannan maɓuɓɓugan ruwan zafi tun zamanin da kuma ana iya amfani dasu da sauƙi don dumama da tafiyar masana'antu.

baho mai zafi

Roman Baths na Bath

Temperatureananan tafkunan zafin jiki

Voananan tafkuna masu ƙananan zafin jiki sune waɗanda a cikinsu zafin ruwan, wanda zamuyi amfani dashi, yana nan tsakanin 60 da 100ºC.

A cikin waɗannan adibas, ƙimar yawan zafin rana al'ada ce ta dunƙulewar ƙasa, don haka kasancewar 2 na yanayin da suka gabata bashi da mahimmanci: wanzuwar tushen zafi mai aiki da rufin shagon ruwa.

Temperaturearamar ƙarancin zafin jiki

Sai kawai kasancewar sito a zurfin da ya dace don haka, tare da daskararren ɗan tudu a yankin da aka faɗi, akwai yanayin yanayin zafi wanda ke ba da damar amfani da shi ta tattalin arziki.

Busassun wuraren ajiyar dutsen zafi

Abun iyawa na makamashin geothermal es mai yawa mafi girma idan an ciro zafi daga busassun duwatsun zafi, wanda bashi da ruwa a dabi'ance.

Suna a wani zafin jiki tsakanin 250 da 300ºC riga daya zurfin tsakanin mita 2.000 zuwa 3.000.

Don amfani da ita ya zama dole a fasa busassun duwatsu masu zafi, don sanya su porous.

Sannan an gabatar da ruwan sanyi daga farfajiyar ta bututu, barin shi ya ratsa dutsin dutsen da ya fashe, saboda ya yi zafi sannan kuma, an samo tururin ruwa ta wani bututun don amfani da matsi wajen tuka injin injin turbin da samar da wutar lantarki.

zafi dutsen shaci

Matsalar irin wannan amfani ita ce dabarun fasa duwatsu a zurfin zurfin da hakowa.

Kodayake an samu ci gaba sosai a wadannan bangarorin ta hanyar amfani da dabarun hakar mai.

Lowarancin zafin jiki mai zafi sosai

Zamu iya la'akari da ƙasa zuwa kananan zurfafa kamar a tushen zafi a 15ºC, kwata-kwata mai sabuntawa da karewa.

Ta hanyar tsarin tattarawa mai dacewa da famfo mai zafi, ana iya canzawa daga wannan tushen a 15ºC zuwa tsarin da ya kai 50ºC, kuma za'a iya amfani da na ƙarshen don dumama da samun ruwan zafi mai tsafta don amfani a cikin gida.

Har ila yau, famfon zafi iri ɗaya na iya ɗaukar zafi daga mahalli a 40ºC kuma ya sadar da shi zuwa sashin ƙasa tare da tsarin kama ɗayaSabili da haka, tsarin da zai iya warware dumama gida zai iya warware sanyaya, ma'ana, gidan yana da shigarwa guda ɗaya don yanayin kwalliyar ta.

Babban rashin ingancin wannan nau'in makamashi shine buƙatar babban filin binnewa na da'irar wajeKoyaya, babban amfanin sa shine pYiwuwar amfani da shi azaman tsarin dumama da sanyaya a farashi mai rahusa.

A cikin zane mai zuwa zaka iya ganin hanyoyi daban-daban na kamawa ko canja wurin zafi zuwa bene don amfani da su a gaba cikin dumama, sanyaya da samun DHW (ruwan zafi na gida). Zan bayyana aikin da ke ƙasa.

Tsarin HVAC

Kwandishan na gida, wani rukunin gidaje, asibiti, da dai sauransu. za a iya isa akayi daban-daban, tunda ba ya buƙatar manyan saka hannun jari don tsarin, ba kamar wurare masu matsakaici da matsakaici ba.

Wannan tsarin amfani da hasken rana wanda ke tattare da doron kasa ya dogara da manyan abubuwa guda 3:

  1. Bakin famfo
  2. Musayar kewaye da Duniya
    1. Canjin zafi tare da ruwan saman
    2. Musayar tare da ƙasa
  3. Musayar kewaye tare da gida

Bakin famfo

Pampo mai zafi inji ne na thermodynamic wanda ya dogara ne akan Carnot Cycle da gas ke yi.

Wannan inji yana ɗaukar zafi daga tushe ɗaya don sadar da shi zuwa wani wanda ke cikin mafi tsananin zafin jiki.

Misali mafi mahimmanci shine firijiWaɗannan suna da inji wanda ke ɗora zafi daga ciki kuma ya fitar dashi zuwa waje, wanda yake a mafi tsananin zafin jiki.

Sauran misalan famfunan zafi sune na’urar sanyaya daki da kuma na’urar sanyaya gidaje da motoci.

A cikin wannan makircin, za ku ga cewa Kwan fitila mai sanyi yana ɗaukar zafi daga ƙasa a musayar kuma ruwan da ke zagayawa ta cikin kewayen kwan fitilar yana ɗaukar zafi har sai ya ƙafe.

makircin famfo

Yankin da ke ɗaukar ruwan da zafi daga ƙasa ya huce kuma ya dawo ƙasa, dawo da yanayin zafin jiki yana da sauri.

A gefe guda kuma, kwan fitila mai zafi, a cikin gida, yana hura iska yana ba shi zafi.

Fanfon zafi yana "yin famfo" zafi daga kwan fitila mai sanyi zuwa kwan fitila mai zafi.

Aiki (samarda makamashi / kuzari) ya dogara da yawan zafin jiki na tushen da yake samar da zafin dumi.

Tsarin kwandishan na al'ada sha zafi daga yanayi, wanda a lokacin hunturu zai iya kaiwa da zazzabis a ƙasa -2 ° C.

A wadannan yanayin zafi mai cirewar ba zai iya daukar zafi ba kuma yin famfo yayi karanci.

A lokacin rani lokacin da yake zafi, famfon ya daina zafi daga yanayin da zai iya kasancewa 40ºC, tare da abin da yin aiki ba kyau kamar yadda zaku zata.

Duk da haka, tsarin kamawar geothermal, ta hanyar samun tushe zuwa zafin jiki na yau da kullun, aikin koyaushe mafi kyau duka ba tare da la'akari da yanayin yanayin zafin yanayi ba. Don haka wannan tsarin yafi inganci fiye da na famfo mai zafi.

Musayar da'irori tare da Duniya

Canjin zafi tare da ruwan saman

Wannan tsarin ya dogara ne akan sanya ruwa a cikin hulɗar zafin jiki yana zuwa daga tushe ta sama tare da danshi / sanyaya, gwargwadon buƙatun, don sha ko canja wurin zafi zuwa ruwan da aka faɗi.

Amfani: gabatarwa shine yana da low cost

Kuskure:  ba koyaushe ake samun tushen ruwa ba.

Musayar tare da ƙasa

Este na iya zama kai tsaye lokacin da aka yi musayar tsakanin ƙasa da mai ɗumi / mai amfani da famfo mai zafi ta hanyar bututun jan ƙarfe da aka binne.

Don gida, ana iya buƙatar bututu tsakanin mita 100 zuwa 150.

  • Abũbuwan amfãni: low cost, sauki da kuma kyakkyawan aiki.
  • Abubuwan da ba a zata ba: yiwuwar kwararar iskar gas da daskarewa na yankunan ƙasar.

Ko kuma na iya zama hanyar taimako lokacin da take da tarin bututu da aka binne, ta inda ake zagayawa da ruwa, wanda hakan yana musayar zafi da evaporator / condenser.

Don gida, ana iya buƙatar bututu tsakanin mita 100 zuwa 200.

  • Abũbuwan amfãni: ƙananan matsa lamba a cikin kewaye, saboda haka guje wa manyan bambance-bambancen zafin jiki
  • Abubuwan da ba a zata ba: tsada mai tsada.

Musayar da'irori tare da gida

Wadannan da'irori iya zama tare da musayar kai tsaye ko tare da rarraba ruwan zafi da sanyi.

Kai tsaye musayar Ya dogara ne da kewaya rafin iska a saman farfajiyar daskarewa / sanyaya a gefen gidan don musayar zafin rana da rarraba wannan iska mai zafi / sanyi a cikin gidan, ta hanyar bututun da ke dauke da iskar zafi.

Tare da tsarin rarraba guda ɗaya, an warware rarraba zafi da sanyi a cikin gidan.

  • Abũbuwan amfãni: yawanci suna da farashi mai rahusa da sauki.
  • Abubuwan da ba a zata ba: ƙananan aiki, matsakaiciyar ta'aziyya kuma ana amfani dasu ne kawai ga gidajen da aka sake ginawa ko kuma suke da tsarin ɗumamalar iska.

Tsarin rarraba ruwa mai zafi da sanyi Ya dogara ne akan kewaya gudan ruwa a saman farfajiyar daskarewa / sanyaya a gefen gidan don musayar zafi.

Ruwa yawanci ana sanyaya shi zuwa 10ºC a lokacin rani kuma a dumama zuwa 45ºC a lokacin sanyi don amfani dashi azaman hanyar sanyaya iska.

Heatingarfin shimfidar ƙasa shine mafi kyawun aiki kuma mafi kyawun hanya don magance dumama, kodayake, ba za a iya amfani da shi don sanyaya ba, don haka idan ana amfani da wannan hanyar ko ta radiators na ruwan zafi, za a girka wani tsarin don iya amfani da sanyayar.

  • Abũbuwan amfãni: matukar jin dadi da aiki.
  • Abubuwan da ba a zata ba: tsada mai tsada.

Ayyukan tsarin kwandishan

Amfani da makamashi na tsarin sanyaya iska ta amfani dashi azaman tushen zafi soasa a 15ºC shine akalla na 400% a dumama da 500% a sanyaya.

Lokacin yana dumama akwai gudummawar makamashin lantarki na 25% na yawan ƙarfin da ake buƙata. Kuma idan aka yi amfani dashi don sanyaya aikin yafi ninki biyu na na famfan zafi musayar tare da iska a digiri 40, don haka a wannan yanayin akwai kuma tanadin makamashi sama da 50% idan aka kwatanta da kwandishan ta al'ada.

Wannan yana nufin cewa don yin famfo daga sandar sanyi zuwa sandar zafi raka'a 4 na kuzari (alal misali 4 adadin kuzari), ana buƙatar rukunin makamashi 1 kawai.

A cikin firiji, ga kowane raka'a 5 da aka tuka, ana buƙatar raka'a 1 don yin famfo su.

Wannan yana yiwuwa tunda ba ya samar da dukkan zafi, amma mafi yawansu ana sauya su ne kawai daga tushe zuwa wani.

Rukunin makamashin da muke samarwa zuwa famfon zafin yana cikin hanyar makamashin lantarki, don haka a zahiri muna samar da CO2 a cikin shuka mai samar da makamashin lantarki, kodayake a cikin ƙarami da yawa.

Duk da haka, zamu iya amfani da fanfunan zafi banda lantarki, amma cewa tushen su shine hasken rana amma har yanzu suna cikin lokacin gwajin.

Si muna kwatanta wannan tsarin tare da tsarin dumama makamashin rana ta hanyar bangarori muna iya ganin hakan gabatar da babbar fa'idatunda baya buƙatar manyan masu tarawa don ramawa na awanni na rashin hasken rana.

Babban mai tarawa shine girman Duniyar kanta wannan yana sa mu sami tushen makamashi a yanayin zafin rana na yau da kullun, wanda a ƙimar wannan aikace-aikacen yana nuna rashin iyaka.

Ayyukan

Koyaya, wanda yayi hakan Mafi kyawun zaɓi don amfani da wannan tushen makamashi shine haɗa shi da makamashin zafin rana., ba don matsar da famfo mai zafi kamar yadda aka ambata a sama ba (wanda kuma) amma don ƙara zafi zuwa tsarin, an ba shi a cikin dumama da aikace-aikacen samar da ruwan zafi na gida, za a iya kawo ruwa zuwa 15ºC ta amfani da makamashin da ke ƙasa na gaba, ɗaga yawan zafin ruwan tare da hasken rana.

A wannan yanayin ingancin famfo mai zafi yana ƙaruwa sosai.

Rarraba makamashin geothermal

Rashin wutar lantarki ta yadu ko'ina cikin duniya, musamman a cikin yanayin busassun duwatsu masu zafi, amma akwai wuraren da ya faɗaɗa watakila sama da 10% na saman duniya kuma suna da yanayi na musamman don haɓaka wannan nau'in makamashi.

Ina nufin yankuna a ciki ƙarin bayyana tasirin girgizar ƙasa da dutsen mai fitad da wuta kuma wannan, gaba ɗaya, yayi daidai da kuskuren tectonic muhimmanci

taswirar makamashi ta ƙasa

Daga cikinsu akwai:

  • Tekun Pacific na Nahiyar Amurka, daga Alaska zuwa Chile.
  • Yammacin Pacific, daga New Zealand, ta hanyar Philippines da Indonesia, zuwa kudancin China da Japan.
  • Kwarin wargajewar Kenya, Uganda, Zaire da Habasha.
  • Kewayen Rum.

Fa'idodi da rashin amfani da makamashin geothermal

Wannan kuzarin, kamar kowane abu da yake, yana da kyawawan sassansa da kuma ɓangarorinsu marasa kyau.

Como abubuwan amfani zamu iya cewa:

  • An samo shi rarraba ko'ina cikin duniya.
  • Mafi mahimman hanyoyin samar da yanayin ƙasa suna cikin yankuna masu aman wuta galibi yana cikin kasashe masu tasowa, wanda zai iya zama sosai amfani don inganta yanayinku.
  • Yana da tushen makamashi mara karewa a ma'aunin ɗan adam.
  • Shin makamashi ne mai rahusa wannan sananne ne.

Nasa disadvantages akasin haka sune:

  • Yin amfani da makamashin geothermal ya gabatar da wasu matsalolin muhalli, musamman, da sakin iskar gas mai sulphurous cikin yanayi, tare da Ruwan ruwan zafi ya zama ruwan kogi, wanda sau da yawa ya ƙunshi babban matakin daskararru.

Kodayake gabaɗaya, ana iya sake shigar da ruwan sha cikin ƙasa, bayan an tsame shi, a wasu lokuta, gishirin potassium mai amfani da kasuwanci.

  • Gaba ɗaya, baza turawan zafin rana a nesa ba mai yiwuwa bane. Ya kamata a yi amfani da ruwan zafi ko tururi a kusancin asalinsa, kafin ya huce.
  • Yawancin ruwan da ke cikin ƙasa ana samun su yanayin zafi da ke ƙasa da 150ºC don haka gabaɗaya, baya da zafi sosai don samar da wutar lantarki.

Ana iya amfani da waɗannan ruwan ne kawai don wanka, dumama gine-gine da ɗakunan shan iska da kayan lambu na waje, ko azaman tsaftataccen ruwa don tukunyar jirgi.

  • da busassun maɓuɓɓugan ruwan dumi sun yi gajartaYayinda fuskokin fashe suka yi sanyi da sauri, ƙwarewar kuzarinsu na raguwa da sauri.
  • da farashin shigarwa suna da yawa.

Makomar wutar lantarki

Ya zuwa yanzu, kawai perforations da cire zafi zuwa zurfin kusan kilomita 3, kodayake ana tsammanin zai iya kaiwa zuwa zurfin zurfin, wanda da shi ne za a iya amfani da makamashin geothermal sosai.

Jimlar makamashita hanyar ruwan zafi, tururi ko duwatsu masu zafi, har zuwa zurfin kilomita 10, kusanci 3.1017 tep. Sau miliyan 30 amfani da makamashin duniya a yanzu. Wanda yake nuna hakan makamashin geothermal na iya zama madadin mai ban sha'awa a cikin gajeren lokaci.

Ingantattun dabaru don bunkasa albarkatun karkashin kasa sun yi kama da wadanda ake amfani da su a bangaren mai. Koyaya, tunda makamashin ruwa a 300 atC ya ninka na mai sau dubu, babban birnin na iya sa hannun jari ta fannin tattalin arziki da kuma hakowa kasa sosai.

Koyaya, karancin mai na iya haifar da ƙaruwar amfani da makamashin geothermal.

Tsarin masana'antu

A gefe guda, ya kasance koyaushe yana yiwuwa ga amfani da hanyoyin da ake amfani da su wajen samar da wutar lantarki a matsakaita-masu samar da wutar lantarki (10-100MW) wanda yake kusa da rijiyoyin rijiyoyin, amma mafi karancin zafin yanayi da ake amfani dashi don samar da wutar lantarki shine 150ºC.

Kwanan nan an samar da turbin da ba shi da ruwa don samar da ruwa da kuma tururi har zuwa 100ºC kawai, wanda ke ba da damar faɗaɗa fagen amfani da wannan makamashin.

Har ila yau, za'a iya amfani dashi a cikin matakan masana'antu kamar sarrafa karafa, dumama ayyukan masana'antu iri daban-daban, dumama ɗakunan ciyayi, da sauransu.

Amma tabbas mafi girman makomar makamashin yau da kullum yana cikin amfani da makamashi mai matukar qarancin zafin jiki, saboda karuwarta, sauki, karancin tattalin arziki da tsadar muhalli da yiwuwar yi amfani da shi azaman tsarin dumama da sanyaya.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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