izilwane zasendle ze-tundra

i-reindeer

Eplanethini yethu kunezinhlobonhlobo zemvelo ezinezici eziyingqayizivele ezenza uhlaza nezilwane ezikhula kuzo zehluke. Enye ye-ecosystem esizoyifunda i-tundra. I izilwane zasendle Kuye kwathuthukiswa endaweni ethize eyinkimbinkimbi. Nokho, izinhlobo ziyakwazi ukuzivumelanisa nemvelo ukuze ziphile futhi zithuthuke.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela mayelana nezici zezilwane ze-tundra, ukuthi ziphila kanjani nokuthi iyiphi indlela yazo yokuphila.

i-tundra ecosystem

izilwane zasendle

Singachaza i-tundra njengama-biomes angenakho uhlaza ngenxa yesimo sezulu, njengoba iyizindawo ezisuka ezindaweni ezipholile zomhlaba. Lena indawo lapho uhlaza lucishe lungabi khona kusukela lapho idlulela ngalé kwendawo lapho izihlahla zimila khona.

Nokho, ngenxa yamakhaza nemvula, inhlabathi yayimbozwe ubulembu nolele, futhi kwezinye izindawo kwakumila ngisho nezihlahla zeminyezane yase-arctic. Lokhu kungenxa yokushisa kwayo, okuthi nakuba kufushane (akuhlali ngaphezu kwezinyanga ezimbili), kubanda kakhulu kunobusika, nakuba kungavamile ukudlula ama-degree angu-10.

Kuvela ukuthi ayitholi mvula eningi lapha, ngakho uhlaza oluncane olukhulayo lungasekela ukuphila futhi ngaleyo ndlela lube ukudla kwezilwane ezifuywayo. Ivamise ukuba yizindawo eziyisicaba ezinamacube eqhwa ngaphansi, angaba phakathi kuka-30 cm no-1 m ubukhulu. Ngakho, amanzi akulezi zindawo awakwazi ukuphuma, ayanyakaza, akhe amachweba namaxhaphozi Banikeza umswakama odingekayo ukuze izitshalo zisinde.

Ukuncibilika okuqhubekayo kudala imifantu yejometri emhlabathini, futhi lapho iqhwa lingashabalali, amaqhuqhuva nezindunduma zingabonakala phezulu. Kulula futhi ukuthola izindawo ezinamatshe ezimbozwe ulele, ezivumela izilwane ezihlukahlukene ukuba zibe nezindawo zazo zokuhlala ezincane.

izilwane zasendle ze-tundra

uhlobo lwezindawo

Ngenxa yesimo sezulu esingavamile se-tundra, izilwane kufanele zilungele ukumelana nokushisa, ngakho-ke kungenzeka ukuthola izinhlobo esingaziboni kwenye indawo. Lokhu kubandakanya:

  • inyamazane: njalo ziya ethafeni uma kufika ihlobo ngoba azikwazi ukumelana nokushisa kwenye indawo. I-tundra ibanikeza isimo sezulu esifinyelela ku-10 degrees.
  • Inkabi ye-Musk. Ngaphandle kwegama layo elithi "Musk", linephunga elinamandla elenza likhange kwabesifazane. Zimbozwe izinwele eziluhlaza, ezinsundu ngoshokoledi ezingamelana namazinga okushisa aphansi futhi zingakhula zifike ku-60 cm ubude.
  • Unogwaja wase-Arctic. Logwaja omhlophe onamabala amnyama ezindlebeni zawo ezinde ubukeka njengonogwaja, kodwa cha, ungomunye onogwaja abakhulu emhlabeni. Inesikhumba esiwugqinsi esimbozwe uboya obukhulu futhi obuthambile obuyivikela emazingeni okushisa aphansi.
  • imbuzi yeqhwa: Iwuhlobo olujwayelekile lwembuzi olungatholakala ezilwaneni ze-tundra, njengoba izinwele zayo namandla angokomzimba kuyenza ilungele ukuhlala esimweni sezulu salezi zitshalo.
  • Lemmings: amagundwane amancanyana anoboya okuthi ngenxa yelukuluku sizokutshela aziwa ngokuthanda ukuzibulala akwenza ngokuhlanganyela aziphonse olwandle.

Ngaphezu kwalezi zilwane, ezinye izinhlobo ezivamile ezifana namabhere e-polar, izimpisi, izinkozi, izikhova zingatholakala ezilwaneni ze-tundra; emanzini, izinhlanzi ezinjenge-salmon. Ngaphandle kwezilwane ze-tundra, kunesitshalo esikhulu, esakhiwe ikakhulukazi utshani nezihlahla ezincane, ngenxa yomswakama owenziwe yiqhwa elingaphansi komhlaba.

Izinhlobo ze-tundra

izilwane zasendle ze-arctic tundra

i-arctic tundra

Singayibeka endaweni esenyakatho nenkabazwe ngaphansi kweqhwa le-Arctic, sisuka endaweni engafanele ukuya emaphethelweni e-taiga echazwe yi-taiga. Ebalazweni, kungaba ingxenye yeCanada kanye nengxenye enkulu ye-Alaska.

Ezimweni eziningi, singathola ungqimba lwenhlabathi engaphansi eqandisiwe, ngokuvamile ebizwa ngokuthi i-permafrost, eyakhiwe kakhulu ngezinto ezingcono kakhulu. Lapho amanzi egcwala phezulu, ama-peat bogs namachibi akheka, anikeze izitshalo amanzi.

Izitshalo ze-Arctic tundra azinazo izimpande ezijulile, kodwa kusenezinhlobonhlobo zezitshalo ezikwazi ukumelana nesimo sezulu esibandayo: izihlahlana eziphansi, ubulembu, amasedge, iminyundu, notshani... njll.

Izilwane zijwayele ukumelana nobusika obude, obubandayo futhi zizalane futhi zande ngokushesha ehlobo. Izilwane ezifana nezilwane ezincelisayo nezinyoni nazo zinamafutha engeziwe. Izilwane eziningi zilala ebusika ngenxa yokuntuleka kokudla. Enye indlela ukufudukela eningizimu ebusika, njengoba kwenza izinyoni.

Ngenxa yamazinga okushisa abandayo kakhulu, izilwane ezihuquzelayo kanye nezilwane ezihlala emanzini zimbalwa noma azikho. Isibalo sabantu sihlala sishintshashintsha ngenxa yokufika kwabantu kwamanye amazwe njalo.

I-Alpine tundra

Itholakala endaweni enezintaba noma yikuphi emhlabeni, endaweni ephakeme kakhulu ngaphezu kolwandle, futhi azikho izihlahla ezikhula nhlobo. Isikhathi sokukhula singaba yizinsuku eziyi-180. Amazinga okushisa ebusuku avamise ukuba ngaphansi kwezingaqhwa. Ngokungafani ne-arctic tundra, inhlabathi yase-Alps ikhishwe kahle.

Lezi zitshalo zifana kakhulu nalezo ezitholakala e-Arctic kanye zihlanganisa izitshalo ezimila utshani, izihlahla ezincane ezinamahlamvu kanye nama-heather, izihlahla ezincane. Izilwane ezihlala e-alpine tundra nazo zijwayele ukujwayela: izilwane ezincelisayo njengezimbila, izimbuzi, izimvu, izinyoni ezinoboya obunzima, nezinambuzane ezinjengezibhungane, izintethe, izimvemvane, nokunye.

i-antarctic tundra

Ingenye ye-tundra ecosystem engavamile kakhulu. Singakubona eNingizimu Georgia naseSouth Sandwich Islands, eziyingxenye yeBritish Territory, nakwezinye zeziQhingi zaseKergallen.

Isimo sezulu

Ngenxa yokuphakama kwayo nokusondela kwayo ezigxotsheni, Isimo sezulu se-tundra sizohlala ngaphansi kweqhwa isikhathi esiningi sonyaka, cishe izinyanga eziyisi-6 kuye kweziyi-10. Masikhumbule izakhi ezingaphili, njengenhlabathi noma umhlaba, izintaba, amanzi, umkhathi, njll. Ibizwa nge-biome futhi kuyajabulisa ukuyifunda.

Ngokuvamile, ubusika be-tundra bude, bumnyama, bubanda kakhulu futhi bomile, bufinyelela phansi -70 degrees Celsius kwezinye izindawo. Nakuba iqhwa likhithika ingxenye enkulu yonyaka, imvula ethile iba njengeqhwa ehlobo, lapho amazinga okushisa ehla.

Ezifundeni ezinzima, izinga lokushisa elijwayelekile lingu-12 kuya ku-6 degrees centigrade. Ebusika bangafinyelela ku-34 degrees centimeters, kanti ehlobo ngokuvamile bafinyelela -3 ºC. Uma sikhuluma ngezintaba eziphakeme noma izintaba, ehlobo zingafinyelela ku-10 degrees Celsius, kodwa ebusuku kuyoba amadigri ambalwa ngaphansi kwe-zero ukuze zizivikele.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nezilwane ze-tundra nezici zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.