Indlela yokwenza i-biodiesel eyenziwe ngokwenza

I-canister ene-bio-fuel, i-sunflower biodiesel

Yenza i-biodiesel yethu ngamafutha amasha noma asetshenzisiwe kungenzeka yize kunezinkinga ezithile.

Kulesi sihloko ngizokutshela ukuthi ungayakha kanjani i-biodiesel ngaphezu kwalezo zinkinga ezibaluliwe, kodwa into yokuqala okufanele uyenze ukwazi ukuthi sizokwenzani.

IBiodiesel iyi- i-biofuel engamanzi etholakala kumafutha emifino I-rapeseed, ubhekilanga nobhontshisi njengamanje yizinto zokusetshenziswa ezisetshenziswa kakhulu, yize ukutholwa kwabo ngezitshalo ze-algae nakho kuyacwaningwa.

Izici ze-biodiesel ziyefana kakhulu nedizili yezimoto ngokuya ngobuningi kanye nenombolo yohlobo lwe-cetane, yize inephoyinti eliphakeme kunodizili, isici esenza sikwazi ukuyixuba neyokugcina ukuze kusetshenziswe uphethiloli.

I-American Society for Testing and Material Standard (I-ASTM, inhlangano yomhlaba wonke yamazinga ekhwalithi) ichaza i-biodiesel njenge:

"Ama-Monoalkyl esters amade chain chain fatty atholakala kuma-lipids avuselelekayo njengamafutha yemifino noma amafutha ezilwane, futhi asetshenziselwa ukucindezela izinjini zokushisa"

Nokho, ama-esters asetshenziswa kakhulu yi-methanol ne-ethanol (etholwe ekuguqulweni kwanoma yiluphi uhlobo lwamafutha yemifino noma amafutha ezilwane noma kusuka ekuqinisekisweni kwamafutha acid) ngenxa yezindleko zawo eziphansi kanye nezinzuzo zawo zamakhemikhali nezomzimba.

Umehluko ovela kwamanye amafutha ukuthi ama-biofuels noma ama-biofuels aveza ukubaluleka kokusebenzisa imikhiqizo yemifino njengezinto ezingavuthiwe, ngenxa yalokho kubaluleke kakhulu ukubheka izici izimakethe zezolimo.

Futhi-ke, kufanele kuqashelwe ukuthi ukuthuthukiswa komkhakha we-biofuel Akunciki kakhulu ekutholakaleni kwendawo kwempahla eluhlaza, kepha ekubeni khona kwesidingo esanele.

Ngokuqinisekisa ukuba khona kwesidingo sama-biofuels, ukuthuthukiswa kwemakethe yakho kungasetshenziselwa ukugqugquzela ezinye izinqubomgomo okufana nezolimo, ukuthanda ukuvulwa kwamathuba omsebenzi emkhakheni oyinhloko, ukumiswa kwabantu ezindaweni zasemakhaya, ukuthuthukiswa kwezimboni kanye nemisebenzi yezolimo, futhi ngasikhathi sinye kunciphisa imiphumela yokuntuleka kogwadule ngenxa yokutshalwa kwezitshalo zamandla.

I-Biodiesel evela kudlwenguliwe

Izitshalo zamandla ezenziwa kabusha

I-ASTM ibuye icacise izivivinyo ezahlukahlukene okufanele zenziwe kumafutha ukuqinisekisa ukusebenza kwawo okulungile ngoba ekusetshenzisweni kwe-biodiesel njengophethiloli wezimoto, kufanele kucatshangelwe izici zama-esters acishe afane nalawo kadizili. .

Izinzuzo nobubi be-biodiesel

Enye yezinzuzo eziphambili esingazithola ngokusebenzisa le biofuel esikhundleni sikadizili yi- Ukongiwa kwemithombo yemvelo Womhlaba ngoba ungumthombo wamandla avuselelekayo.

Enye inzuzo yi ukuthekelisa ama-biofuelsUma kwenzeka zenzeka eSpain, ngale ndlela ukuncika kwethu emandleni okubasa, okuyi-80%, nakho kuncishisiwe.

Ngokufanayo, kuyathandeka ukuthuthukiswa nokulungiswa kwabantu basemakhaya ezinikezelwe ekukhiqizeni le biofuel.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kuyasiza ukwehla kokukhishwa kwe-CO2 emkhathini, futhi kususa inkinga yemvula ene-asidi ngoba ayinaso isibabule.

Ukuba ngumkhiqizo obolayo futhi ongabuthi, kunciphisa ukungcoliswa kwenhlabathi kanye nezingozi zobuthi ekuchithekeni ngengozi ngakunye.

Kunikela ukuphepha okukhulu ngoba ine-lubricity enhle kakhulu ne-flash point ephakeme.

Ngokuqondene nokushiyeka, singasho okuningana njengezindleko. Okwamanje, ayincintisani nodizili ojwayelekile.

Mayelana nezakhiwo zobuchwepheshe, inenani eliphansi lekhalori, yize kungasho ukulahleka kwamandla noma ukwanda okukhulu kokusetshenziswa.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kunjalo ukuzinza kwe-oxidation ephansi, lokhu kubalulekile uma kukhulunywa ngokugcinwa, futhi kunezindawo ezibandayo kakhulu, okwenza kungahambelani emazingeni okushisa aphansi kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, lezi zakhiwo ezimbili zokugcina zingalungiswa ngokungeza okufakiwe.

Singazenzela kanjani i-biodiesel yethu

Thola i-biodiesel yethu kuyingozi kakhulu ngemikhiqizo yamakhemikhali okufanele siyisebenzise futhi ngenxa yalesi sizathu ngizosho lezi zinyathelo ezingenhla ukuze ungacabangi ukukwenza ekhaya ngaphandle kokuthi uhambisane nazo zonke izindlela zokuphepha ngaphezu kokuba ngokusemthethweni eSpain, ngoba akukho emthethweni ukukhiqiza le biofuel.

Okokuqala kukho konke ukuqala ukuhlola ngelitha likawoyela omusha ngoba lokhu kulula kakhulu kunowoyela osetshenzisiwe, yize sihlose ukunika lo oyili wokugcina ukusetshenziswa kwesibili. Lapho usuphethe uwoyela omusha ungadlulela kumafutha asetshenzisiwe futhi okudingayo manje i-blender, khumbula ukuthi ngeke ukwazi ukuyisebenzisela enye into ngakho-ke i-blender kufanele ibe ngenye yamadala eshibhile.

Inqubo

Njengoba sishilo phambilini, i-biodiesel itholakala emafutheni wemvelaphi yemifino evela endaweni yokubuka yamakhemikhali eyaziwa njenge triglycerides

Ngayinye yama-molecule e-triglyceride yakhiwa ngama-molecule ama-fatty ama-3 axhunyaniswe nemolekyuli ye-glycerin.

Ukuphendula okuhlosiwe (okubizwa ukuguqulwaekwakhiweni kwe-biofuel yethu ukwehlukanisa lawa mafutha e-glycerin asisiza nge-catalyst, kungaba yi-NaOH noma i-KOH, futhi ngaleyo ndlela sikwazi ukuhlanganisa nokuhlanganisa ngamunye wabo kwi-molecule ye-methanol noma i-ethanol.

Imikhiqizo edingekayo

Omunye wemikhiqizo esizoyisebenzisa ngotshwala. Lokhu kungaba njalo i-methanol (lokho kwakha ama-methyl esters) noma ethanol (okwakha ama-ethyl esters).

Lapha kuvela inkinga yokuqala ngoba uma ukhetha ukwenza i-biodiesel njenge-methanol, ngizokutshela ukuthi awukwazi ukwenza lokhu okuzenzela ngoba okutholakalayo kuvela kugesi wemvelo.

Kodwa-ke, i-ethanol ingakhiqizwa ekhaya futhi okutholakalayo kuvela ezitshalweni (okusele ngamafutha).

Amathini amakhemikhali

Okubi wukuthi ukwenza i-biodiesel nge-ethanol kunzima kakhulu kune-methanolngokuqinisekile akuyona eyabaqalayo.

Kokubili i-methanol ne-ethanol zinobuthi okufanele uhlale ukukhumbula njalo.

Angamakhemikhali anobuthi angakuphuphuthekisa noma akubulale, futhi njengokuwuphuza, futhi kuyingozi ngokuwungenisa ngesikhumba sakho nokuphefumula umusi wawo.

Ukuhlolwa kwasekhaya ungasebenzisa i-barbecue fuel equkethe i-methanol yize kufanele ukhumbule ukuthi i- izinga lobumsulwa kumele okungenani libe ngama-99% futhi uma iqukethe enye into ngeke yenze noma yini efana ne-ethanol ekhonjisiwe.

IsikhuthaziNjengoba sishilo, zingaba yi-KOH noma i-NaOH, i-potassium hydroxide ne-caustic soda ngokulandelana, okutholakala kalula kunenye.

Njenge-methanol ne-ethanol, i-soda ingathengwa kalula kepha kunzima ukuyiphatha kune-potassium hydroxide, enconyelwa kakhulu abaqalayo.

Zombili ziyi-hygroscopic, okusho ukuthi zimunca kalula umswakama ovela emoyeni, zinciphise amandla azo okuvuselela ukusabela. Kufanele zigcinwe njalo ezitsheni ezivalwe ngosimende.

Inqubo iyafana ne-KOH ne-NaOH, kepha inani kufanele liphindwe izikhathi eziyi-1,4 (1,4025).

Ukuxuba i-methanol ne-potassium hydroxide kwakha i- i-sodium methoxide ebola kakhulu futhi edingekayo ekukhiqizeni i-biodiesel.

Nge-methoxide, sebenzisa iziqukathi ezenziwe nge-HDPE (i-high-density polyethylene), ingilazi, insimbi engagqwali, noma enameled.

Izinto zokwakha (konke kufanele kuhlanzeke futhi kome)

  • Ilitha elilodwa lamafutha emifino amasha, angaphekiwe.
  • 200 ml we-99% we-methanol emsulwa
  • I-Catalyst, engaba yi-potassium hydroxide (KOH) noma i-sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
  • Isixubeki esidala.
  • Ibhalansi ne-0,1 gr yesinqumo (kungcono namanje ngesisombululo esingu-0,01 gr)
  • Ukulinganisa izingilazi ze-methanol namafutha.
  • Isiqukathi selitha esingu-litre esimhlophe esiguquguqukayo nesikulufi.
  • Imingcele emibili engena emlonyeni wesitsha se-HDPE, eyodwa eye-methanol nenye ye-catalyst.
  • Ibhodlela le-PET lamalitha amabili (amanzi ajwayelekile noma ibhodlela le-soda) lokuthambisa.
  • Amabhodlela epulasitiki ama-PET amabili amalitha amabili okuwasha.
  • I-Thermometer

Ukuphepha, kubaluleke kakhulu

Ngalokhu kufanele sinake izindlela zokuphepha eziningana kanye nezinto zokuvikela ezifana nalezi:

  • Amagilavu ​​angamelana nemikhiqizo esizoyiphatha, lawa kufanele abe made ukuze amboze imikhono futhi izingalo zivikeleke ngokuphelele.
  • Iphinifa nezingilazi zokuvikela ukumboza umzimba wonke.
  • Hlala unamanzi agelezayo lapho uphatha le mikhiqizo.
  • Indawo yokusebenza kufanele ibe nomoya owanele.
  • Ungaphefumuli amagesi. Kulokhu kukhona amaski akhethekile.
  • Akunakubakhona abantu abangaphandle kwenqubo, izingane, noma izilwane ezifuywayo eziseduze.

Ungakwazi ukudala i-biodiesel kunoma yiliphi ikhaya?

Ukungeza ihlaya kancane ebucayi obungaka ochungechungeni oluthi "La que se avecina" kupenda kulula kakhulu ngegama elithi "ukundiza okuyi-gerund" kepha empeleni akulona neze, ngaphandle kokuba yingozi kakhulu, nokuthi une kubonakale kuyisisekelo, izinto zokwakha.

Ngaphandle kokunikeza imiyalo eminingi eningiliziwe, ngiyakuqinisekisa ukuthi luselude ukhalo okusazokwenziwa ukwenza i-biodiesel kusukela okokuqala ukuhlunga uwoyela okusetshenzisiwe (okunguyena osithandayo), lapho-ke kuzofanele sakhe i-sodium methoxide, senze ukusabela okudingekayo, senze ukudluliswa nokwehlukaniswa.

Ngokunjalo, kufanele sihlole ikhwalithi yomkhiqizo owenziwe ngesivivinyo sokuwashwa bese ekugcineni soma.

I-biodiesel eyenziwe ekhaya eSpain

Ngaphandle kwezinzuzo i-biodiesel engaziveza, ku ISpain njengamanje ayikho emthethweni ukuyifaka ekhaya.

Amanye amazwe ayakuvumela ukukhiqizwa kwale biofuel futhi athengise nezinto zokukhiqiza ukuze noma ngubani onezinyathelo zokuphepha ezifanele akwazi ukuzenza.

Ukukhiqizwa kwe-biodiesel eyenziwe ekhaya

Ngokwami, nazi izinto ezi-2 zokungekho emthethweni kwe-biodiesel eyenziwe ngokwenza.

Okokuqala ukuthi iSpain iyasikhathalela futhi bavimbele ukwenziwa kwayo ngenxa yobungozi bayo lokhu kuhilela lapho usingatha amakhemikhali ayingozi.

Okwesibili ukuthi iSpain ayinandaba nokuthi noma yisiphi isakhamuzi singakhiqizela ama-biofuels Izintshisekelo zezomnotho.

Kunoma ikuphi, ngokungangabazeki limele ukubopha okuya ekushintsheni kwamandla okungenzeka.


Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.