Amandla egesi yemvelo nawo aveza ukungcola

Ukuxhashazwa kwegesi

La amandla kagesi wemvelo ibonwa ngamehlo amahle kwazise imayelana uphethiloli ohlanzekile kakhulu ngaphezu kwamalahle futhi kwesinye isikhathi kusetshenziswa esikhundleni salo semvelo.

Kodwa leli gama elihle alilona iqiniso kangako njengoba kubonakala ngokwemibiko nemibiko eyahlukahlukene, lapho kuchazwa khona ukuthi amandla aqhamuka kwigesi yemvelo akhiqiza kanjani ukungcola okukhulu lapho kwenziwa inqubo yokukhishwa kwawo. Kungesikhathi lapho kusha khona inqubo yomlilo kucace bha ngoba ukukhishwa kwalo kwegesi kuphansi ngaleso sikhathi.

Kufanele uqaphele nge imikhiqizo ethile yaziswa kanjani, ngoba akusona kuphela isigaba sokugcina lapho ukungcola kukhiqizwe khona akubonakali, kodwa kuyo yonke inqubo. I-Fracking noma i-hydraulic fracturing ilapho kanye lapho khona isikhathi sayo esingcolisa kakhulu.

I-Fracking iqukethe ekwakheni izikhala emadwaleni ukuze ingxenye yegesi igeleze iye ngaphandle futhi ingakhishwa kangcono ngokuhamba kwesikhathi emthonjeni. Ngaphezu kwalokho, inkinga ngalolu hlelo ukuthi kusetshenziswa amakhemikhali kule ngxenye yokukhiqiza ekhishelwa emoyeni.

Enye yezinkinga ezinkulu ukuthi kungcolisa amanzi okuphuza angaphansi komhlaba futhi kubangela ukukhishwa okukhulu kwe-CO2 ne-methane, okonakalisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke nokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. Ngenxa yokungcoliswa kwamanzi okuphuza angaphansi komhlaba, kwenzeka ukuthi impilo yabantu eseduze kwamachibi ibiwohloka kakhulu ngaphandle kwaleyo mfucuza eya emoyeni.

Amafutha ezimbiwa phansi

Amalangabi egesi emvelo

Igesi yemvelo inguphethiloli wezinsalela, yize kukhishwa umhlaba kusuka emlilweni wayo ababona iningi yenkinga yokuthi uma ibangela amalahle noma uphethiloli.

Kukhiqizwa igesi yemvelo Amaphesenti angama-50 kuya kwangama-60 ngaphansi kwe-CO2 lapho icinywa esitshalweni esisha samandla kagesi wemvelo uma kuqhathaniswa nokukhishwa okujwayelekile okuvela esitshalweni samalahle. Kuphinde kunciphise amagesi akhishwe emkhathini ngamaphesenti ayi-15 kuya kwangama-20 uma kuqhathaniswa nalawo adalwa injini kaphethiloli emotweni.

Lapho yebo lokho ukukhishwa kwayo kutholakala ekukhipheni nasekubheni igesi igesi yemvelo evela emithonjeni kanye nokuthuthwa kwayo ngamapayipi okuholela ekuhluzweni kwe-methane, igesi elinamandla amakhulu kune-CO2. Ucwaningo lokuqala lubonisa ukuthi ukukhishwa kwe-methane kungamaphesenti ayi-1 kuye kwayisi-9 wokukhishwa okuphelele.

Ukungcola emoyeni ngokukhiqiza amandla avela kwigesi yemvelo

Ukungcola

Kusho igesi yemvelo amandla omlilo wokuhlanza ukwedlula amanye amandla okubasa, njengoba ikhiqiza inani elincane lesibabule, i-mercury nezinye izinhlayiya. Ukushisa igesi yemvelo kukhiqiza i-nitrogen oxide, yize isemazingeni aphansi kunophethiloli nodizili osetshenziswa ezinjinini zemoto.

Imizi eyi-10.000 XNUMX yaseMelika esebenza Ngegesi yemvelo esikhundleni samalahle, igwema ukukhishwa kwaminyaka yonke kwamathani ayi-1.900 3.900 we-nitrogen oxide, amathani angu-2 5.200 ama-SOXNUMX namathani ayizinkulungwane ezingama-XNUMX ezinhlayiya. Ukunciphisa lokho kukhishwa kuba izinzuzo zezempilo zomphakathi, njengoba lezo zingcolisi zixhunyaniswe nezinkinga ezifana nesifuba somoya, i-bronchitis, umdlavuza wamaphaphu, nokuningi.

Yize zikhona lezi zinzuzo, ukuthuthukiswa kwegesi engajwayelekile kungakwazi kuthinta ikhwalithi yomoya yasendaweni neyesifunda. Ukugxila okuphezulu kokungcola komoya kuke kwenzeka kwezinye izindawo lapho kubhola khona.

Ukuchayeka emazingeni aphezulu alezi zingcolisi kungakwazi ukukhuthaza izinkinga zokuphefumula, izinkinga zenhliziyo nomdlavuza.

Ukuthwebula

Umdwebo we-Fracking

Umfutholuketshezi fracturing kuyinto inqubo yokwandisa ukukhishwa kukawoyela negesi ngaphansi komhlaba. Kusukela ngo-1947, kube khona ukuphuka kwemithombo okungaba yizigidi ezi-2,5 emhlabeni jikelele, kufaka isigidi esisodwa e-United States.

Le ndlela iqukethe yenza isiteshi esisodwa noma eziningi zokuvumela okuphezulu ngokusebenzisa umjovo wamanzi anomfutho ophakeme, ukuze kunqobe ukumelana nedwala futhi kuvule ukuphuka okulawulwayo ezansi nomthombo, esigabeni esifiselekayo se-hydrocarbon equkethe ukwakheka.

Ukusetshenziswa kwale ndlela kuvumele ukukhiqizwa kukawoyela kuzokhuphuka ngo-45% kusukela ngo-2010, okwenze iMelika yaba ngumkhiqizi wesibili ngobukhulu emhlabeni.

Kuyaziwa futhi ukuthi umthelela wezemvelo wale nqubo, okubandakanya ukungcoliswa kwama-aquifers, ukusetshenziswa kwamanzi okuphezulu, ukungcoliswa komoya, ukungcola komsindo, ukufuduka kwamagesi namakhemikhali asetshenzisiwe ngaphezulu, ukungcoliswa komhlaba ngenxa yokuchitheka, kanye nemiphumela yezempilo engaba khona etholakala kuwo.

Elinye lamacala abucayi kakhulu we-fracking yi- ukwanda kokuzamazama komhlaba, iningi lihlotshaniswa nomjovo oketshezi olujulile.

Ukungcoliswa kwama-aquifers

I-Aquifer

Ngokuqhekeka kwe-hydraulic komthombo kubangele ukuvuza kwamagesi, izinto zokukhipha imisebe kanye ne-methane ekuhlinzekelweni kwamanzi okuphuza.

Kunezimo ezibhaliwe zamanzi asemanzini aseduze nemithombo yegesi engcoliswe uketshezi lokuthosa kanye namagesi, kufaka phakathi imethane namakhemikhali e-organic aguquguqukayo. Enye yezimbangela ezinkulu zokungcola ukwakhiwa okwenziwe kabi noma imithombo edabulayo evumela igesi ukuthi ingene ku-aquifer.

Iziphuzo ezisetshenziswa ekuqhekekeni kwe-hydraulic nazo bafinyelele emithonjeni elahliwe, kanye nokunye okuvalwe ngokungafanele, okugcina kuholele ekutheni le mifula ingcoliswe.

Ukuzamazama komhlaba

Ukuqhekeka komgwaqo wokuzamazama komhlaba

I-Fracking ixhunyaniswe ne umsebenzi omncane wokuzamazama komhlaba, kodwa imicimbi enjalo ngokuvamile ayibonakali ebusweni.

Yize ukusetshenziswa kwamanzi angcolile lapho ujova ngomfutho ophakeme emithonjeni yomjovo wesigaba II kunakho kuxhunyaniswe nokuzamazama komhlaba okukhulu kakhulu e-United States. Okungenani isigamu sokuzamazama komhlaba okungu-4.5 noma ngaphezulu kuye kwahlasela ingaphakathi le-United States kule minyaka eyishumi eyedlule kwenzeke ezifundeni lapho kutholakala khona ukujija.

Ucwaningo olusha olushicilelwe ngo-2016 lwenziwa yithimba lososayensi bamatshe nokwakheka komhlaba kusuka eTexas Methodist University of South nase-United States Geological Survey, kukhombise ukuthi ukujova inani elikhulu lamanzi angcolile kuhlangene ukukhishwa kwe-brine emhlabathini ongaphansi emithonjeni Ukuphela kwegesi kwakuyimbangela enkulu yokuzamazama komhlaba okungama-27 okuzwiwe ngabantu base-Azle, eTexas, phakathi kukaDisemba 2013 nentwasahlobo ka-2014, lapho babengakaze bahlotshaniswe nokuzamazama komhlaba.

Imiphumela yayo engaba khona

Ngaphandle kokwanda kokuzamazama komhlaba, izinhlanganisela zamakhemikhali ezisetshenziswe kule ndlela zingakwazi kungcolisa kokubili umhlaba nemifula yamanzi ngaphansi komhlaba, ngokusho kweBrithani Royal Society ngo-2012.

Ungathola futhi amaphepha amathathu esayensi ashicilelwe ku-2013 aqondana ngokukhombisa lokho ukungcoliswa kwamanzi angaphansi komhlaba kusuka ku-fracking akunakwenzeka ngokomzimba. Okucacayo ukuthi ukuze kungenzeki, izindlela zokusebenza ezihamba phambili kufanele zihlale zenzeka. Kuyenzeka ukuthi lokhu kungenzeki ngaso sonke isikhathi, ngakho-ke kunenkinga enkulu yokungcolisa ama-aquifers angaphansi komhlaba.

Amadokhumentari ngamandla egesi yemvelo

I-Documentary Gasland

Kunemibhalo eminingana lapho kutholakala khona ukuphikiswa okucacile ukwenza ama-fracking njengeGasland kaJosh Fox. Kulokhu kuveze izinkinga zokungcola kwama-aquifers aseduze nemithombo yokukhipha ezindaweni ezinjengePennsylvania, Wyoming neColorado.

Into ehlekisayo ukuthi kwakuyimboni kawoyela negesi eyamukela lokho ubuze labo abaqoqwe kule filimu Fox ukuze iwebhusayithi yeGasland iziphikise izimangalo ezenziwe yiqembu lama-lobbyist.

Enye ifilimu ethokozisayo iZwe Lesithembiso., yethulwe nguMat Damon ngendaba yokuqhekeka kwe-hydraulic. Futhi ngo-2013, kwethulwe uGasland 2, ingxenye yesibili yombhalo lapho eqinisekisa khona isithombe sakhe somkhakha wegesi yemvelo, lapho ewethula njengendlela ehlanzekile nephephile kawoyela, kuyinganekwane ngempela. Ukuvuza kwesikhathi eside nokungcoliswa komoya namanzi ekugcineni kulimaza imiphakathi yendawo futhi kubeka isimo sezulu engcupheni ngenxa yokukhishwa kwe-methane, igesi enamandla abamba ukushisa.

Ifuna indawo yamandla kagesi wemvelo

Amapaneli elanga njengenye indlela yamandla kagesi wemvelo

Ngakho konke lokhu kushiwo, i igesi yemvelo ayihlanzekile kangako njengoba ibizamile ukukhombisa, kepha ekusebenzeni kwayo ikhiphela ukungcola emkhathini njengoba kwenzeka lapho inqubo ye-fracking isetshenziswa.

Yingakho kulula ukwazi iqiniso elizungeze amandla egesi yemvelo futhi qhubeka ucindezele kanzima eminye imithombo yamandla ahlanzekile ngokuphelele futhi asimeme ngokuhamba kwesikhathi njengomoya noma i-solar, okuyilapho okumele siye khona ukugcina le planethi iphephile futhi izwakala kahle.

Wonke lawo mafutha asuselwa ku- Nakanjani izinsalela zemvelo zisiholela kuleyo Ngqungquthela Yezulu yaseParis lapho amazwe amaningi kwakudingeka asebenzise izinqumo ezithile ukuze abeke ngonyaka ozayo lapho amandla avuselelekayo kufanele abe yinjongo enkulu.

Ngabe ufuna ukwazi ukuthi yini ama-boilers egesi emvelo futhi asebenza kanjani? Ungaphuthelwa le ndatshana:

I-athikili ehlobene:
Konke odinga ukukwazi ngama-boilers egesi yemvelo

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-15, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   UDiana Alvarez kusho

    U-Adriana ngiyithandile i-athikili yakho futhi ngifuna ukuyisebenzisela ithisisi yami, ungangidlulisela imininingwane yakho ukukukhomba kahle kanye nosuku oshicilele ngalo lesi sihloko. Ngiyabonga

  2.   I-Vicardiag kusho

    Amaklayenti amasha e-Fracking eChiapas, amabhasi ahamba ngegesi yemvelo, futhi bambalwa abaziyo umonakalo wezemvelo okubandakanya ezweni, yize uphethe i- "ECO" egameni layo. Ukwahlukaniswa umfutholuketshezi kuqeda imvelo yezwe lethu

  3.   umagab kusho

    Inkinga enkulu yamaqembu ezemvelo kuleli ukuntuleka koqeqesho lobuchwepheshe kanye nokuntuleka kobunzima bengqondo ezinkulumweni zabo. Kubalulekile ngaphambi kokubhekana nenqubo noma ukuxhashazwa kwensiza ethile, ukuyazi kahle, uma kungenjalo njengoba ngishilo phambilini, izimpikiswano azinakho ukuqina kobuhlakani ngakho-ke kwanoma yikuphi ukusebenza.
    Impikiswano iyadingeka impela, umphakathi kufanele wazi futhi intuthuko yamanje ayikwazi ukubeka engcupheni ukuthuthukiswa kwezizukulwane ezizayo, kepha ukungazi nokwesaba akukwazi ukumisa intuthuko yamanje.
    Ugesi wemvelo uma ushisiwe ukhiqiza u-1/5 wokukhishwa kwe-CO2 ukuthi lawo akhiqizwa ngamalahle avuthayo, impela ayihlanzekile ngo-100% kepha kuyindlela engcono kakhulu.
    Kungamanga ukuthi ukuqhekeka kwe-hydraulic kuyadingeka ekukhishweni kwegesi yemvelo, kungenzeka ngendlela ejwayelekile uma ichibi livumela, futhi lokhu kwenziwe kuze kube manje.
    Okokugcina, ukukhishwa kwe-methane okungalawuleki ngesikhathi sokukhiqizwa kwegesi yemvelo kuzanywa ukuncishiswa ngangokunokwenzeka, lokhu kuyaqondakala kalula, lapho inkampani ekhipha imali isebenzisa imali enkulu emthonjeni wokukhiqiza, into yokugcina eyifunayo yinto ocwaningweni lwakho izokubalekela. Noma kunjalo, kwesinye isikhathi akunakugwenywa, kepha ukunciphisa lokhu ezitshalweni zokukhiqiza kukhona izibani ezishisa i-methane ephunyukayo (eyingozi kakhulu futhi enomthelela wokushisa okushisa okuphindwe kasishiyagalombili kune-CO8) ku-CO2, onomphumela ophansi kakhulu wokushisa.
    Ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke kuyinkinga enkulu okufanele ibhekwe, futhi ukukhishwa kwamagesi abamba ukushisa emkhathini kufanele kuncishiswe ngangokunokwenzeka. Ngokwami, ngikholelwa kuguquko olubhekiswe emphakathini onamazinga aphansi nangaphansi okukhishwa kwekhabhoni kuze kufike ku-0. Kodwa lokho esikhathini esifushane kuyinkimbinkimbi futhi kubalulekile ukuba nobungqabavu empikiswaneni futhi ucabangele amamodeli athakazelisa kakhulu.
    Phendula ngokucaphuna

  4.   UCarlos Fabian kusho

    Manuel Ramirez ake ngikutshele ukuthi i-athikili yakho yinhle impela, bengicabanga ukuthi igesi "yemvelo" ayingcolisanga impela kepha sengiyabona manje ukuthi ihluke ngokuphelele, kubuhlungu ukuthi kunikelwa kanjani ngamanzi, ngalokhu.
    Uqinisile mayelana namandla omoya, kepha nalokhu nakho kunezibi ngoba uma bethola isikhathi eside sasebusika la mandla azophela, manje ngithanda ukukubuza ukuthi yiziphi ezinye izindlela ezingangcolisi esingazisebenzisa?

    1.    UManuel Ramirez kusho

      Siyabonga ngokuphawula kwakho Carlos!

  5.   u-maria morinigo kusho

    ukunakekela imvelo kukuzinakekela thina

  6.   Ukubonisana ne-QualityConsulting kusho

    Itimu enhle nephuzu elihle ... konke okuyizinsalela ngeke kuluhlaza

  7.   Brayan kusho

    Kuyiqiniso ukuthi yigesi yemvelo kepha ayinabungozi (yilokho abantu abakucabangayo). Kepha ngophethiloli wezinsalela okusho ukuthi usuphelile futhi ungcolile

  8.   UDanilo Martinez Olivo. kusho

    Ukushicilelwa kwe-athikili kuhle kakhulu. Ngibhalisela abambalwa abanentshisekelo «abavela emndenini womjaho», maqondana nomphumela wokushisa nokushisa kwesimo somhlaba okusithinta sonke futhi ekugcineni kuzosibulala ukuthi singakuyekeli ukufuna ukukhathazeka ngengcebo okungekho muntu ozokuthatha ithuna kodwa ukuthi yebo lizoshiya ngokubuyisela, ukubambisana kwalo kufake ubuthi emhlabeni. Lokhu kungenze ukuthi ngikhangise maduze nje iphrojekthi ebalulekile yokufaka ugesi eDominican Republic, ngiqale ngokuwa kwamahhala koLwandle lweCaribbean ngamandla adonsela phansi esigabeni sokuqala ngemigudu enezinjini eziphansi zokulwa nokugqwala, futhi ngomzuzwana isiteji esinamanzi alinganayo ngokungena ngegumbi elikhulu lomshini we-reverse osmosis, elibekwe echibini elikhulu lizokhiqiza leso sigaba sesibili. Amanzi avelayo asevele engamamitha angama-44 ngaphansi kogu lolwandle (esigodini saseLa Bahía de Neiba) azokwenziwa izimboni futhi asetshenziselwe ukusetshenziswa kanye nezimboni zezolimo kanye nama-chloride neminye imikhiqizo ezokhishwa yi-electrolysis efana negolide lamangqamuzana, njll. .

  9.   Alexander ocampo kusho

    Ngingathanda ukwazi ukuthi yimaphi kula magesi amabili, i-propane nemvelo, akhiqiza i-carbon monoxide eningi lapho eshile?
    Ngibuza ngoba ngihlala ngisebenzisa i-propane gas i-bottled futhi ngisanda kushintshela ekhaya igesi yemvelo.
    Selokhu ngashintsha ngasebenzisa igesi yemvelo, ngithole iphunga elithile elivuthayo elingenza ngibe nesiyezi, elingazange lenzeke lapho ngisebenzisa i-propane. Ngiyaqhubeka nokuqonda ukuthi c. ayinaphunga ... kukhona umuntu ongangisiza?

  10.   Joseph kusho

    Sawubona, unganginika imininingwane yakho ukuze ngikudlulisele engxenyeni yocwaningo lwami. Ngiyabonga

  11.   yeka ukubhema nge-laser malaga kusho

    Ibhulogi enentshisekelo. Ngifunda okuthile kuwo wonke amawebhusayithi nsuku zonke. Kuhlala kujabulisa ukukwazi ukufunda okuqukethwe abanye ababhali. Ngingathanda ukusebenzisa okuthile kokuthunyelwe kwakho kuwebhusayithi yami, ngokwemvelo ngizoshiya isixhumanisi, uma ungivumela. Siyabonga ngokwabelana.

  12.   ULuis Antonio Riaño kusho

    Sawubona ngenza uphenyo ngokungcoliswa kwegesi yemvelo futhi ne-athikili yakho ngiyithandile, unganginika imininingwane yokubhekisisa uphenyo lwami.
    I-gracias

  13.   zaid kusho

    kulungile dick bekungasizi ngalutho kimi: v

  14.   UMARITZA MORALES kusho

    Manuel Ramírez, ngiyithandile i-athikili yakho ethi "igesi yemvelo nayo ikhiqiza ukungcola" futhi ngiyithandile futhi ngifuna ukuyisebenzisela ithisisi yami, ungangidlulisela imininingwane yakho ukuze ikukhombe kahle kanye nosuku owashicilela ngalo lo mbhalo. Ngiyabonga

i-bool(iqiniso)