Izingxenye zesitshalo

ukuhluma

Abantu abaningi bangakwazi ukubona okuyinhloko Izingxenye zesitshalo njengoba kukhona ama-electron anesihlahla se-polar kunoma yisiphi isitshalo. Nokho, kungenzeka ukuthi hhayi eyodwa ngayinye zonke izingxenye zesitshalo ngokhonkolo nangemininingwane.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela lesi sihloko ukuze sikutshele ukuthi yiziphi izingxenye eziyinhloko zesitshalo ngokuningiliziwe nokuthi yiziphi imisebenzi yazo ngayinye yazo.

Izingxenye zesitshalo

izingxenye zesitshalo ezichazwe

Uma sifingqa ukuthi yiziphi izingxenye eziyinhloko zesitshalo, singasho ukuthi yilezi ezilandelayo:

  • Isiqu
  • Ifa
  • Kushiya
  • Flor
  • Izithelo

Lokhu kuvame ukuhlukanisa cishe wonke umuntu. Nokho, izici zengxenye ngayinye yesitshalo azaziwa kabanzi ngale mininingwane ngendlela evamile. Sizobhala ngamunye ngamunye ukuthi yiziphi izingxenye zesitshalo.

Isiqu

izingxenye zesitshalo sasendlini

Isiqu ingxenye yasemoyeni yesitshalo, futhi omunye wemisebenzi yaso uwukuhlinzeka ngokusekela kanye nesakhiwo, ukusekela ezinye izitho zaso zezitshalo ngaphezu komhlabathi, njengamaqabunga nezimbali. Esinye isici sayo esiyinhloko ukuthi ibonisa i-geotropism engalungile, okusho ukuthi ikhula ibheke kolunye uhlangothi lwamandla adonsela phansi. Nakuba sishilo ukuthi kuyingxenye yasemoyeni yesitshalo, iqiniso liwukuthi kunezinhlobo eziningana zeziqu kanye nemisebenzi yazo:

Iziqu zingahlukaniswa ngezindlela ezahlukene, kodwa ngokuvamile zihlukaniswa ngokusekelwe endaweni ezitholakala kuyo, ngaleyo ndlela zihlukanise phakathi kweziqu ezingaphansi komhlaba kanye nezasemoyeni.

  • Iziqu ezingaphansi komhlaba zihlukaniswe zibe izilimo eziyizigaxa, ama-rhizomes nama-bulb.
  • Iziqu zasemoyeni Angahlukaniswa abe yiziqu eziqondile, ama-stolons, iziqu ezikhuphukayo kanye neziqu ezisontekile, kodwa kukhona neziqu ezikhethekile ezifana ne-prickly, stoloniferous noma i-tendril.

Njengoba sishilo, omunye wemisebenzi emibili eyinhloko yesiqu ukusekela yonke ingxenye esemoyeni yesitshalo. Okunye ukuthuthwa kwemisoco kanye nezinto ngaphakathi kwesitshalo. Kusukela ezimpandeni, lokho okubizwa ngokuthi ubisi oluluhlaza lukhuphukela eshubhuni ye-stem luye emaqabunga, lapho lunothiswe ngesikhutha futhi lukhiqize ubisi olucolisekileyo, okuwukudla kwesitshalo.

Ifa

Izimpande zibonakala kalula ezitshalweni eziningi. Se iphathelene nengxenye enamagatsha evame ukutholakala ngaphansi komhlaba. Isiza ukondla isitshalo ngemisoco evela emhlabathini. Ziyisitho sokuqala izitshalo ezikhula ngaso lapho zihluma. Kungashiwo ukuthi izimpande ziyingxenye ebaluleke kakhulu yesitshalo. Kunezinhlobo ezahlukene zezimpande futhi zingahlukaniswa ngokuhlukile kuye ngokuthi ihange esinikezwa yisitshalo, ukuma kanye nesiqondiso sokukhula.

Izimpande zinomsebenzi obaluleke kakhulu esitshalweni. Ake sibone ukuthi iyini imisebenzi eyinhloko yezimpande:

  • Njengoba sishilo, omunye wemisebenzi eyinhloko yezimpande ukumunca amanzi nezakhamzimba ngezinwele ezincane ezimuncayo abanazo, ukuze bese bedlulisela ukudla esiqwini kuso sonke isitshalo.
  • Omunye umsebenzi abawufezayo iwukugxilisa sonke isakhiwo sesitshalo phakathi, kungaba ngezimpande ezibambeke ngokujulile ezingaphansi komhlaba, noma izimpande zasemoyeni ezibambelele kwezinye izitshalo noma izindawo.
  • Ezinye izimpande zine amandla okwenza i-photosynthesize noma zinamathela kwezinye izitshalo ukuze zimunce imisoco yazo.

Kushiya

ukukhula kwezitshalo

Amaqabunga angenye yezingxenye ezibonakala kakhulu kunoma yisiphi isitshalo, zikhona cishe kuzo zonke izitshalo naphezu kokuhlukahluka kwazo, ubukhulu kanye nemibala, ngaphezu kwalokho, amaqabunga ezitshalo anemisebenzi ebalulekile efana ne-photosynthesis njll.

Ziyizitho zezitshalo, ngokuvamile zizacile kakhulu futhi ziluhlaza ngombala, ezimila emahlumela noma iziqu zezitshalo. Zingahlukaniswa ngezindlela eziningi ezahlukene: ngokuvumelana petioles, emaphethelweni, izimbambo ngisho shape. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukuhlukaniswa kwaso okuyisisekelo kusekelwe ekutheni isitshalo sigcina amaqabunga aso unyaka wonke futhi awaboli, noma uma ewalahlekela ezinyangeni ezibandayo futhi avuthuluka.

Amaqabunga ikakhulukazi enza imisebenzi emithathu:

  • Zenza i-photosynthesis ukuze zithole amandla amakhemikhali emisebeni yelanga.
  • Zivumela izitshalo ukuthi ziphefumule futhi zishintshane ngamagesi ebusuku.
  • Bajuluka, bavumela amanzi engeziwe ukuba ageleze phakathi kwabo.

Izikhukhula

Ezitshalweni eziningi, imbali iyingxenye ekhanga kakhulu kubantu, futhi inesibopho sokuzala kwesitshalo. Izimbali zivame ukuba nombala ogqamile ngenxa yalesi sizathu: ukuheha izinambuzane ezimpova. Kodwa noma kunjalo, zonke izitshalo zizalana ngezimbali.

Kunezinhlobo eziningi zezimbali ezishiyanayo ngobukhulu, umbala, ukuma, nephunga. Izimbali zine-calyx, i-corolla, i-stamens, imicu nama-pistils. Impova ikhona kuma-stamens (izitho zobulili zesilisa zezitshalo), futhi inqubo yokukhiqiza izitshalo ezintsha yenzeka lapho impova ithuthelwa kuma-pistils ezitho zabesifazane.

Izithelo

Akuzona zonke izitshalo ezithela izithelo, kodwa lezo ezizala ngembewu zivame ukuthela izithelo. Lapho imbali isivundisiwe, ikhiqiza imbewu eyakha izithelo ezizungezile. Njengamahlamvu nezimbali, kunezinhlobo eziningi zezithelo noma imifino. Noma yisiphi isithelo ojwayele ukusidla siyisithelo sesitshalo noma sesihlahla, kodwa kanjalo izithelo esizidla njengamantongomane.

Umsebenzi wesithelo uvame ukuvikela imbewu ngenkathi kusiza ukuhlakazeka kwayo ngokusebenzisa umsebenzi wezilwane, okudla isithelo futhi ubeke imbewu kwenye indawo, ngaleyo ndlela kube lula ukuzala kwezinhlobo.

Imbewu ibalulekile ezitshalweni kusukela ngazo zingathuthukisa izakhi zazo zofuzo. Kunezinhlobo eziningi: ezinamaphiko, ezincane kunekhanda likaphini, ubukhulu bebhola lethenisi ... Ukuze kuhlume, kubalulekile ukuthi izimo zilungele uhlobo ngalunye. Ngakho-ke, uma, ngokwesibonelo, kuvela endaweni lapho ubusika bubanda kakhulu, ukuze bahlume kuzodingeka ukuthi amazinga okushisa abe phansi.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nezingxenye zesitshalo esinezici zaso.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

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