Hydroponic zvirimwa, ndezvipi uye maitiro ekugadzira imwe pamba

zvirimwa zvinorimwa zvisina ivhu

Hydroponic zvirimwa zvirimwa izvo anozivikanwa nekushayikwa kwevhu uye dzinobuda seimwe nzira yekurima kwechinyakare.

Chinangwa chikuru che hydroponic zvirimwa kubvisa kana kudzikamisa izvo zvinodzikamisa kukura kwekukura izvo zvinoenderana nehunhu hwevhu, kuitsiva nedzimwe tsigiro dzekurima uye kushandisa dzimwe nzira dzakasiyana dzekusangana.

Zita rezvirimwa izvi rinopihwa zita rekuti hydroponics, inova rutsigiro rwekupinda senge peat, jecha, mavhu midzi yechirimwa yakaturikwa mumushonga unovaka muviri pachawo.

Izvi zvinokonzeresa kuti mhinduro igare ichidzokororwa, ichidzivirira iyo anaerobic maitiro ayo anogona kukonzera kufa kwekukurumidza kwetsika.

Uyewo zvirimwa zvinogona kuwanikwa mukati mekamuri yePVC kana kubva kune chero chinhu chakapwanywa madziro (nenzira iyo inoiswa zvirimwa), mune iyi nyaya midzi iri mumhepo uye ichakura murima uye mhinduro yehutano inogovaniswa nenzira yepakati kana yakaderera yekumanikidza kumwaya.

hydroponically yakakura zvirimwa muPV

Kutenda kuongororo yezvemamiriro ekunze akaitwa mumakore achangopfuura paivhu uye pamusoro pemvura nekuyerera kana kubva muchiitiko chekurima pachayo pamhepo, tinogona kuona kuti hydroponic zvirimwa kana zvirimwa zvisina ivhu vane hunhu hwakasiyana kwazvo zvichienzaniswa nezvirimwa zvechivanhu akadai se:

  • Iko kugona kwekugamuchira marara uye ne-zvigadzirwa kuti zvishandiswe seyekurima substrates.
  • Kudzora kwakasimba kwemvura yako wega uye chikafu chemuviri, kunyanya kana uchishanda nemahurongwa akavharwa.
  • Izvo hazvidi nzvimbo hombe, ndosaka zvichinyanya kubatsira kubva pakuona kwezvehupfumi.
  • Inopa iyo midzi neyakaenzana mwero wehunyoro nguva dzese, zvisinei nemamiriro ekunze kana danho rekukura rechirimwa.
  • Inoderedza njodzi yekudiridza kwakanyanya.
  • Dzivisa marara asina basa emvura nefetiraiza.
  • Inoona kudiridza munzvimbo yese yemidzi.
  • Iyo inoderedza zvakanyanya matambudziko ezvirwere zvinokonzerwa nehutachiona hwevhu.
  • Wedzera goho uye uvandudze mhando yekugadzira.

Zvisinei, zvirimwa zverudzi urwu gadzira akateedzana ezvinosvibisa, kunyanya izvo zvinopindirwa nemaindasitiri, zvichibva ku:

  • Nutrient leaching mune yakavhurika masystem.
  • Kuraswa kwemarara.
  • Iko kuburitswa kwezvigadzirwa zvehuswa uye magasi.
  • Kuwedzerwa simba kwesimba semhedzisiro yekudziya chaiyo uye masisitimu ekugadzirisa.

Mhando dze hydroponic zvirimwa

Nutrient Firimu Technique (NFT)

Iyo nzira yekugadzira muzvirimwa zvisina ivhu uko mhinduro yezvinovaka muviri inodzokororazve.

NFT yakavakirwa pane iyo kuenderera kana kupindirana kwekutetepa kwetepa rakapetana remushonga wemuviri kuburikidza nemidzi yechirimwa, pasina izvi kunyudzwa mune chero substrate, nekudaro zvinotsigirwa negero rekurima, mukati umo mhinduro inoyerera yakananga kumatanho ezasi negiravhiti.

NFT chirongwa

Sisitimu iyi inobvumira kuchengetedza kwemvura nesimba rakawanda pamwe nekunyatso chengetedza hutanho hwemiti uye zvakare inokwanisa kudzora ivhu uye inoona kumwe kufanana pakati pezvirimwa zvemiti.

Nekudaro, ongororo yekuparadzanisa kwekuvaka muviri inofanirwa kuitwa, pamwe neese mamwe mafizikiki emakemikari akadai sePH, tembiricha, hunyoro ...

Mafashama uye dhizaini system

Iyi sisitimu ine matireyi umo zvirimwa zvakasimwa zviri mune inert substrate (maparera, matombo, nezvimwewo) kana organic. Matareyi aya vakafashukirwa nemvura uye nemishonga mhinduro, iyo inosvinwa neiyo substrate.

Kamwe izvo zvinovaka muviri zvachengetwa, mataresi anodhonzwa uyezve kufashukirwa nemhinduro chaidzo.

Drip system ine Nutrition solution yekuunganidza

Izvo zvakafanana neyechinyakare kudonha kudiridza asi nemusiyano uyo zvakawandisa zvinounganidzwa uye zvakapomberwa kudzokera kutsika zvinoenderana nezvinodiwa zvakafanana.

Iko kuunganidzwa kweakawandisa kunogoneka nekuda kwekuti goho riri padanho.

DWP (Yakadzika Mvura Tsika)

Iyi ndiyo mhando yekurima yakanyanya kufanana neiyo yaishandiswa munguva dzekare.

Inosanganisira madziva ayo zvirimwa zvinoiswa mundiro, kusiya midzi ichisangana nemvura nemhinduro dzakawedzerwa. Kuva mvura inomira, inofanirwa kuiisa oxygenise uchishandisa mapombi akafanana neaya ari mugungwa.

Ezvakanaka mabhenefiti eiyo hydroponic inokura system

Isu tatoona zvakanakira hydroponic zvirimwa asi isu tinofanirwa zvakare kuona iyo ecological mabhenefiti avanogona kupa, senge:

  • Kusunungurwa kwekuvapo kwemasora kana zvipembenene mumiti yacho pachavo.
  • Mhando yekurima iyi inobatsira pakushandisa pane ivhu rakatosakara kana kushomeka nekuti rinofarira ivhu rese.
  • Sezvo zvisingatsamiri pamamiriro ekunze, saka inovimbisa mhando yemiti mukati megore.

Kupatsanura kwema substrates

Sezvandambotaura kare, kune akasiyana zvinhu zvekugadzira hydroponic chirimwa.

Sarudzo yakaitwa yechinhu chimwe kana chimwe inotariswa nezvinhu zvakati wandei sekuwanika kwayo, mutengo, chinangwa chekugadzirwa kwechirimwa chakataurwa, iyo yemuviri-kemikari zvivakwa, pakati pevamwe.

Aya ma substrates anogona kuiswa muzvikamu maumbirwo epasi (Kana zviri rwokuzvarwa mavambo, zviri kwetunhu, yakataurwa-zvinhu kana okurima, maindasitiri uye madhorobha tsvina) uye pane inorganic kana mineral substrates (yezvakazvarwa mavambo, akashandurwa kana kurapwa, uye maindasitiri marara kana ne-chigadzirwa-.

Organic substrates

Pakati pavo tinogona kuwana mhomho uye huni huni.

Mhomho

Izvo zvine zvisaririra zvemoss pakati pezvimwe zvinomera, izvo vari munzira yekunonoka kabhoni uye nekudaro kunze kwekusangana neoksijeni nekuda kwekuwandisa kwemvura. Semhedzisiro, ivo vanokwanisa kuchengetedza yavo anatomical chimiro kwenguva yakareba.

Panogona kuve nemhando mbiri dze peat, zvinoenderana nekwakatangira kugadzirwa kwayo, sezvo masara emiti anogona kuiswa munzvimbo dzakasiyana siyana.

Kune rimwe divi, isu tine iyo herbaceous kana eutrophic mhomho uye kune rimwe divi, tinazvo Sphagnum kana oligotrophic mhomho. Idzi dzekupedzisira ndidzo dzinonyanya kushandiswa nhasi, nekuda kwezvinhu zvavo zvehupenyu, zvetsika midhiya inokura muhari. Izvi zvinokonzerwa neakanakisa fizikiki-kemikari zvivakwa.

Zvisinei, uye kunyangwe paine makore angangoita makumi matatu mhomho dzave zvinhu zvinonyanya kushandiswa se substrates, zvishoma nezvishoma ivo vakatsiviwa nezvisingaite, izvo zvatinozoona pazasi.

Uye zvakare, akachengetedzwa erudzi urwu rwe substrate ane mashoma uye haakwidziridzike, saka kushandiswa kwawo mukuwandisa kunogona kukonzera kukosha kwakakomba kwenzvimbo.

Kuhukura kwehuni

Iri zita rinosanganisira ese emukati makwati uye ekunze makwati emiti.

Anonyanya kushandiswa ibark remapini, kunyangwe kuhukura kwemhando dzakasiyana dzemiti kunogona kushandiswa.

Kuhukura uku Vanogona kuwanikwa vatsva kana kuti vatove manyowa.

Iyo yekutanga inogona kukonzera kushomeka kwe nitrogen uye zvakare phytotoxicity matambudziko, nepo manyowa akaomeswa anoderedza aya matambudziko zvakanyanya.

Masimba ayo epanyama anoenderana nesaizi yechinhu, asi iyo porosity inowanzo pfuura 80-85%.

Inorganic substrates

Mune urwu rudzi rwe substrates tinogona kuwana dombo mvere, polyurethane furo, jecha perlite pakati pevamwe, izvo zvandisingataure zvakadzama, asi zvinopa kurohwa kudiki kuitira kuti iwe uve neruzivo pfungwa. Kana iwe uchida rumwe ruzivo usazeze kupindura.

Mvere dzematombo

Iyo indasitiri yakashandurwa mukugadzira. Iyo inonyanya kuve yealuminium silicate nekuvapo kwe calcium uye magnesium, pamwe chete nematanho esimbi uye manganese.

Kubatsira:

  • Yakakwirira yekuchengetedza mvura kugona.
  • Great aeration

Kukanganisa:

  • Zvinodikanwa zvekutonga kwakakwana kwehydric uye mamineral chikafu.
  • Kubviswa kwemasara.
  • Inogona kuve carcinogenic kunyangwe isina kutsigirwa nesainzi.

Polyurethane furo

Iyo ipurasitiki ine porous inoumbwa neyakaunganidzwa yemabhuru, inozivikanwawo nemazita akaunganidzwa efuro rabha muSpain.

Kubatsira:

  • Yayo hydrophobic zvivakwa.
  • Mutengo wayo.

Kukanganisa:

  • Kuraswa kwemarara, kungofanana nemvere dzematombo.

yekutengesa hydroponic inokura tireyi (kana kugadzira kumba)

Pearlite

Icho chinonzi aluminium silicate yemakomo anoputika.

Kubatsira:

  • Hunhu hwakanaka hwemuviri.
  • Inogonesa manejimendi manejimendi uye inoderedza njodzi dzekukachidzwa kana kushomeka kwemvura.

Kukanganisa:

  • Mhedzisiro yekudzikisira panguva yekurima kutenderera, kurasikirwa kwayo granulometric kugadzikana, iyo inogona kufarira kupomba kwemvura mukati memudziyo.

nhandare

Zvinyorwa zvehunhu hwakasarudzika uye musiyano wekuumbwa, zvinoenderana nezvinowanikwa padombo repakutanga resilicate.

Kubatsira:

  • Mutengo wakaderera munyika umo unowanikwa mune zvakawanda.

Kukanganisa:

  • Zvinetso zvinobva mukushandiswa kweimwe yakaderera mhando jecha

Kugadzirira kwemhinduro dzekudya

Kugadzirira kwemhinduro dzekudya zvinovakirwa pa yapfuura balance pakati zvinovaka muviri kubva pamvura yekudiridza uye nemitengo yakakwana yechirimwa ichocho.

Izvi zvinogadzirisa zvinogadzirisa inogona kugadzirirwa kubva kumasheya mhinduro, ine kusangana kwakapetwa ka 200 zvakapetwa pane mhinduro yekupedzisira kana kakapetwa ka1.000 XNUMX kukwirisa mune macroelements nema microelements zvakateedzana.

Uyezve, iyo pH yemhinduro idzi inogadziriswa pakati pe5.5 na6.0 nekuwedzera kwaNaOH kana HCl.

Maitiro ekugadzira imba hydroponic inokura system

Heano maitiro ekuvaka iri nyore hydroponic inokura system yemakumi maviri lettuces neNFT (zvinovaka muviri firimu nzira) iyo yatakaona kare.

Tinogona kuona kuti nemamwe maturusi epamba akagadzirwa uye zvakajairika zvinhu tinogona kuvaka yedu yega hydroponic tsika.

Cherekedza; vhidhiyo haina chero mimhanzi saka ndinokurudzira imwe kumashure mimhanzi track kuitira kuti iite senge inorema kuona.

Vhidhiyo iyi yakaitwa neFakisheni yeSainzi yeUNAM muHydroponics Workshop.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Makomendi gumi, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Katherine Hidalgo akadaro

    Mhoroi, ini ndakatozviona, asi mudzi weti letisi unogara uchishanduka shava kana kwapera mazuva gumi nemaviri lettuce yadyarwa, nei?

  2.   Izirayeri akadaro

    Iyi nyaya inonakidza kwazvo, ndakanyatsoishandisa pamba asi ndine dambudziko, tsamba dzangu dzinoreba, handizive kuti sei. Mumwe munhu aigona kundibatsira ??

    gracias