Insulation is a barrier that prevents undesirable air flow from outside to inside the house. Prevents heat from entering during the summer and escaping during winter. So whatever insulation it is, it is an important element to maintain a comfortable climate inside the house. Keeping the house warm during the winter means between 30 and 40 percent of the energy consumption of buildings in general, so reducing this consumption is within the EU's objectives for environmental sustainability.
The material to thermally insulate the house must be efficient, that is, sufficiently insulate the house so that its interior temperature does not depend on devices that consume electricity or that are used very little.
It must be innocuous, without toxicity levels or harmful emissions for the organism.
It must be durable, provide its benefits for many years and remain intact in inclement weather.
You must balance the indoor temperature of the house and its humidity in order to provide a comfortable environment.
Currently, the City Councils require an isolation chamber in walls, floors and ceilings to grant new construction permits and the regulations for its use are contemplated in the Technical Building Code in Spain.
The types of insulation that are usually used are glass wool, rock wool (the latter more durable and with better performance as an acoustic insulator, like polyurethane foam, and cellulose foam.
Foams are also used at the points of possible heat leakage during the winter months or cold during the summer months. These points can be on window frames, for example.
Thermal insulation in buildings
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