Izimbangela nemiphumela yokungcola kwenhlabathi

Ukungcoliswa kwenhlabathi

La ukungcoliswa kwenhlabathi noma ukuguqulwa kwekhwalithi yomhlaba kungenxa yezimbangela ezahlukahlukene futhi imiphumela yayo ivame ukudala izinkinga ezinkulu ezithinta izitshalo, izilwane noma impilo yabantu isikhathi eside.

Ngezolimo, kungenye yezindlela imvelo engalingani, engcolisa amanzi okuphuza noma amanzi okunisela, okusho ukuthi le nkinga ayikwazi ukuxazululwa ngaso sonke isikhathi futhi kwesinye isikhathi kuphela ingxenye yomonakalo engatholwa. Kepha,yini izimbangela ezifaka ukungcola kwenhlabathi futhi ingaxazululwa kanjani?

Izimbangela zokungcola kwenhlabathi

Ukungcoliswa kwenhlabathi namanzi ngokuchitheka kwabantu

Izimbangela zokungcola kwenhlabathi ziyahlukahluka, isibonelo izinto ezinobuthi ngaphansi komhlaba ezigcina zingcolise amanzi angaphansi komhlaba ezobe isetshenziselwa ukunisela, ukuphuza noma ukugcina usifake ushevu ngochungechunge lokudla. Inqubo ekwazi ukungcolisa thina singahlosile nakho konke okusizungezile, futhi inkinga enkulu ukuthi kuzothatha izizukulwane ezimbalwa ukulungisa lokho esikudalile kulo mzamo wokukhiqiza kakhulu ngaphandle kokucabanga ngalokho okuzolandela. .

Ukuxhumana nendawo engcolisiwe akuhlali kuqondile ngaso sonke isikhathi. Yilokho okwenzekayo lapho bengcwatshwa izinto ezinobuthi ngaphansi komhlaba futhi lezi zigcina zingcolise amanzi angaphansi komhlaba asetshenziselwa ukunisela, ukuphuza noma agcine esifaka ubuthi ngokusebenzisa i- uchungechunge lokudla, ngokudla inhlanzi, izinkukhu noma esinye isilwane esinegciwane.

amanzi angcolile avela emseleni wothando

Ukugcinwa kukadoti okuyiphutha, ukulahla ngamabomu noma ngengozi (njengenkampani i-Ercros eFlix), ukuqoqwa udoti ebusweni bayo noma ukungcwatshwa okufanayo (izindawo eziningi zokulahla udoti eSpain), kanye nokuvuza kwamathangi noma amadiphozi ngenxa yokonakala, ingqalasizinda empofu ngezinye zezimbangela zayo ezinkulu.

Imiphumela yokungcola kwenhlabathi

Futhi, asihlali lapha nje kuphela kusukela lapho uhlu lukhuliswa ngezinkinga "ezincane" njengokuvuza okukhipha imisebe, ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ezezimayini, imboni yamakhemikhali noma izinto zokwakha ezifanayo ezisetshenziswayo namuhla ngaphandle kokubona umthelela abanawo.

Ukulahlwa kwendle eSpain

Ukunakwa okuncane okukhokhwa yiSpain ekusetshenzisweni kabusha nokunakekelwa kwemvelo namuhla kuyimbangela yehlazo phambi kwe-European Union, kepha kusongela ukuthi umthombo wokuhlawuliswa usozigidi eminyakeni ezayo. IBrussels inezinhlelo ezinhle zokuphinda zisetshenziswe kabusha: ngo-2020, wonke amazwe angamalungu ayo kuzodingeka asebenzise kabusha u-50% wemfucuza yabo, futhi iKhomishini isizovuma ukufinyelela kuma-70% ngonyaka ka-2030. Kodwa-ke, iSpain ayikaze isetshenziswe namuhla I-33% yemfucuza yakho futhi ukuqhubeka kuncane. Ngisho nokulindela okuhle kakhulu akulindeli ukuthi izwe lethu lifeze imisebenzi yalo iminyaka emithathu kusukela manje.

kukhiqizwa izigidi zamathani kadoti wepulasitiki unyaka ngamunye

Isimemezelo sokuqala sokuvuka sesivele sifike ngesimo sokwahlulela okuphindwe kabili kweNkantolo Yezobulungiswa ye-European Union (CJEU), elahla iSpain ngobukhona nokushiya ngokuphelele i Ukulahlwa kwenhlabathi okungalawulwa okungama-88. Esokuqala sakhishwa ngoFebhuwari 2016 futhi sahlonza izindawo zokulahla imfucuza ezingama-27 ezazisasebenza noma zingavalwa ngemuva kokuvalwa. Owesibili ufike ezinsukwini ezimbalwa ezedlule wabeka umunwe wakhe kokunye ama-landfiles angama-61, ama-80% awo asatshalaliswa phakathi kweCanary Islands neCastilla y León.

Imfucuza enqwabelana emabhishi ahlukahlukene

Ngokusho kochwepheshe abehlukene, iziza zokulahla udoti ngamabhomu asalele isikhathi. Uma sezivaliwe, kufanele zilawulwe ngokwemvelo iminyaka engu-30, ukuqapha amanzi angaphansi komhlaba kanye nokukhishwa komkhathi, ngoba izinqubo zokubola azimiswa ngokuvala imbobo.

Ukuvaleka okuningi kwezomthetho kumbozwe ungqimba lwe-polyethylene engamamilimitha amathathu, ngesithiyo sobumba ezimweni ezinhle kakhulu, kepha kuvame ukubhobozwa ukunyakaza kwegesi nomhlabathi. «Ziyingozi emphakathini. Ukuphathwa kufihlwa ngemuva kokuthi iningi liqukethe imfucumfucu engena ngaphakathi, kepha qaphela kakhulu lokho kudilizwa kanye nezinto zokwakha, njenge-asbestos noma amapayipi okuhola, akhonjisiwe ziyi-carcinogenic»

Ukulahla ukungcoliswa kwenhlabathi nezinkinga eziza nakho

Ukuchitheka kwe-Ercros eFlix

Idamu laseFlix, esifundazweni saseCatalan iTarragona, selibone okungaphezulu kwekhulu leminyaka lokuchitheka nokungcola kwenhlabathi ngezinto ezingamakhemikhali eziphikelelayo, eziqoqayo nezinobuthi yinkampani yamakhemikhali yenkampani i-Ercros. Lokhu kuholele ekungcolisweni umfula ojwayelekile i-Ebro, kusuka lapho kuya emlonyeni.

Ukungcola kufaka phakathi izinsimbi ezisindayo njenge-mercury ne-cadmium, noma izinhlanganisela ezinobuthi futhi eziphikelelayo ze-organochlorine ezifana ne-hexachlorobenzene, ama-biphenyls (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) noma i-DDT nama-metabolites awo.

“I-Ercros, ethathwa njengesikhungo samakhemikhali esingcolisa kakhulu emfuleni i-Ebro, sekuneminyaka ilwa nokugwema ukukhokhela ukuhlanzwa komfula, okuwumthombo obalulekile wamanzi okuphuza. Imboni i-Ercros iseduze kwedolobha iFlix, elinikeza igama layo echibini elithintekile ukungcoliswa kwe-Ercros SA, okwakungu-Erkimia, lapho ikhiqiza futhi ithengise khona imikhiqizo eyisisekelo embonini yamakhemikhali neyemithi.

CO2

Uhlu olude

Ngeshwa, uhlu lude kakhulu, cishe alunamkhawulo. Singasho ezinye izimbangela eziningi ezibaluleke ngokulinganayo, njengezimayini (izinto ezifana ne-mercury, i-cadmium, ithusi, i-arsenic, ukuhola), imboni yamakhemikhali, ukuvuza okukhipha imisebe, ukusetshenziswa okunzima kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ukungcoliswa izinjini zomlilo, intuthu evela embonini, izinto zokwakha, ukushiswa kwamafutha ezinto ezimbiwa phansi (amalahle, uwoyela negesi), indle endala esesimeni esibi phakathi kwabanye.

izinga lomoya eBarcelona liyancipha ngenxa yokungcola okuvela ezimotweni

Siyabona ukuthi kunemithombo ehlukahlukene kakhulu yokungcola kwenhlabathi, izimbangela ezikhathini eziningi kunzima ukuzithola, ngoba ukungcola kungafinyelela ezitshalweni noma ezilwaneni noma, kungcolise amanzi ngezindlela eziningi ezahlukene, kodwa hhayi njalo zincane.

amanzi angcolile, izitshalo zokwelapha zisiza ukuxazulula inkinga

Eqinisweni elibuhlungu ukuthi kunezimbangela eziningi kakhulu, okuthi ngokujwayelekile kubangele ukungakhululeki ekuzameni ukuthola ukuthi ziyini, ngoba kuwumsebenzi onzima. Kunjengokungathi endlini yethu sinezindawo ezivuzayo ezingama-20 futhi besingakwazi ukubona ukuthi zikuphi nokuthi singaziqeda kanjani noma sizilungise kanjani. Inkinga yokuthi lapha akuyona indlu yethu, yiplanethi yethu uqobo esengozini

Enye yezinkinga ezinkulu ukuthi kunezimbangela eziningi kakhulu, okuthi ngokujwayelekile kubangele ukungakhululeki ekuzameni ukuthola ukuthi ziyini, ngoba kuwumsebenzi onzima. Kunjengokungathi endlini yethu sinezindawo ezivuzayo ezingama-20 futhi besingakwazi ukubona ukuthi zikuphi nokuthi singaziqeda kanjani noma sizilungise kanjani. Inkinga yokuthi lapha akuyona indlu yethu, yiplanethi yethu uqobo esengozini.

Izinhlobo zemfucuza

Imikhiqizo eyingoziImikhiqizo yokuhlanza, upende, imithi namabhethri inobuthi obukhulu. Le mikhiqizo idinga umkhankaso othile wokuqoqwa ongagcini ezindaweni zokulahla udoti ezingalawulwa lapho zingadala izinhlekelele zemvelo ngokungcolisa amanzi nenhlabathi.

Izitaki zingenye ye imikhiqizo enobuthi eyingozi kakhulu ngokuqukethwe kwayo kwe-mercury ne-cadmium. Lapho amabhethri esephelile futhi enqwabelene nokulahla udoti noma kushisiwe, i-mercury ivunyelwe ukubaleka, futhi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ingena emanzini. IMercury imuncwa yi-plankton ne-algae, kusuka kulokhu ukudoba futhi kusuka kulokhu kuya kumuntu. Iseli lebhathini lingangcolisa amalitha angama-600.000. wamanzi. Imithi inezinto ezinobuthi ezingangena nasezindaweni zokulahla udoti futhi zingene emanzini, ziyingcolise.

Imfucuza

  • Umsebenzi wasekhaya: udoti ovela emakhaya kanye / noma emiphakathini.
  • Izimboni: umsuka wayo ungumkhiqizo wenqubo yokukhiqiza noma yokuguqula impahla eluhlaza.
  • Wokungenisa izihambi: imfucuza evame ukuhlukaniswa njengemfucuza enobungozi futhi ingaba yinto ephilayo futhi engajwayelekile.
  • commercial: kusuka emibonisweni, emahhovisi, ezitolo, njll., Futhi ukwakheka kwayo kungokwemvelo, njengezinsalela zezithelo, imifino, amakhadibhodi, amaphepha, njll.
  • Imfucuza yasemadolobheni: okuhambelana nabantu, njengokungcola kwepaki nensimu, ifenisha yasemadolobheni engenamsebenzi, njll.
  • Ukungafuneki kwesikhala: iziphuphutheki nezinye izinto ezenziwe ngemvelaphi yomuntu okuthi, ngenkathi zisemhlabeni, zizobe seziqedile impilo yazo ewusizo.
I-athikili ehlobene:
Imfucuza yepulasitiki olwandle iyinkinga enkulu yemvelo

Imiphumela yokungcola kwenhlabathi

La ukungcoliswa kwenhlabathi imele uchungechunge lwemiphumela kanye nemiphumela eyingozi kokubili kumuntu, kanye nakwezitshalo nezilwane ngokujwayelekile. Izinhlobonhlobo zemithelela enobuthi incike kakhulu entweni ngayinye lapho impilo yomhlabathi yehliswe ngayo.

Okokuqala umphumela Lokhu kungcola kuthinta uhlaza, izitshalo zehlisiwe futhi izinhlobo zezinhlobo ziyancipha kakhulu, lezo ezisazosinda zizoletha izici ezibuthakathaka futhi inqubo yazo yemvelo izoba nzima.

Ukungcoliswa kwenhlabathi kuvimbela ukuthuthukiswa kwempilo ye imfuyoNgaphandle kokudla noma amanzi ahlanzekile, izinhlobo ziyathutha noma zihlushwe ukulimala okungenakulungiswa kulayini wazo wokuzala. Ngale nqubo ke lokho okubizwa ngokuthi "ukwehla kwezwe" ngakho-ke "ukulahleka kwenani lomhlaba”, Imisebenzi yezolimo iyama, izilwane ziyanyamalala nomhlaba awusizi ngalutho.

Ukulahleka kwekhwalithi yomhlaba kubandakanya uchungechunge lwemiphumela emibi esukela kuyo ukwehla ngamandla, njengoba sesishilo nje, ngisho nokungenzeki kokusetshenziswa ukwakha, ukuhlakulela noma, ngokulula nangokulula nje, ukwakha indawo enempilo.

udoti nemiphumela yawo

Imiphumela ingahlupheka buthule, kubangele ukugeleza okuqhubekayo kwezisulu, kungaba uhlobo lomuntu noma lwesilwane nolwezitshalo.

Isibonelo esicacile kwakuyisikhungo samandla enuzi saseChernobyl, noma esamuva kakhulu ukuvuza okukhipha imisebe kusitshalo seJapan de Fukushima, njengoba ukungcoliswa kwenhlabathi kuthinte ezolimo, imfuyo nokudoba. Sekutholakele ngisho imfucumfucu enemisebe ehlasela ugu kusuka eFukushima, ikakhulukazi olwandle olwandle kusuka ekuchithekeni okufanayo, ngokusho kwezifundo ezahlukahlukene ze-Institute of Industrial Sciences ze-University of Tokyo, i-University of Kanazawa kanye ne-National Research Institute.

ukuchitheka nokuzama ukukulawula

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kanye nokuwohloka okunengqondo komhlaba ngenxa yobumpofu besimo semvelo, imvamisa ukulahleka okungenakulungiseka, ukungcoliswa kwenhlabathi kusho Abosozigidi bayalahlekelwa ngokuvimbela ukuxhashazwa kwale ndawo yemvelo ngabantu bomdabu noma abatshalizimali bezimboni.

ukushiywa ngenxa yokungcola, injani i-chernobyl

IChernobyl eminyakeni engama-30 kamuva

Eminyakeni engama-30 kusukela kwengozi yenuzi yaseChernobyl, ubukhomanisi bawa, iSoviet Union yahlakazeka, futhi kwaba khona ngisho izinguquko ezimbili nempi esacashile nengakapheli e-Ukraine.

Ngokwesikhathi somlando, kubonakala sengathi umhlaba uguquke ngaphezu kokudingekile kusukela ngalolo suku olubuhlungu, lapho iqembu lochwepheshe laqhumisa ophendulayo ongunombolo wesine wesitshalo samandla UVladimir Lenin, ngaphandle kokuthi bebenza isivivinyo obekufanele siqinise ukuphepha kwabo.

Kepha ngemvelo - umoya, amanzi, inhlabathi kanye nakho konke okuhlala nokuzohlala kukho - kufana nokuthi izandla zewashi empeleni azinyakazi. I- Ukungcola kwenhlabathi ngemisebe kuthatha izinkulungwane zeminyaka ukwehlisa isithunzi. Ngakho-ke amashumi amathathu eminyaka ayilutho uma kukhulunywa ngenhlekelele enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni.

I-chernobyl namuhla (idolobha lomoya)

IChernobyl isekhona ezithelweni zasehlathini nasemakhowe, obisini nasemikhiqizweni yobisi, enyameni nasezinhlanzini, kukolweni. Ngokhuni olusetshenziselwa ukwenza umlilo nasemlotheni osele ngemuva kwalokho. Ngamanye amagama, empilweni yabo bonke abantu. Into efanelekile - nanamuhla - kungaba ukuya emakethe nge Ikhawunta ye-Geiger, leyo mishini emincane ebanga umsindo oshisayo lapho isondela emisebeni ye-radioactivity, ukwazi ukuthi ngabe imikhiqizo ozoyibeka etafuleni lakho inezinga elifanele lokuphepha ukungeniswa. 

Izilwane eduze kwesiteshi samandla enuzi saseChernobyl.

Izixazululo zokungcola kwenhlabathi

Ukuvimbela yiyona isisombululo esihle kunazo zonke, fundisa omncane ukufaka isandla. Ukusuka ekukhipheni udoti endaweni yakho ukuya ekubambeni iqhaza kumashayela wokuhlanza umphakathi.

ukuvuselelwa kwezingane, ukuvimbela yikho okungcono kakhulu ekulweni nokungcola emhlabathini

Kepha futhi kuyiqiniso ukuthi awukwazi njalo (futhi awufuni) ukugwema ukungcoliswa kwenhlabathi. Kwesinye isikhathi kuba nezingozi, okwenza kube nzima ukuzibamba, lapho kungenzeki.

Uma siya ngqo empandeni yenkinga, a ushintsho olukhulu kumodeli yokukhiqiza noma ukuvinjelwa kwemikhuba ethile njengomsebenzi wezimboni ezithile ezikhiqiza imfucumfucu enobuthi, ukukhishwa kwezimayini, ukusetshenziswa komanyolo wokufakelwa osuselwa ku-oyela.

Ngeshwa, lezi zinketho azilutho ngaphandle kwephupho. Ngakho-ke, ebusweni be fait accompli, izixazululo ziyafunwa ezisukela ekuhlanzeni indawo kuye ekuhlukanisweni okulula kwendawo eyonakele kanye ukuvinjelwa kokusetshenziswa kwayo kwemisebenzi ethile. Ezimweni ezinzima, njengeFukushima noma iChernobyl, izindawo ezithintekile azikulungele impilo yomuntu.

IChernobyl ngemuva kweminyaka engama-30

Futhi, njengoba ukungcoliswa komhlaba kuye kwanda emashumini eminyaka amuva nje ngenxa yezimboni nentuthuko yasemadolobheni, izixazululo zivela ngqo ekuphathweni kwale mithombo. Ngokujwayelekile, Izenzo zigxile ekwenzeni ngcono izitshalo ezivuselelwa kabusha ukunciphisa ukungcoliswa kwenhlabathi futhi, ngasikhathi sinye, namanzi, ngoba kugcina kungcolisile.

I-Ecovidrio nezinzuzo zokusebenzisa kabusha

I-bioremediation yenhlabathi isu elifuna ukubuyisa imvelo engcolisiwe kusetshenziswa izinto eziphilayo, ezinjengebhaktheriya, izitshalo, isikhunta ... Kuya ngohlobo lokungcola ofuna ukulwisana nalo, kuzosetshenziswa i-agent eyodwa nomphathi. Ukusetshenziswa kwayo kubanzi, kunemiphumela ethokozisayo enhlabathini engcoliswe yi-radioactivity noma, ngokwesibonelo, ngemisebenzi yezimayini.

Njengemikhuba emihle, ukuvuselelwa okwanele kwemfucumfucu nokwelashwa kwemfucuza, i- ukuqaliswa kwamandla avuselelekayo, ukwelashwa kwemfucumfucu yezimboni nezasekhaya noma ukukhuthazwa kwezolimo kwemvelo kungasiza ekugcineni inhlabathi ingenakho ukungcola. Gcina amanethiwekhi okuthuthwa kwendle esesimweni esihle futhi athuthukise ukuhlanzwa kwamanzi angcolile, kanye nokwelashwa kokukhishwa kwezimboni okubuyiselwa emvelweni.

amandla elanga nazo zonke izinzuzo zawo

Ezinye izixazululo ezingacatshangelwa kungaba:

Yiba nenethiwekhi enhle yezokuthutha zomphakathi

Abantu basebenzisa izimoto hhayi nje ukwenza kube lula, kepha futhi nangenxa yokuthi kunzima kangakanani ukuhamba ngezithuthi zomphakathi emadolobheni amaningi. Uma ohulumeni bebeka imali ezokuthutha zomphakathi ezisebenza kahle, abantu bayoba manqikanqika kancane ukuzisebenzisa

izithuthi zomphakathi eBarcelona

Usebenzisa izimoto ezisebenza ngogesi

Izimoto zikagesi sezivele zivame kakhulu emadolobheni futhi, ngoba zinikwa amandla kuphela ngogesi, azikhiphi noma yiluphi uhlobo lokungcola emvelweni. Ngenkathi i- ukuzimela kwakuyinkingaNamuhla, amabhethri emoto kagesi ahlala isikhathi eside, futhi kungenzeka ukuthola iziteshi zokushaja ezingxenyeni ezihlukene zedolobha.

Imoto kagesi nazo zonke izinzuzo ezibandakanya lokho

Gwema ukuthi imoto yakho igijime kakhulu uma ima

Isilinganiso ongasithatha njengamanje. Gwema ukuma lapho imoto yakho igijima, ngoba ngalezo zikhathi imoto isebenzisa inani elihle likaphethiloli, ngokukhishwa kwayo okuhlukile

Gcina imoto yakho isesimweni esihle

Imoto engasebenzi kahle ijwayele bangcolisa okuningi. Uma wenza isondlo esifanayo emotweni yakho, uqinisekisa hhayi nje kuphela ukugwema izinkinga zokusebenza, kodwa futhi unciphisa ukuphuma kwamagesi

izimoto zingcolisa amadolobha

Siza ukuvimbela ukugawulwa kwamahlathi

Ukugwema ukungcoliswa kwenhlabathi, izinyathelo zokugawulwa kwamahlathi kufanele zenziwe ngokushesha okukhulu. Tshala izihlahla. Ukuguguleka kwenhlabathi kubangelwa uma zingekho izihlahla zokuvimbela ungqimba oluphezulu lwenhlabathi ekuthwaleni yizinto ezahlukahlukene zemvelo, njengamanzi nomoya.

Khetha okuningi ngemikhiqizo ephilayo.

Akungabazeki ukuthi imikhiqizo ephilayo ibiza kakhulu uma iqhathaniswa namakhemikhali. Kepha ukukhetha kwemikhiqizo ephilayo kuzokhuthaza a ukukhiqizwa okungaphezulu kwezinto eziphilayo. Lokhu kuzokusiza ekuvimbeleni ukungcoliswa kwenhlabathi.

Izikhwama zepulasitiki

Sebenzisa izikhwama zendwangu. Gwema ukudla izikhwama zepulasitiki njengoba kuthatha isikhathi eside ukuba zihlakazeke. Ngenhlanhla njengoba kufanele bakhokhe ukusetshenziswa kwabo kwehle kakhulu.

kubangela ukungcola

Ukuhlunga okulungile kwemfucuza

Kuzofanele sihlukanise udoti ngokwendlela eyakhiwe ngayo:

  • Imfucuza yemvelo: yonke imfucuza yemvelaphi yezinto eziphilayo, eyake yaphila noma eyayiyingxenye yesidalwa esiphilayo, isibonelo: amaqabunga, amagatsha, amakhoba nezinsalela zokwenziwa kokudla ekhaya, njll.
  • Izinsalela ezingaphili: noma ikuphi ukungcola okungadalelwanga okwendalo, kwemvelaphi yezimboni noma kwenqubo ethile engeyona eyemvelo, isibonelo: ipulasitiki, izindwangu zokwenziwa, njll.
  • Izinsalela eziyingozi: noma imuphi udoti, noma ngabe ungowokudalwa ngokwemvelo noma cha, lokho kungaba yingozi engaba khona ngakho-ke kufanele uphathwe ngendlela ekhethekile, ngokwesibonelo: izinto zokwelapha ezithathelwanayo, imfucumfucu ekhipha imisebe, ama-asidi namakhemikhali abhubhisayo, njll.

 

 


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-15, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   UDalila Rolón del Puerto kusho

    Kuyathakazelisa kakhulu, kufundisa, kubonakala kimi ukuthi lo msebenzi kufanele waziswe ezikhungweni zemfundo, ngoba kulapho-ke lapho kufanele siphikelele ochungechungeni lwezimbangela nemiphumela! Ngiyabonga, kwenza kube lula kakhulu kimi ukuthola umuntu ongangisekela
    umsebenzi oqhubekayo wokuqwashisa.

    1.    UManuel Ramirez kusho

      Wamukelekile, Dalila!

  2.   lindokuhle kusho

    uhlanya kanjani 🙂

  3.   I-Celso kusho

    Sizoyibona imiphumela yesikhungo samandla enuzi saseFukushima esikhathini esizayo, futhi sizoba sibi impela. Konke ngokungalandeli izincomo zokuphepha. Elinye icala elibalulekile ukungcoliswa kwempilo yasolwandle ngokuchitheka kukawoyela. I-athikili enhle, iyadingeka ukuqwashisa kubantu.
    Phendula ngokucaphuna

    1.    UManuel Ramirez kusho

      Ngiyabona futhi! : =)

  4.   I-cony encane engaphezulu kusho

    Incazelo yakho iyathakazelisa kakhulu

    1.    UManuel Ramirez kusho

      Ngiyabonga! Ukubingelela okukhulu!

  5.   I-cony encane engaphezulu kusho

    Ngiyinikeza i-1000

  6.   Miguel kusho

    Ngiyabonga, ungisizile ngomsebenzi wami wesikole

  7.   sofi kusho

    Angizange ngithande

  8.   luismi kusho

    muhle kakhulu lo mbiko uqhubeke ukuze ubone ukuthi sonke singawazi yini ngomonakalo esiwudalayo

  9.   rosyela saldana villacorta kusho

    izimbangela zombiko yilezi:
    izinto ezinobuthi ngaphansi komhlaba
    ukuchitheka ngamabomu noma ngengozi
    ukuvuza okusebenzayo

  10.   rgqreg kusho

    Sawubona. incazelo enhle kakhulu ...

  11.   micha2012m kusho

    izimbangela zikhwehlela izilwane

  12.   Isondo elihlaza kusho

    Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi bayayifundisa kule ndatshana enhle, ukwenza kabusha kabusha kungagcina izintaba, amadolobha, imifula nezilwandle zethu.
    Kumele sigxilise imvelo yethu ukubaluleka kokuphinda kusetshenziswe kabusha.