Amandla kagesi waseSpain

Izwe lethu linamandla amakhulu kagesi kagesi, athuthukiswe ngesikhathi ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-100. Ngenxa yalokhu, njengamanje kunohlelo olukhulu, olusebenza kahle kakhulu lokuphehla ugesi.

Ngaphakathi kwamandla avuselelekayo asetshenziswe eSpain, i i-hydropower Yibuchwepheshe obuhlanganiswe kakhulu futhi obuvuthiwe, ngenxa yokusetshenziswa kwe-orography nokuba khona kwamadamu amaningi.

Amandla kagesi

Kunezinhlobo ezimbili zokuchazwa kokusetshenziswa kwamandla kagesi: eyokuqala, izitshalo zamanzi ezithatha ingxenye yokugeleza okugeleza emfuleni ziholele esitshalweni ukuthi zibe yi-turbine bese kuthi kamuva babuyela emfuleni.

Imvamisa, basebenzisa amabanga kagesi aphansi (imvamisa angaphansi kuka-5 MW) ne-akhawunti engama-75% emakethe. Kubandakanya "umsele wokunisela ophakathi nendawo", osebenzisa i- ukungalingani kwamanzi emiseleni yokunisela ukukhiqiza ugesi.

Izitshalo ezinyaweni ledamu yilezo, ngokwakhiwa kwedamu noma ngokusetshenziswa kwesivele sikhona, ezingalawula ukuhamba. Imvamisa banamazinga we amandla amakhulu kuno-5 MW futhi zimele cishe ama-20% emakethe eSpain. Ngaphakathi kwalokhu kunezitshalo zokumpompa noma ezibuyisekayo, izitshalo, ngaphezu kokukhiqiza amandla (imodi yomoya), ezinamandla okukhuphula amanzi echibini noma echibini ngokusebenzisa amandla kagesi (imodi yokupompa).

Ngokuphelele, eSpain kunesamba samanzi angama-55.000 hm3, okuyi-40% yalowo mandla okuhambisana amadamu kagesi, elinye lamanani aphakeme kakhulu eYurophu nasemhlabeni.

Nciphisa

Ngokomlando, ukuvela kwamandla kagesi ophehlwa ngamanzi eSpain bekulokhu kukhula, eminyakeni edlule kube nokuncipha okukhulu ekunikelweni kwalo ku ukukhiqizwa kukagesi okuphelele, ngoba amanye amandla avuselelekayo angenisiwe ekuxubeni kwamandla.

Noma kunjalo, isaqhubeka nokuba ngenye yezinto ezivuselelekayo ezikhiqizwayo kanye namandla omoya. Amandla kagesi ophehlwa ngamanzi anamandla afakiwe ezweni lethu angama-17.792 MW, lokhu kumelela u-19,5% wengqikithi, amandla adlulwa kuphela yi igesi imijikelezo ehlangene ukuthi, ngenani eliphelele lama-27.200 MW, ubuchwepheshe obuhamba phambili ngamandla afakiwe (ama-24,8% esewonke), kunalokho, amandla omoya, ane-23.002 MW yamandla (22,3%).

Umsuka wamandla we-biofuel

Ngonyaka we-2014, umnikelo wamandla kagesi kagesi ekukhiqizweni kukagesi wezwe ubumele ama-15,5%, enengqikithi yama-GWh angama-35.860, lesi sibalo simele ukunyuka kwama-5,6% ngaphezu konyaka owedlule. Ngaphandle kokuhle Ukuziphatha kwe-hydroelectric, kwaba ubuchwepheshe besine ekukhiqizeni, ngemuva kwenuzi (22%), umoya (20,3% 9 namalahle (16,5%).

Esikhathini esizayo esiseduze, kulindeleke ukuthi lobu buchwepheshe buzoqhubeka nokukhula ngokwesilinganiso sonyaka esiphakathi kuka-40 kuye ku-60 MW, kwazise amandla kagesi anamandla okuba khona ukusimama kwezomnotho, ingaphezu kwe-1 GW.

ICatalonia, iGalicia neCastilla y León yimiphakathi ezizimele ephezulu kakhulu amandla afakiwe emkhakheni we-hydroelectric, njengoba kuyizindawo ezinokuqoqwa okuphezulu kakhulu kwemithombo yamanzi eSpain

Ukuthuthuka kwezobuchwepheshe

Isinyathelo ngesinyathelo, ukuthuthukiswa kwezobuchwepheshe kuholele ekutheni amandla kagesi amancane abe nezindleko zokuncintisana ezimakethe zikagesi, yize lokhu kuyehluka kuye typology yezitshalo kanye nesenzo esizokwenziwa. Isikhungo sokuphehla ugesi sithathwa njenge-mini-hydro uma sinamandla afakiwe angaphansi kwe-10 MW futhi singaba amanzi agijimayo emfuleni noma phansi kwedamu.

Njengamanje, ama-hydraulic microturbines athuthukiswa ngamandla aphansi kunalawo 10 kW, lezi ziwusizo olukhulu ukusebenzisa amandla we-kinetic wemifula futhi zikhiqize ugesi ku- izindawo eziqhelile. I-turbine ikhiqiza ugesi ngqo ngokushintshana kwamanje futhi ayidingi amanzi awayo, ingqalasizinda eyengeziwe noma izindleko zokulungisa eziphezulu.

Namuhla, ukuthuthukiswa komkhakha ophehla ugesi ophehlwa ngamanzi eSpain kuhloswe ngawo ukuthola ukusebenza kahle okukhulu, ukuze kuthuthukiswe ukusebenza kwezikhungo ezikhona njengamanje. Iziphakamiso ziqondiswe ku- ukuvuselelwa, ukulungiswa kwesimanje, ukuthuthukiswa noma ukunwetshwa kwezitshalo esezivele zifakiwe.

ISpain njengamanje inezitshalo eziphehla ugesi ophehla ugesi ezingama-800, ezinobubanzi obuhlukahlukene kakhulu. Kunezitshalo ezingama-20 ezingaphezu kuka-200 MW, ezihlangene zimele u-50% wamandla kagesi ophelele. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kukhona inqwaba yamadamu amancane ngamandla angaphansi kwama-20 MW, asatshalaliswa kulo lonke elaseSpain.

Presa


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.