Siyini futhi sisebenza kanjani isitshalo sokuphehla ugesi ngokushisa komhlaba?

isitshalo samandla geothermal

Amandla we-geothermal wuhlobo lwamandla avuselelekayo okwazi ukusebenzisa ukushisa okuvela enhlabathini engaphansi komhlaba ukufudumeza izakhiwo nokuthola amanzi ashisayo ngendlela engokwemvelo. Ungomunye wemithombo engaziwa evuselelekayo, kodwa imiphumela yayo iphawuleka kakhulu.

Amandla la Kumele ikhiqizwe esitshalweni se-geothermal, kepha siyini isitshalo se-geothermal futhi sisebenza kanjani?

Isikhungo samandla kagesi

ukukhishwa kwegesi esikhungweni samandla okushisa komhlaba

Isitshalo samandla aphuma ngaphansi komhlaba yisikhungo lapho kukhishwa khona ukushisa eMhlabeni ukuze kukhiqizwe amandla avuselelekayo. Isikhutha esikhipha isikhutha emkhathini kusukela ekukhiqizweni kwalolu hlobo lwamandla cishe singama-45 g ngokwesilinganiso. Lokhu ama-akhawunti angaphansi kuka-5% wokukhishwa okuhambisana nezitshalo ezishisa uphethiloli, ngakho-ke kungabhekwa njengamandla ahlanzekile.

Abakhiqizi abakhulu bamandla okushisa komhlaba emhlabeni yi-United States, iPhilippines ne-Indonesia. Kumele kucatshangwe ukuthi amandla we-geothermal, yize evuseleleka, angamandla alinganiselwe. Kukhawulelwe, hhayi ngoba ukushisa koMhlaba kuzophela (kude nakho), kepha ukuthi kungakhishwa kuphela ngendlela esebenzayo kwezinye izingxenye zeplanethi lapho umsebenzi wokushisa komhlaba unamandla kakhulu. Imayelana nalezo "zindawo ezishisayo" lapho amandla amaningi angakhishwa endaweni ngayinye.

Njengoba ulwazi ngamandla we-geothermal lungathuthuki kakhulu, iGeothermal Energy Association ilinganisela ukuthi lusetshenziswa kuphela njengamanje u-6,5% wamandla omhlaba alo mandla.

Izinsizakusebenza zamandla we-geothermal

Isigubhu samandla aphuma ngaphansi komhlaba

Njengoba uqweqwe lomhlaba lusebenza njengolwelwesi oluvikelekayo, ukuze kutholakale amandla okushisa komhlaba, umhlaba kufanele uhlatshwe ngamapayipi, umagma noma amanzi. Lokhu kuvumela ukuphuma kwangaphakathi nokubanjwa kwayo ngezitshalo zamandla okushisa komhlaba.

Ukukhiqizwa kukagesi we-geothermal kudinga amazinga okushisa aphezulu lokho kungavela kuphela ezingxenyeni ezijule kakhulu zomhlaba. Ukuze kungalahleki ukushisa ngesikhathi sokuthuthwa esiya kulesi sitshalo, kufanele kwakhiwe imijikelezo yemagnethi, izindawo zemithombo eshisayo, ukujikeleza kwe-hydrothermal, imithombo yamanzi noma inhlanganisela yazo yonke.

Inani lezinsizakusebenza ezitholakala kulolu hlobo lwamandla iyanda ngokujula okubhidlizwe kuyo nokusondela emaphethelweni amapuleti. Kulezi zindawo umsebenzi we-geothermal mkhulu, ngakho-ke kukhona ukushisa okusebenziseka kalula.

Sisebenza kanjani isitshalo sokuphehla ugesi ngokushisa komhlaba?

Ukusebenza kwesikhungo samandla we-geothermal kusekelwe ekusebenzeni okuyinkimbinkimbi okusebenza ngaphakathi uhlelo lokutshala insimu. Okusho ukuthi, amandla akhishwa kungaphakathi loMhlaba futhi asiwe esitshalweni lapho kwenziwa khona ugesi.

Inkambu ye-geothermal

indawo yedamu lokushisa komhlaba

Inkambu ye-geothermal lapho usebenza khona ihambelana nendawo yomhlaba nge-gradient ephakeme ye-geothermal kunokujwayelekile. Lokho wukuthi, ukwanda okukhulu kwezinga lokushisa ekujuleni. Le ndawo ene-gradient ephakeme ye-geothermal imvamisa ingenxa yokuthi kukhona i-aquifer evalelwe ngamanzi ashisayo futhi egcinwe futhi ikhawulwe ungqimba olungangeneki olugcina konke ukushisa nengcindezi. Lokhu kwaziwa njengechibi lokushisa komhlaba futhi kulapha lapho kukhishwa khona lokho kushisa ukuze kukhiqizwe ugesi.

Imithombo yokukhipha ukushisa kwe-geothermal exhuma esikhungweni sokuphehla ugesi ikhona kulezi zinkundla ze-geothermal. Umusi ukhishwa ngenethiwekhi yamapayipi futhi uqhutshelwa esitshalweni lapho amandla okushisa we-steam aguqulwa abe amandla womshini futhi kamuva abe amandla kagesi.

Inqubo yokukhiqiza

Inqubo yokukhiqiza iqala ngokukhishwa kwenhlanganisela yesitimu namanzi emgodini we-geothermal. Uma usuyisiwe esitshalweni, umusi uhlukaniswa namanzi asetshenziswa ukushisa esebenzisa imishini okuthiwa isihlukanisi se-cyclonic. Lapho kukhishwa umusi, amanzi abuyiselwa ngaphezulu futhi echibini ukuze avuselelwe (yingakho kungumthombo ovuselelekayo).

Umusi okhishiwe uqhutshelwa esitshalweni bese wenza kusebenze i-turbine ozungezisi lwayo luzungeze cishe Izinguquko ezingama-3 ngomzuzu, okwenza i-generator isebenze, lapho ukungqubuzana nensimu ye-electromagnetic kuguqula amandla kagesi kube amandla kagesi. Ama-volts ayi-13800 aphuma ku-generator okuthi uma edluliselwe kubaguquli, ziguqulelwa kuma-volts ayi-115000. La mandla ethulwa ezintanjeni zikagesi eziphakeme ukuthi zithunyelwe eziteshini zeziteshi bese zisuka lapho ziye emakhaya, ezimbonini, ezikoleni nasezibhedlela.

I-steam geothermal iphindwe yahlanganiswa futhi yabuyiselwa emhlabathini ongaphansi ngemuva kokuguqula i-turbine. Le nqubo yenza ukuthi amanzi afudunyezwe echibini elifudumeza umhlaba futhi liwenze ube yisizinda samandla avuselelekayo, ngoba lapho uvuselelwa uzophenduka isitimu uphinde uphendule i-turbine futhi. Kukho konke lokhu kungashiwo ukuthi amandla we-geothermal kungamandla ahlanzekile, ajikelezayo, avuselelekayo futhi asimeme, ngoba ngokuvuselelwa kabusha insiza amandla akhiqizwa ngayo ivuselelwa kabusha. Ukube amanzi ahlukanisiwe kanye nesitimu esifingqiwe abengabuyiselwa emthonjeni we-geothermal, bekungeke kuthathwe njengamandla avuselelekayo, ngoba, lapho isisetshenziswa sesiphelile, bekungeke kusakhishwa umusi.

Izinhlobo zezitshalo zamandla aphuma ngaphansi komhlaba

Kunezinhlobo ezintathu zezitshalo zamandla okushisa komhlaba.

Izitshalo zomusi ezomile

isitshalo esomile se-steam geothermal

Lawa mapaneli anomklamo olula futhi omdala. Yilezo ezisebenzisa umusi ngqo ekushiseni kwe- cishe ama-degree angama-150 noma ngaphezulu ukushayela i-turbine nokukhiqiza ugesi.

Izitshalo ze-Flash Steam

i-flash steam steam geothermal plant

Lezi zitshalo zisebenza ngokukhuphula umfutho ophakeme wamanzi ashisayo emithonjeni futhi ziwangenise kumathangi anomfutho ophansi. Lapho ingcindezi yehliswa, ingxenye ethile yamanzi ivuthisa futhi yehlukane noketshezi ukushayela i-turbine. Njengakwezinye izikhathi, amanzi oketshezi okweqile kanye nomoya oshisayo ubuyiselwa echibini.

Izikhungo ze-Binary Cycle Centrals

Isitshalo samandla womjikelezo kanambambili

Lezi ezanamuhla kakhulu futhi zingasebenza emazingeni okushisa oketshezi ama-degree angama-57 kuphela. Amanzi ashisa ngokulingene futhi adluliswa eceleni kolunye uketshezi olunephuzu lokubila eliphansi kakhulu kunamanzi. Ngale ndlela, lapho ihlangana namanzi, ngisho nasezingeni lokushisa lama-degree angama-57 kuphela, iyahwamuka futhi ingasetshenziswa ukuhambisa imishini yenjini.

Ngalolu lwazi, impela akukho ukungabaza ngokusebenza kwesikhungo samandla okushisa komhlaba.

Kusebenza kanjani ukushisa okushisayo? Siyakutshela:

I-athikili ehlobene:
Ukushisa kwe-geothermal

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.