Izitshalo ezinhle kakhulu zikagesi emhlabeni

Amandla kagesi avela ezitshalweni zamandla umthombo wokuqala ovuselelekayo emhlabeni. Njengamanje i- amandla afakiwe adlula i-1.000 GW futhi ukukhiqizwa ngo-2014 kwafinyelela ku-1.437 TWh, okwabalelwa ku-14% womkhiqizo kagesi womhlaba ngokusho kwedatha evela kwi-International Energy Agency (IEA).

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngokusho kwesibikezelo senkampani efanayo, amandla kagesi kagesi azoqhubeka nokukhula ngezinga elikhulu kuze kuphindwe kabili amandla akhona manje yeqa i-2.000 GW yamandla afakiwe ku-2050.

Amandla kagesi

I-Hydropower inezinzuzo eziningi ngaphezu kweminye imithombo yamandla kagesi, kufaka phakathi izinga lokuthembeka, ubuchwepheshe obufakazelwe kanye nokusebenza kahle kakhulu, izindleko zokusebenza eziphansi kakhulu nezokulungisa.

I-Hydropower ingumthombo oyinhloko ovuselelekayo, ngoba uwuphindaphinda kathathu owomoya, othi, nge-350 GW, uwumthombo wesibili. Iminikelo yalobu buchwepheshe eminyakeni yamuva ikhiqize ugesi omningi kunayo yonke eminye amandla avuselelekayo ndawonye. Futhi amandla okuthuthuka alobu buchwepheshe makhulu kakhulu, ikakhulukazi e-Afrika, e-Asia naseLatin America. Umgwaqo we-IEA ubikezela ukuthi amandla afakwe emhlabeni wonke azophindeka kabili acishe afike ku-2.000 2050 GW ngo-7.000, ngokukhiqizwa kukagesi womhlaba kudlule i-XNUMX TWh.

Ukukhula kwesizukulwane sokuphehla ugesi kuzophuma ngokuyisisekelo kusuka amaphrojekthi amakhulu emazweni asafufusa nasathuthukayo. Kula mazwe, amaphrojekthi kagesi amakhulu namancane angenza ngcono ukutholakala kwezinsizakalo zamandla kagesi, futhi anciphise ubuphofu ezingxenyeni eziningi zomhlaba, lapho ugesi namanzi okuphuza engakafiki khona.

Amandla kagesi, atholakala ngokusetshenziswa kwamandla kagesi kanye namandla emisinga nezimpophoma, kungenye yezinto imithombo emisha evuselelekayo futhi isetshenziswe yiplanethi ukuthola amandla. I-China namuhla ingumkhiqizi omkhulu wamandla kagesi ophehlwa ngamanzi, ilandelwa yiBrazil, Canada, i-United States neRussia, amazwe anezitshalo eziphambili zokuphehla ugesi emhlabeni.

Ngokulandelayo sizobona ama-5 aphezulu ezitshalweni zokuphehla ugesi

Isiteshi samandla kagesi seGree Three

Lezi zitshalo eziphehla ugesi zinamandla afakiwe angama-22.500 MW. Itholakala eYichang, esifundazweni saseHubei, futhi inkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni. Kuyindawo ejwayelekile yokugcina amanzi esebenzisa amanzi oMfula iYangtze.

Ukwakhiwa kwephrojekthi kudinga ukutshalwa kwezimali okungama-euro ayizigidi eziyi-18.000. Lokhu kwakhiwa okukhulu kwaqala ngonyaka we-1993 futhi kwaqedwa ngo-2012. Idamu seliqalile Amamitha ayi-181 ukuphakama futhi ngamamitha ayi-2.335 ubude, yenziwa njengengxenye yephrojekthi ye-Three Gorges, exhunywe esiteshini samandla kagesi ophehlwa ngamanzi esakhiwa ngama-turbines angama-32 we-700 MW ngamunye, namayunithi amabili enza i-50 MW. Njengamanje, ukukhiqizwa kwamandla kwalesi sitshalo minyaka yonke kusanda kuqopha umlando emhlabeni ngo-2014 nge-98,8 TWh, okuyivumela ukuthi inikeze ugesi ezifundazweni eziyisishiyagalolunye nasemadolobheni amabili, kubandakanya iShanghai.

Isitshalo se-Itaipu hydroelectric

Izitshalo zamandla kagesi kagesi e-Itaipu, ezinamandla afakiwe we-14.000 MW, ingeyesibili ngobukhulu emhlabeni. Lesi sikhungo siseMfuleni iParaná, emngceleni ophakathi kweBrazil neParaguay. Ukutshalwa kwezimali okwenziwe ekwakhiweni kwalesi sitshalo kwakungu-15.000 million euro. Imisebenzi yaqala ngonyaka we-1975 futhi yaqedwa ngo-1982. Onjiniyela be-consortium ye I-IECO ezinze e-United States nase I-ELC Electroconsult ezinze e-Italy, zakha, ziqala ukukhiqiza ugesi kulesi sitshalo ngoMeyi 1984.

Isitshalo se-Itaipu hydroelectric sinikezela cishe i-17,3% yokusetshenziswa kwamandla eBrazil kanye no-72,5% wamandla asetshenzisiwe eParaguay. Ngokuqondile, iqukethe amayunithi angama-20 akhiqiza amandla angama-700 MW lilinye.

Isiteshi samandla kagesi iXiluodu

isiteshi samandla kagesi ophehla ugesi

Lesi siteshi samandla kagesi sisezandleni zoMfula iJinsha, umsele ogeleza umfula iYangtze enkabeni yawo ephezulu, sisenkabeni yesifundazwe iSichuan, siyisiteshi samandla sesibili ngobukhulu eChina nesesithathu ngobukhulu emhlabeni . Umthamo ofakiwe walesi sitshalo ufinyelele ku-13.860 MW ekupheleni konyaka we-2014 ngenkathi kufakwa imishini yokuphehla ugesi emibili yokugcina. Iphrojekthi yasungulwa yi Inhlangano Yesithathu YeGorges Project futhi kulindeleke ukuthi ikhiqize u-64 TWh kagesi ngonyaka lapho isebenza ngokugcwele.

Iphrojekthi ibidinga ukutshalwa kwemali kwe- 5.500 million euro futhi ukwakhiwa kwaqala ngo-2005, kwaqala imishini yokuqala yokuphehla ugesi ngoJulayi 2013. Lesi sitshalo sakhiwa idamu lamakhothamo amabili agobekayo elingamamitha angama-285,5 ukuphakama namamitha ayi-700 ububanzi, okwenza ichibi elinamandla okugcina amamitha ayi-cubic ayi-12.670. Izinsizakusebenza, ezihlinzekwa ngonjiniyela beVoith, ziqukethe ama-generator kaFrank Francis ephehlwa ugesi angama-18 MW lilinye kanye nejenereyitha epholiswe umoya enomphumela we-770 MVA.

Isiteshi samandla kagesi iGuri.

Isitshalo seGuri, esaziwa nangokuthi iSimón Bolívar isitshalo esiphehla ugesi, sibekwe njengesinye sezikhulu emhlabeni, umthamo ofakiwe we-10.235 XNUMX MW. Lezi zikhungo zitholakala eMfuleni iCaroní, oseningizimu-mpumalanga yeVenezuela.

Ukwakhiwa kwephrojekthi kwaqala ngo-1963, kwenziwa ngezigaba ezimbili, esokuqala saqedwa ngo-1978 kanti esesibili senziwa ngo-1986. Lesi sitshalo sinezikhungo ezingama-20 zokukhiqiza zamandla ahlukene aphakathi kuka-130 MW no-770 MW. Inkampani I-Alstom wakhethwa ngezinkontileka ezimbili ngo-2007 nango-2009 wokulungiswa kwama-MW amane kanye namayunithi ayisi-400 MW ayisihlanu, kanti u-Andritz naye wathola inkontileka yokuphakela ama-turbine ayisi-630MW Francis ngo-770. Ngemuva kokulungiswa kwemishini yokukhiqiza, isitshalo sathola ugesi ukuphakelwa okungaphezu kwe-2007 GW / h.

Isitshalo se-Tucuruí hydroelectric

Leli damu lisengxenyeni engezansi yomfula iTocantins, eTucuruí, ongaphansi koMbuso wasePará eBrazil, ubekwe njengesitshalo sesihlanu esikhulu sokuphehla ugesi emhlabeni nge-8.370 MW yayo. I- ukwakhiwa kwephrojekthi, okwakudinga ukutshalwa kwezimali okungama-euro ayizigidi ezingama-4.000, kwaqalwa ngo-1975 kanti isigaba sokuqala saqedwa ngo-1984, esakhiwa yidamu lekhonkrithi lamamitha angama-78 ukuphakama namamitha ayi-12.500 ubude, amayunithi akhiqiza ayi-12 anamandla angama-330MW lilinye. amayunithi asizayo ka-25 MW.

Isigaba sesibili singeze isiteshi esisha samandla esasungulwa ngo-1998 saphothulwa ngasekupheleni kuka-2010, lapho ukufakwa kwamayunithi akhiqiza u-11 anamandla angama-370 MW ngamunye kwenziwa. Onjiniyela benhlangano eyakhiwe ngu I-Alstom, i-GE Hydro, i-Inepar-Fem ne-Odebrecht unikeze i-

imishini yalesi sigaba. Njengamanje, lesi sitshalo siphakela ugesi edolobheni laseBelém nezindawo ezizungezile.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.