Izinto zokuqhuba kanye ne-insulating

izinto ezihambisa ugesi

I-Los izinto conductive kanye insulating bahlukaniswa ngokokuziphatha kwabo maqondana nogesi. Kukhona labo abakwaziyo ukuqhuba ugesi nabanye, ngokuphambene nalokho, abakwazi ukwenza kanjalo. Lezi zinto zinezici ezihlukene futhi zisetshenziswa emikhakheni ehlukene yezimboni nasekhaya.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana ne-conductive kanye ne-insulating materials nokuthi ngayinye yazo iyini.

Izinto zokuqhuba kanye ne-insulating

izinto conductive kanye insulating

Izinto ezibonakalayo zingahlukaniswa zibe izigaba ezimbili ezibanzi: ama-conductor nama-insulators. Kungaba okulungile kakhulu ukuwachaza njengamakhondaktha alungile namakhondaktha angalungile, kuye ngokuthi impahla ngayinye ikusiza yini noma ithiya ukushayela. Lokhu kuhlukana kuthinta i-thermal conductivity (okungukuthi ukudluliswa kokushisa) noma ukuhamba kukagesi (okungukuthi ukugeleza kwamanje).

Ukuthi into ethile iwuhambisa noma cha ugesi kuncike ekutheni ama-electron angadlula kalula kuwo. Ama-proton awanyakazi ngoba, nakuba ephethe amandla kagesi, ahlangana namanye ama-proton nama-neutron ku-nucleus. Ama-electron e-Valence afana nama-exoplanets azungeza izinkanyezi. Bakhangwa ngokwanele ukuba bahlale endaweni, kodwa Akuhlali kuthatha amandla amaningi ukuwasusa endaweni.

Izinsimbi zilahlekelwa kalula futhi zithole ama-electron, ngakho-ke zibusa uhlu lwamakholi. Ama-molecule e-Organic ikakhulukazi ama-insulators, ngenxa yokuthi abanjwe ndawonye yi-covalent bond (ama-electron avamile), kodwa futhi ngenxa yokuthi izibopho ze-hydrogen zisiza ukuzinzisa ama-molecule amaningi. Izinto ezisetshenziswayo eziningi aziwona ama-conductor amahle noma ama-insulators amahle. Awawuhambisi ugesi kalula, kodwa ngamandla anele, ama-electron ahamba.

Ezinye izinto zokuvikela i-insulating zitholakala esimweni esihlanzekile, kodwa ziziphatha noma zisabele uma zifakwe amanani amancane yenye into noma uma ziqukethe ukungcola. Isibonelo, ama-ceramics amaningi angama-insulators amahle kakhulu, kodwa uma uwashintsha, ungathola ama-superconductors. Amanzi ahlanzekile ayisivikelo, kodwa amanzi angcolile awahambisani kahle, kuyilapho amanzi anosawoti anama-ion antantayo ahamba kahle.

Iyini i-conductive material?

izinto conductive kanye insulating

Ama-conductor yizo zinto ezivumela ama-electron ukuthi ageleze ngokukhululekile phakathi kwezinhlayiya. Izinto ezenziwe ngezinto zokuqhuba zizovumela ukudluliswa kwenkokhelo kuyo yonke indawo yento. Uma inkokhiso idluliselwa entweni endaweni ethile, isakazwa ngokushesha phezu kwayo yonke into.

Ukusatshalaliswa kwenkokhelo kuwumphumela wokuhamba kwama-electron. Izinto ezisetshenziswayo zivumela ama-electron ukuthi athuthwe esuka ezinhlayiyeni ezithile aye kwenye ngoba into eshajwayo izohlala isabalalisa ukushajwa kwayo kuze kube yilapho wonke amandla aphikisayo phakathi kwama-electron eqile encishiswa. Ngale ndlela, uma umqhubi oshajwayo ehlangana nenye into, umqhubi angakwazi ngisho nokudlulisela ukushaja kwakhe kuleyo nto.

Ukudluliswa kwe-charge phakathi kwezinto kungenzeka kakhulu uma into yesibili yenziwe nge-conductive material. Ama-conductor avumela ukudluliswa kwemali ngokusebenzisa ukunyakaza kwamahhala kwama-electron.

Iyini impahla ye-semiconductor?

izinsimbi

Phakathi kwezinto ezisebenzayo sithola izinto ezinomsebenzi ofanayo kodwa ezingasebenza njengama-insulators, nakuba lokhu kuncike ezintweni eziningana. Lezi zici ziyizi:

  • i-campo eléctrico
  • amandla kazibuthe
  • ukucindezela
  • imisebe yesigameko
  • izinga lokushisa kwemvelo yakho

Izinto ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ze-semiconductor ziyi-silicon, i-germanium futhi muva nje sekusetshenziswe isulfure njengempahla ye-semiconductor.

Iyini i-superconducting material?

Le nto iyathakazelisa ngoba inekhono lemvelo lokuthi impahla kufanele iqhube ugesi, kodwa ngaphansi kwezimo ezifanele, ngaphandle kokumelana noma ukulahlekelwa amandla.

Ngokuvamile, ukumelana nama-conductor ensimbi kuyehla ngokuncipha kwezinga lokushisa. Lapho izinga lokushisa elibucayi lifinyelelwa, ukumelana kwe-superconductor kwehla kakhulu, kodwa kuqinisekisa ukuthi amandla angaphakathi ayaqhubeka nokugeleza, ngaphandle kwamandla. I-Superconductivity idaliwe.

Kwenzeka ezintweni ezihlukahlukene ezihlukahlukene, kuhlanganise nama-alloys alula njengethayela noma i-aluminium engabonisi ukumelana nogesi, ngaleyo ndlela ivimbele okokusebenza ukuthi kungangeni esizindeni sayo. Okungumphumela we-Meissner, ivumela impahla ukuba ixoshwe, igcine intanta.

Iyini i-insulating material

Ngokungafani nama-conductor, ama-insulators ayizinto ezivimbela ukugeleza kwamahhala kwama-electron ukusuka ku-athomu kuya ku-athomu nokusuka ku-molecule kuya ku-molecule. Uma umthwalo udluliselwa kusihlukanisi endaweni ethile, umthwalo oweqile uzohlala endaweni yokuqala yomthwalo. Izinhlayiya ezivikelayo azikuvumeli ukugeleza kwamahhala kwama-electron, ngakho-ke ukushaja akuvamile ukusatshalaliswa ngokulinganayo phezu kobuso bezinto zokuvikela.

Nakuba ama-insulators awasizi ngalutho ukudluliswa kwemali, dlala indima ebalulekile ekuhlolweni kwe-electrostatic kanye nemibukiso. Izinto eziqhutshwayo zivame ukugxunyekwa ezintweni ezivikelayo. Lokhu kuhlelwa kwamakhondakta ngaphezu kwesivikelo kuvimbela ukudluliswa kwenkokhiso kusuka entweni eqhutshwayo ukuya endaweni eyizungezile, kugwema izingozi ezifana namasekhethi amafushane noma ugesi. Lolu hlelo lusivumela ukuthi sisebenzise into eqhutshwayo ngaphandle kokuyithinta.

Ngakho-ke singasho ukuthi izinto ezivikelayo zisebenza njengesibambo somqhubi phezu kwetafula lelebhu ehambayo. Isibonelo, uma i-soda ye-aluminium isetshenziselwa ukulayisha izivivinyo, ikani kufanele ligxunyekwe phezu kwenkomishi yepulasitiki. Ingilazi isebenza njenge-insulator, ivimbela i-soda can ukuthi ingavuzi.

Izibonelo Zezinto Eziqhubayo Nezokuvikela

Izibonelo zezinto zokwenziwa zifaka okulandelayo:

  • ukukhokha
  • ithusi
  • oro
  • i-aluminium
  • insimbi
  • insimbi
  • zethusi
  • ithusi
  • i-mercury
  • i-graphite
  • amanzi olwandle
  • ukhonkolo

Izibonelo zezinto zokufaka i-insulating zihlanganisa okulandelayo:

  • izibuko
  • irabha
  • i-petroleum
  • asphalt
  • i-fiberglass
  • ubumba
  • i-ceramic
  • i-quartz
  • ukotini (omile)
  • iphepha (lomile)
  • ukhuni olomile)
  • ipulasitiki
  • umoya
  • amadayimane
  • amanzi amsulwa
  • irabha

Ukuhlukaniswa kwezinto ngezigaba zama-conductor nama-insulators kuyinto yokuhlukaniswa okwenziwe. Kubaluleke kakhulu ukubeka indaba endaweni ethile ngokuqhubekayo.

Kumele kuqondwe ukuthi akuzona zonke izinto ezisebenzayo ezine-conductivity efanayo, futhi akuwona wonke ama-insulators aphikisana ngokulinganayo nokuhamba kwama-electron. I-Conductivity ifana nokungafihli kwezinye izinto zokukhanya.: Izinto "ezidlula" kalula ukukhanya zibizwa ngokuthi "i-transparent", kanti lezo "ezingadluli" kalula zibizwa ngokuthi "opaque". Kodwa-ke, akuzona zonke izinto ezibonakalayo ezinokusebenza okufanayo kwe-optical. Okufanayo kuya kuma-conductor kagesi, amanye angcono kunabanye.

Labo abane-conductivity ephezulu, eyaziwa ngokuthi ama-superconductors, babekwe ekugcineni futhi izinto eziphansi ze-conductivity zibekwe komunye umkhawulo. Njengoba ungabona ngenhla, insimbi izobekwa eduze nokuphela conductive kakhulu, kuyilapho ingilazi izobekwa komunye umkhawulo wokuqhubeka. I-conductivity yezinsimbi ingaba izikhathi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziyizigidi eziphindwe kabili kunengilazi.

Izinga lokushisa liphinde libe nomthelela ekusebenzeni. Njengoba izinga lokushisa likhuphuka, ama-athomu nama-electron athola amandla. Amanye ama-insulators, njengengilazi, awakhonductor ampofu uma kubanda, kodwa noma kunjalo amakhondakta amahle uma kushisa. Izinsimbi eziningi zingamakhondukta angcono.. Avumela ukupholisa kanye namakhondatha abi nakakhulu uma kushisa. Amanye ama-conductor amahle atholwe kuma-superconductors emazingeni okushisa aphansi kakhulu.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nezinto zokufakelwa kanye ne-insulating.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.