Izinhlobo zezitshalo zamandla

izitshalo zikagesi ngamanzi

Ugesi yinto engokwemvelo engenzeka ngezindlela ezihlukahlukene ngokusebenzisa izimboni zamandla. Umbuzo wemvelaphi kagesi awulula: ukuze usetshenziswe njengamandla, kufanele uhambe ibanga elide. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, amandla abo okukhiqiza kanye nezinga lokusebenza kahle, okungukuthi, inani likagesi abangalikhiqiza kusukela ekuguqulweni kwamandla okuqala, kuzoxhomeka ezintweni zokusetshenziswa kanye nobuchwepheshe obusetshenzisiwe. Lesi yisizathu sokuthi kungani izitshalo zamandla zizoncika emandleni. E-Spain, okuyinhloko izinhlobo zezitshalo zamandla Ziyi-thermal, i-nuclear, i-atmospheric kanye ne-solar photovoltaic.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke okudingeka ukwazi mayelana nezinhlobo ezahlukene zezitshalo zamandla ezikhona nezici zazo.

Izinhlobo zezitshalo zamandla

izinhlobo zezitshalo zamandla

Isikhungo samandla ashisayo

Ama-turbine alezi zitshalo aqala ukunyakaza ngenxa yezindiza ezinomshini ocindezelayo otholakala ngokushisa amanzi. Izitshalo zamandla ashisayo zikhiqiza ugesi ngezindlela ezahlukene: phakathi kwazo ukushisa

  • Okwakudala: Athola amandla ngokushisa izinto ezimbiwa phansi.
  • Kusuka ku-biomass: Athola amandla ngokushisa amahlathi, izinsalela zezolimo noma izitshalo zamandla ezaziwayo.
  • Kusukela ekushisweni kwemfucuza eqinile kamasipala: Bathola amandla ngokushisa imfucuza elungisiwe.
  • izimboni zamandla enuzi: Bakha amandla ngokusabela kwe-fission yama-athomu e-uranium. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, izifudumezi zamanzi elanga zishisa amanzi ngokugxilisa amandla elanga futhi, ekugcineni, izitshalo ezishisayo zizuza ngokunenzuzo ukushisa okuvela emhlabeni.

isitshalo samandla omoya

Njengoba umoya usebenza kuma-wind turbine blades, i-turbine yakho iyanyakaza. Ukuze wenze lokhu, i-rotor enama-blades amaningana efakwe engxenyeni engenhla yombhoshongo, eqondiswe lapho umoya. Zizungeza i-eksisi evundlile esebenza kujeneretha. Ukusebenza kwawo kunqunyelwe isivinini somoya, futhi amapulazi omoya adinga izindawo ezinkulu zomhlaba. ESpain, ngakolunye uhlangothi, amahora okusebenza okuphehlwa kukagesi aphakathi kwama-20% nama-30% onyaka, inani eliphansi uma liqhathaniswa nezitshalo zamandla ashisayo nawenuzi, ezifinyelela ku-93%.

Kodwa-ke, kufanele kukhunjulwe ukuthi iwumthombo wamandla ahlanzekile futhi lokhu kufakwa akubangeli noma yimuphi umonakalo emvelweni. Ipulazi lomoya elifakwe ethekwini lase-Bilbao e-Ponta Lucero likhiqize amandla omoya angu-7,1 million kWh eSpain ezinyangeni ezinhlanu zokuqala zokusebenza. Kuyasiza kakhulu ukuthi la mapaki akhiwe eduze kolwandle, njengoba umoya ujwayele ukuzungeza ekuqhumeni futhi uzinze kakhulu kunasemhlabeni.

isitshalo samandla elanga

ipaki yelanga

Kunezinhlobo ezahlukene zalezi zitshalo zikagesi. Phakathi kwazo, izitshalo zamandla ashisayo elanga zisebenzisa ukushisa kwelanga ukushisa amanzi futhi zisebenzisa isitimu esikhiqizwa ukushisisa ukuhambisa izinjini zomoya. Kukhona nezitshalo zamandla elanga ze-photovoltaic, kusukela Amaseli e-Photovoltaic anesibopho sokuguqula amandla elanga abe ugesi.. ESpain sinezimboni ezimbili ezibalulekile: iPuertollano kanye ne-Olmedilla de Alarcón photovoltaic parks. Bobabili baseCastilla-La Mancha.

isikhungo samandla kagesi ngamanzi

Izinjini zomoya zalezi zitshalo ziqhutshwa ukugeleza kwamanzi ngesivinini esikhulu. Lezi zisebenzisa izimpophoma, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi zemvelo, okungukuthi, izimpophoma nemifula engalingani, noma izimpophoma zokwenziwa ezihlanganiswe namadamu. Ngaphezu kwamandla kagesi bayakwazi ukukhiqiza, baphinde bahlukaniswe noma bahlukaniswe ngokwamandla abanawo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi kunezitshalo ezinkulu eziphehla ugesi ngamanzi, izitshalo ezincane eziphehla ugesi ngamanzi kanye nezitshalo ezincane ezikhiqiza ugesi ngamanzi.

isiteshi samandla olwandle

Ukusebenza kwayo kunokufana nezitshalo zamandla kagesi ngamanzi. Kodwa lezi zisizakala ngomehluko wezinga lolwandle phakathi kwamagagasi aphezulu naphansi. Izitshalo zamandla e-tidal nazo zibhekwa njengalezo ezithatha ithuba lokuhamba kwamagagasi ukuhambisa izinjini zomoya. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kukhona nemisinga yasolwandle, esebenzisa ngokunenzuzo amandla kinetic emisinga yolwandle noma olwandle. Le ndlela inomthelela omncane kwezemvelo ngoba awekho amadamu akhelwe ukuphazamisa i-ecosystem.

Zisebenza kanjani izinhlobo zezitshalo zikagesi

Isizinda samandla ashisayo siyisikhungo samandla ashisayo esinhloso yaso kuwukuguqula amandla ashisayo abe ngugesi. Lokhu kuguqulwa kwenziwa umjikelezo we-steam/thermal turbine yamanzi. Lowo umjikelezo we-Rankine. Kulokhu, umthombo we-steam uzokhiqiza isitimu esishayela i-turbine.

Olunye uhlobo lwesitshalo samandla ashisayo umjikelezo ohlangene. Esitshalweni somjikelezo ohlangene kunemijikelezo emibili ye-thermodynamic:

  • Umjikelezo wamaBreton. Lo mjikelezo usebenza ne-turbine yegesi evuthayo, ngokuvamile igesi yemvelo.
  • Umjikelezo we-Rankine. Lona umjikelezo we-steam-water turbine evamile.

Kuzo zonke izimboni zamandla ashisayo, izakhi ezintathu ziyadingeka ukukhiqiza ugesi:

  • i-steam turbine. Ama-turbines aguqula amandla ashisayo abe amandla e-kinetic.
  • I-alternator eguqulayo amandla mechanical zibe amandla kagesi.
  • I-Transformer elungisa imanje etholakala ngokushintshana kwamanje nge umehluko ongase ube khona.

Ukubaluleka kwe-reactor yenuzi

izinhlobo zezitshalo zamandla e-spain

I-fusion reactor yindawo lapho ukuhlangana kwe-nuclear fusion kwenzeka khona kuphethiloli okwakhiwa yi-hydrogen isotopes (i-deuterium ne-tritium), ikhipha amandla ngendlela yokushisa, okuthi bese iphenduka ugesi.

Okwamanje awekho ama-fusion reactor angavuna ugesi, nakuba izikhungo zocwaningo zikhona ukuze kufundwe ukusabela kwe-fusion kanye nobuchwepheshe obuzosetshenziswa kulezi zitshalo esikhathini esizayo.

Ngokuzayo, ama-fusion reactor azohlukaniswa abe izinhlobo ezimbili: labo abasebenzisa ukuvalelwa kazibuthe kanye nalabo abasebenzisa ukuvalelwa okungaphakathi. I-magnetic confinement fusion reactor iqukethe izingxenye ezilandelayo:

  • Igumbi lokusabela eliboshwe ngodonga lwensimbi.
  • Uma sicabanga ukuthi uphethiloli osegunjini lokusabela yi-deuterium-tritium, ungqimba lwento eyenziwe nge-lithium edonsa ukushisa ezindongeni zensimbi futhi ikhiqize i-tritium.
  • Amanye amakhoyili amakhulu akhiqiza amandla kazibuthe.
  • Uhlobo lokuvikela emisebeni.

I-inertial confinement fusion reactor izofaka:

  • Igumbi lokuphendula, encane kuneyangaphambili, ibuye ikhawulelwe izindonga zensimbi.
  • Ukufakwa kwe-lithium.
  • Isetshenziselwa lula ukungena kwezinhlayiya ze-light beam noma ama-ion avela ku-laser.
  • I-Radioprotection.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nezinhlobo zezitshalo zamandla ezikhona nezici zazo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.