Yini amandla we-geothermal, izinhlelo zokupholisa umoya kanye nekusasa

Amandla we-geothermal

Impela uyazi ukuthi amandla we-geothermal ayini ngokwemigomo ejwayelekile, kepha Ngabe uyazi zonke izisekelo ngale mandla?

Ngendlela ejwayelekile kakhulu sithi amandla we-geothermal yi ukushisa amandla avela ngaphakathi koMhlaba.

Ngamanye amagama, amandla we-geothermal ingukuphela kwensiza yamandla avuselelekayo engatholakali kwiLanga.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, singasho ukuthi la mandla akuwona amandla avuselelekayo kanjalo, ngoba ukuvuselelwa kwayo akunamkhawulo, Noma kunjalo ayipheli ngesilinganiso somuntu, ngakho-ke kubhekwa njengokuvuselelwa ngezinhloso ezisebenzayo.

Umsuka wokushisa ngaphakathi koMhlaba

Imbangela enkulu yokushisa ngaphakathi koMhlaba yi ukubola okuqhubekayo kwezinye izinto ezikhipha imisebe njenge-Uranium 238, iThorium 232 nePotassium 40.

Enye ye umsuka wamandla we-geothermal yiwo ukushayisana kwamapuleti etektoni.

Ezifundeni ezithile, noma kunjalo, ukushisa okushisa ngaphansi komhlaba kugxila kakhulu, njengoba kwenzeka endaweni eseduze ne- izintaba-mlilo, imisinga ye-magma, amagiza neziphethu ezishisayo.

Ukusetshenziswa kwamandla we-geothermal

Lo mandla ubusetshenziswa okungenani iminyaka engu-2.000 XNUMX.

AmaRoma asebenzisa iziphethu ezishisayo uku amabheshu futhi, muva nje, la mandla asetshenziselwe i- ukufudumeza izakhiwo nezindawo zokugcina izithombo kanye nokwenziwa kukagesi.

Njengamanje kunezinhlobo ezi-3 zamadiphozithi esingathola kuzo amandla we-geothermal:

  • Amachibi okushisa aphezulu
  • Amachibi okushisa aphansi
  • Amachibi amadwala ashisayo awomile

Amachibi okushisa aphezulu

Sithi kunediphozithi ye izinga lokushisa eliphakeme lapho amanzi echibi afinyelela amazinga okushisa angaphezu kuka-100ºC ngenxa yokuba khona komthombo wokushisa osebenzayo.

Ukuze ukushisa kwe-geothermal kudale amandla e-geothermal asetshenziswayo, izimo ze-geological kumele zenze kube nokwenzeka ukwakha i idamu lokushisa komhlaba, afana nalawo aqukethe uwoyela noma igesi yemvelo, equkethe i- idwala elingenayo, amatshe esihlabathi noma i-limestone ngokwesibonelo, efakwe i-a ungqimba manzi, njengobumba.

uhlelo lokushisa okuphezulu

Amanzi angaphansi komhlaba afudunyezwa amadwala adlula ngendlela eya phezulu echibini, lapho zihlala zibhajwe ngaphansi kongqimba olungangeneki.

Nini kunemifantu ungqimba olungenakulinganiswa, ukuphunyuka komusi noma amanzi ebusweni kungenzeka, avela ngesimo semithombo eshisayo noma amagiza.

Lezi ziphethu ezishisayo bezisetshenziswa kusukela ezikhathini zasendulo futhi zingasetshenziselwa kalula ukushisa nezinqubo zezimboni.

okugeza okushisayo

Amabhati aseRoma okugeza

Amachibi okushisa aphansi

Izindawo zokugcina ezinamazinga okushisa aphansi yilezo okukhona kuzo izinga lokushisa kwamanzi, esizosebenzisa yona, itholakala phakathi kuka-60 no-100ºC.

Kulezi zimali, inani lokufudumala kokushisa kuyinto ejwayelekile koqweqwe lomhlaba, ngakho-ke ukuba khona kwezimo ezi-2 ezedlule akudingekile: ukuba khona komthombo wokushisa osebenzayo nokufakwa esitolo okugcina uketshezi.

Uhlelo lokushisa oluphansi

Kuphela ubukhona bendawo yokugcina impahla ekujuleni okufanele ukuze, nge-gradient ekhona ngaphansi komhlaba endaweni eshiwo, kube namazinga okushisa enza ukuxhashazwa kwayo kube nokonga.

Amachibi amadwala ashisayo awomile

Okungenzeka yamandla we-geothermal es okuningi kukhulu uma kushiswa kukhishwa emadwaleni ashisayo awomile, awanamanzi ngokwemvelo.

Baku- izinga lokushisa phakathi kuka-250 no-300ºC vele munye ukujula phakathi kwamamitha angu-2.000 3.000 no-XNUMX.

Ngokuxhashazwa kwayo kuyadingeka ukuphula amadwala ashisayo awomile, ukuze zenze zibe nezimbotshana.

Ngemuva kwalokho amanzi abandayo ayethulwa kusuka ngaphezulu ngepayipi, ukuyivumela idlule edwaleni elishisayo eliqhekekile, ukuze ishise bese kukhishwa umhwamuko wamanzi ngokusebenzisa enye ipayipi ukusebenzisa ingcindezi yayo ukushayela i-turbine futhi khiqiza amandla kagesi.

uhlaka lwedwala elishisayo

Inkinga ngalolu hlobo lokuxhashazwa ngamasu wokuqhekeka kwamatshe ekujuleni nasekubhoneni okunjalo.

Yize kube nentuthuko enkulu eseyenziwe kulezi zindawo kusetshenziswa izindlela zokumba uwoyela.

Amandla okushisa aphansi kakhulu we-geothermal

Singacabanga nge inhlabathi engaphansi ekujuleni okuncane njenge umthombo wokushisa ngo-15ºC, ivuselelwa ngokuphelele futhi ingapheli.

Ngokusebenzisa uhlelo olufanele lokubamba kanye nepompo yokushisa, ukushisa kungadluliselwa kusuka kulo mthombo ngo-15ºC kusistimu efinyelela kuma-50 ,C, bese kuthi eyokugcina isetshenziselwe ukufudumeza nokuthola amanzi ashisayo ahlanzekile okusetshenziswa ekhaya.

Futhi, iphampu efanayo yokushisa ingamunca ukushisa okuvela emvelweni ngo-40ºC bese ikuletha enhlabathini engaphansi ngohlelo olufanayo lokubambaNgakho-ke, uhlelo olungakwazi ukuxazulula ukushisa kwasekhaya lungaxazulula nokupholisa, okusho ukuthi, indlu inokufakwa okukodwa kwesimo sayo somoya esihlanganisiwe.

Inkinga enkulu yalolu hlobo lwamandla yi ngidinga indawo enkulu kakhulu yokungcwaba isekethe elingaphandleKodwa-ke, inzuzo yayo enkulu yi- pIthuba lokuyisebenzisa njengohlelo lokushisa nokupholisa ngezindleko eziphansi kakhulu.

Kulo mdwebo olandelayo ungabona izindlela ezahlukahlukene zokubamba noma zokudlulisa ukushisa phansi ukuze zikusebenzise kamuva ekufudumezeni, ekupholiseni nasekutholeni i-DHW (amanzi ashisayo ahlanzekile). Ngizochaza inqubo engezansi.

Uhlelo lweHVAC

Umshini ongenisa umoya yendlu, indawo yokuhlala, isibhedlela, njll. ingafinyelelwa ngamunye, ngoba ayidingi izimali ezinkulu zohlelo, ngokungafani nezindawo zokushisa eziphakeme neziphakathi nendawo.

Lolu hlelo lokusebenzisa amandla elanga amuncwa ubuso bomhlaba lusekelwe ezintweni ezintathu eziyinhloko:

  1. Iphampu yokushisa
  2. Shintsha isifunda noMhlaba
    1. Ukushintshanisa ukushisa ngamanzi angaphezulu
    2. Shintshanisa nomhlabathi
  3. Shintsha isekethe nekhaya

Iphampu yokushisa

Iphampu yokushisa ingumshini we-thermodynamic okuncike kuCarnot Cycle eyenziwa igesi.

Lo mshini ubamba ukushisa kusuka komunye umthombo ukuletha komunye osezingeni lokushisa eliphakeme.

Isibonelo esijwayelekile kunazo zonke amafrijiLezi zinomshini okhipha ukushisa ngaphakathi bese uwukhiphela ngaphandle, osezingeni lokushisa eliphakeme.

Ezinye izibonelo zamaphampu okushisa ama-air conditioners nama-air conditioner emakhaya nasezimotweni.

Kulolu hlelo, uyabona ukuthi i- Igilobhu elibandayo limunca ukushisa okuvela emhlabathini ngokushintshana kanti uketshezi olujikeleza isekhethi ebandayo lumunca ukushisa luze luphele.

uhlelo lokushisa futha

Isifunda esithwala amanzi ngokushisa okuvela phansi siyaphola bese sibuyela emhlabathini, Ukubuyiselwa kokushisa kwenhlabathi kuyashesha kakhulu.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, isibani esishisayo, esingaphakathi kwendlu, sishisa umoya siyinikeze ukushisa.

Iphampu yokushisa "ishaya" ukushisa kusuka ku-bulb ebandayo kuya ku-hot bulb.

Ukusebenza (amandla ahlinzekiwe / amandla angene) kuya ngokushisa komthombo okuletha ukushisa okuhwamukile.

Izinhlelo ezijwayelekile zokupholisa umoya kumunca ukushisa okuvela emkhathini, okungafika ebusika lokushisangezansi -2 ° C.

Kulezi zinga lokushisa i-evaporator ayikwazi ukuthatha cishe ukushisa kanye ne- ukusebenza kwepompo kuphansi kakhulu.

Ehlobo lapho kushisa kakhulu, ipompo kufanele inikeze ukushisa okuvela emoyeni ongahle ube khona 40°C, nalokho ukusebenza akukuhle ngendlela obungalindela ngayo.

Nokho, uhlelo lokugcina amanzi ngokushisa komhlaba, Ukuba nomthombo woku ukushisa okungaguquki, ukusebenza kuhlale kahle ngaphandle kwezimo zokushisa komkhathi. Ngakho-ke lolu hlelo lusebenza kahle kakhulu kunempompo evamile yokushisa.

Shintshanisa izifunda noMhlaba

Ukushintshanisa ukushisa ngamanzi angaphezulu

Lolu hlelo lususelwa ku- faka amanzi ekuthintaneni okushisayo okuvela emthonjeni ongaphezulu nge-evaporator / condenser, ngokuya ngezidingo, zokumunca noma ukudlulisa ukushisa emanzini ashiwo.

Inzuzo: izipho ukuthi ine- izindleko eziphansi

Ukubuyisela emuva:  njalo awutholakali umthombo wamanzi.

Shintshanisa nomhlabathi

Este kungaba ngqo lapho ukushintshaniswa phakathi komhlaba kanye ne-evaporator / condenser yempompo yokushisa kwenziwa ngepayipi lethusi elingcwatshiwe.

Ekhaya, kungadingeka amapayipi aphakathi kuka-100 no-150 wamapayipi.

  • Izinzuzo: izindleko eziphansi, ukulula nokusebenza okuhle.
  • Izingqinamba: kungenzeka ukuvuza kwegesi kanye nokubanda kwezindawo zomhlaba.

Noma futhi kungaba yisifunda esisizayo lapho inesethi yamapayipi angcwatshiwe, lapho kusatshalaliswa khona amanzi, nawo ashintshe ukushisa ne-evaporator / condenser.

Ekhaya, kungadingeka amapayipi aphakathi kuka-100 no-200 wamapayipi.

  • Izinzuzo: ingcindezi ephansi esifundeni, ngaleyo ndlela igweme umehluko omkhulu wokushisa
  • Izingqinamba: izindleko eziphezulu.

Shintshanisa amasekethe nekhaya

Lezi izifunda ungaba ukushintshaniswa okuqondile noma ngokwabiwa kwamanzi ashisayo nabandayo.

Ukushintshaniswa okuqondile Kususelwa ekujikelezeni umfudlana womoya phezu kobuso be-evaporator / condenser ohlangothini lwendlu ukushintshisana ngokushisa nokusabalalisa lo moya oshisayo / obandayo kuyo yonke indlu, ngamapayipi afakwe ngumoya oshisayo.

Ngohlelo olulodwa lokusatshalaliswa, ukusatshalaliswa kwamakhaza nokushisa endlini kuyaxazululwa.

  • Izinzuzo: zivame ukuba nezindleko eziphansi nokulula okuningi.
  • Izingqinamba: ukusebenza okuphansi, ukunethezeka okulingene futhi kusebenza kuphela emakhaya asanda kwakhiwa noma anohlelo lokushisa lwe-convection air.

Uhlelo lokusabalalisa amanzi ashisayo nabandayo Kususelwa ekujikelezeni ukugeleza kwamanzi ngaphezulu kobuso be-evaporator / condenser ohlangothini lwendlu ukushintshisana ngokushisa.

Amanzi ngokuvamile apholiswa aze afike ku-10ºC ehlobo bese efudunyezwa abe ngu-45ºC ebusika ukuze asetshenziswe njengendlela yokupholisa umoya.

Ukushisa kwangaphansi kuyindlela esebenza kahle kakhulu futhi entofontofo ukuxazulula ukushisa, noma kunjalo, ngeke kusetshenziselwe ukupholisa, ngakho-ke uma le ndlela noma leyo yama-radiator amanzi ashisayo isetshenziswa, kuzodingeka kufakwe olunye uhlelo ukuze lukwazi ukusebenzisa ukupholisa.

  • Izinzuzo: induduzo ephezulu kakhulu nokusebenza.
  • Izingqinamba: izindleko eziphezulu.

Ukusebenza kwezinhlelo zokupholisa umoya

Ukusebenza kahle kwamandla yohlelo lokupholisa umoya olusebenzisa njengomthombo wokushisa inhlabathi engaphansi ngo-15ºC okungenani I-400% ekushiseni kanye ne-500% ekupholiseni.

Lapho kuyashisa kukhona umnikelo kuphela wamandla kagesi ka-25% wamandla esewonke adingekayo. Futhi lapho isetshenziselwa ukupholisa ukusebenza kungaphezu kokuphindwe kabili kwalokho kwepompo yokushisa eshintshana nomoya ngama-degree angama-40, ngakho-ke kulokhu kukhona ukonga amandla okungaphezu kwama-50% uma kuqhathaniswa ne-air conditioner ejwayelekile.

Lokhu kusho ukuthi ukumpompa usuka esigxotsheni esibandayo uye esigxotsheni esishisayo amayunithi ama-4 wamandla (isibonelo ama-calories ayi-4), kudingeka iyunithi elilodwa kuphela lamandla.

Eqandisini, kuwo wonke amayunithi ama-5 ampompiwe, iyunithi elilodwa liyadingeka ukuwapompa.

Lokhu kungenzeka kusukela ayikhiqizi konke ukushisa, kodwa iningi lalo lidluliswa lisuka komunye umthombo liye komunye.

Amayunithi wamandla esiwanikezela kupompo wokushisa asesimweni samandla kagesi, ngakho-ke ngokuyisisekelo sikhiqiza i-CO2 esitshalweni esikhiqiza amandla kagesi, yize sincane kakhulu.

Nokho, singasebenzisa amaphampu okushisa angewona kagesi, kepha ukuthi umthombo wabo wamandla wawushisa ngamandla elanga kepha basesesigabeni sokuhlola.

Si siqhathanisa lolu hlelo nesistimu yokushisa ebamba amandla elanga ngamapaneli siyakubona lokho kuveza inzuzo enkulu, kusukela ayidingi izihlanganisi ezinkulu ukukhokhela amahora wokushoda kwemisebe yelanga.

I-accumulator enkulu isisindo somhlaba uqobo lokho kusenza sibe nomthombo wamandla ekushiseni okungaguquguquki, okuthi ebangeni lalesi sicelo kuziphathe njengokungenamkhawulo.

Ukusebenza

Noma kunjalo, lowo owenzayo Inketho engcono yokusebenzisa lo mthombo wamandla ukuyihlanganisa namandla elanga ashisayo., hhayi ukuhambisa iphampu yokushisa njengoba kushiwo ngenhla (nayo) kodwa ukwengeza ukushisa ohlelweni, uma kunikezwa ekushiseni nasekusebenziseni amanzi asekhaya ashisayo, amanzi angalethwa ku-15ºC kusetshenziswa amandla we-geothermal okwakamuva, phakamisa izinga lokushisa kwamanzi ngamandla elanga.

Kulokhu ukusebenza kahle kwepompo yokushisa kukhuphuka kakhulu.

Ukusatshalaliswa kwamandla kagesi

Amandla we-geothermal asakazeke kuyo yonke iplanethi, ikakhulukazi ngesimo samatshe ashisayo awomile, kodwa kunezindawo lapho kunweba khona mhlawumbe ngaphezulu kwe-10% lobuso beplanethi futhi banezimo ezikhethekile zokuthuthukisa lolu hlobo lwamandla.

Ngisho i izindawo lapho kuveza kakhulu imiphumela yokuzamazama komhlaba nezintaba-mlilo nokuthi, ngokuvamile, kuqondana ne- amaphutha we-tectonic kubalulekile.

imephu ye-geothermal energy

Phakathi kwazo kukhona:

  • Ugu lwasePacific lweZwekazi laseMelika, ukusuka e-Alaska kuya eChile.
  • Intshonalanga yePacific, isuka eNew Zealand, idabula iPhilippines ne-Indonesia, iye eningizimu yeChina naseJapan.
  • Isigodi sokuhlukaniswa kweKenya, i-Uganda, iZaire ne-Ethiopia.
  • Indawo ezungeze iMedithera.

Izinzuzo nezinkinga zamandla we-geothermal

La mandla, njengakho konke okukhona, anezingxenye zawo ezinhle kanye nezingxenye zawo ezimbi.

Como izinzuzo singasho ukuthi:

  • Itholakele kwasatshalaliswa kuwo wonke umhlaba.
  • Imithombo ye-geothermal eyonga kakhulu iku- izindawo ezinentabamlilo ikakhulukazi etholakala emazweni asathuthuka, okungaba njalo iwusizo ukuthuthukisa isimo sakho.
  • Kuyinto a umthombo ongapheli wamandla ngokwesilinganiso somuntu.
  • Ingabe amandla eshibhile lokho kuyaziwa.

Sus ukungalungi ngokuphambene nalokho:

  • Ukusetshenziswa kwamandla okushisa komhlaba kuletha ezinye izinkinga zemvelo, ikakhulukazi, ukukhululwa kwamagesi anesulphurous emkhathini, kanye amanzi ashisayo agelezela emifuleni, okuvame ukuba nezinga eliphezulu lezinto eziqinile.

Yize ngokuvamile, amanzi angcolile angaphinde afakwe emhlabeni, ngemuva kokukhishwa, kwezinye izimo, usawoti we-potassium osetshenziswayo.

  • Ngokuvamile, Ukudluliswa kokushisa kwe-geothermal amabanga amade akunakwenzeka. Amanzi ashisayo noma umusi kufanele kusetshenziswe eduze nomthombo wawo, ngaphambi kokuba aphole.
  • Iningi lamanzi okushisa komhlaba litholakala amazinga okushisa angaphansi kuka-150ºC ngakho-ke ngokuvamile, akusishisi ngokwanele ukukhiqizwa kukagesi.

Lawa manzi angasetshenziselwa ukugeza kuphela, ukufudumeza izakhiwo kanye nezindawo zokugcina izithombo kanye nezitshalo zangaphandle, noma njengamanzi afudunyezelwe ama-boilers.

  • I-Los amadamu wamadwala ashisayo awomile ahlala isikhathi esifushaneNjengoba izindawo eziqhekekile ziphola ngokushesha, amandla azo asebenzayo ancipha ngokushesha.
  • I-Los izindleko zokufaka ziphakeme kakhulu.

Ikusasa lamandla aphuma ngaphansi komhlaba

Kuze kube manje, kubhola kuphela futhi khipha ukushisa ekujuleni okungaba ngu-3 km, yize kulindeleke ukuthi ikwazi ukufinyelela ekujuleni okukhulu, lapho amandla we-geothermal angasetshenziswa kabanzi.

Amandla aphelele atholakalayongendlela yamanzi ashisayo, umusi noma amadwala ashisayo, kuze kufike ekujuleni kwe-10 km, isondela ku-3.1017 gibela. Izikhathi ezingama-30 ezigidi ukusetshenziswa kwamandla wamanje emhlabeni. Okukhombisa lokho amandla we-geothermal angaba ngenye indlela ethokozisayo esikhathini esifushane.

Amasu aphelele ekwakhiweni kwemithombo ye-geothermal afana kakhulu nalawo asetshenziswa emkhakheni kawoyela. Kodwa-ke, kusukela umthamo wamandla wamanzi ku-300 isC ungaphansi ngokuphindwe kayinkulungwane kunowoyela, inhlokodolobha ingatshalwa kwezomnotho ekuhlolweni nasekubheni imishini incane kakhulu.

Kodwa-ke, ukusweleka kukawoyela kungadala ukusetshenziswa okwandayo kwamandla okushisa komhlaba.

Inqubo yezimboni

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, bekulokhu kwenzeka njalo ukusetshenziswa kwemithombo ye-geothermal yokukhiqiza ugesi kuma-turbo-generator aphakathi nendawo (10-100MW) eseduze nezindawo zemithombo, kepha izinga lokushisa elincane elisebenzisekayo lokukhiqiza ugesi kwakungu-150ºC.

Muva nje ama-turbine angenabala angenzelwe amanzi aphuma kugesi oshisa ngamanzi nesifutho esifinyelela ku-100ºC kuphela, okuvumela ukunweba umkhakha wokusetshenziswa kwala mandla.

Futhi, ingasetshenziswa ezinkambisweni zezimboni njengokukhiqizwa kwezinsimbi, ukushisa kwezinqubo zezimboni zazo zonke izinhlobo, ukufudumeza izindlu zokugcina izithombo, njll.

Kepha mhlawumbe ikusasa elikhulu lamandla okushisa okushisa phansi lisetshenziswa ekusetshenzisweni kwamandla okushisa aphansi kakhulu we-geothermal, ngenxa yokuguquguquka kwayo, ubulula, izindleko eziphansi zezomnotho nezemvelo kanye nokwenzeka koku yisebenzise njengohlelo lokushisa nokupholisa.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.