izingxenye zeseli

zonke izingxenye zeseli Siyazi ukuthi ingqamuzana iyingxenye eyisisekelo yokusebenza kwazo zonke izicubu ezilwaneni nasezitshalweni. Kulokhu, izilwane zibhekwa njengezinto eziphilayo ezinamangqamuzana amaningi, ngakho zineseli elingaphezu kwelilodwa. Uhlobo lwamaseli evamise ukuba nawo yingqamuzana le-eukaryotic futhi libonakala ngokuba ne-nucleus yangempela kanye nama-organelle akhethekile ahlukene. Nokho, zikhona ezihlukahlukene izingxenye zeseli futhi ngayinye yazo inomsebenzi ohlukile.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke okudingeka ukwazi mayelana nezingxenye ezahlukene zeseli nokuthi yini umehluko omkhulu phakathi kwengqamuzana lesilwane neseli yesitshalo.

izingxenye zeseli

izingxenye zengqamuzana lesilwane

Isibindi

Kuyi-organelle ekhethekile ekucubunguleni nasekuphatheni imininingwane yamaselula. Amaseli e-Eukaryotic ngokuvamile ane-nucleus eyodwa, kodwa kukhona okuhlukile lapho singathola khona ama-nuclei amaningi. Ukuma kwale organelle kuyahlukahluka kuye ngokuthi iseli ekulo, kodwa ngokuvamile iyindilinga. Izakhi zofuzo zigcinwe kuyo ngendlela ye-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), enesibopho sokuxhumanisa imisebenzi yeseli: ukusuka ekukhuleni kuya ekuzaleni. Kukhona nesakhiwo esibonakalayo ngaphakathi kwe-nucleus ebizwa ngokuthi i-nucleolus, eyakhiwe ukugxila kwe-chromatin namaprotheni. Amaseli ezilwane ezincelisayo ane-nucleoli engu-1 kuya ku-5.

i-plasma membrane kanye ne-cytoplasm

icyoplasm

Ulwelwesi lwe-plasma luyisakhiwo esizungeza ingqamuzana futhi sikhona kuwo wonke amangqamuzana aphilayo. Iphethe ukuvala lokhu okuqukethwe futhi ivikeleke endaweni yangaphandle, lokhu akusho ukuthi iwulwelwesi oluvala uphawu njengoba inezimbotshana nezinye izakhi okufanele kudlule kuzo ama-molecule athile ukuze enze izinqubo zangaphakathi zengqamuzana lesilwane.

I-cytoplasm yamangqamuzana ezilwane yindawo ephakathi kwe-cytoplasmic membrane kanye ne-nucleus, ezungeze wonke ama-organelles. Yakhiwe ngamanzi angama-70% kanti enye ingxube yamaprotheni, ama-lipids, ama-carbohydrates nosawoti wamaminerali. Le medium ibalulekile ekuthuthukisweni kokusebenza kwamaseli.

I-Endoplasmic reticulum kanye ne-Golgi apparatus

I-endoplasmic reticulum iyi-organelle esesimweni samasaka ayisicaba namashubhu anqwabelene phezu kwamanye, abelana ngesikhala esifanayo sangaphakathi. I-reticulum ihlelwe yaba izifunda eziningana: i-endoplasmic reticulum emangelengele, enolwelwesi oluyisicaba kanye nama-ribosomes ahambisanayo, kanye ne-endoplasmic reticulum ebushelelezi, ukubukeka okungajwayelekile futhi ngaphandle kwama-ribosomes ahlobene.

Kuyiqoqo lama-membrane afana nethangi anomthwalo wemfanelo wokusatshalaliswa nokulethwa kwemikhiqizo yamakhemikhali evela kuseli, okungukuthi, iyisikhungo sokukhishwa kwamaselula. Ibunjwe njenge-Golgi complex noma i-apparatus yeseli yesitshalo futhi iqukethe izingxenye ezintathu: isikhwama se-membrane, ama-tubules lapho izinto zihanjiswa khona futhi ziphuma engqamuzaneni, futhi ekugcineni i-vacuole.

I-Centrosome, i-cilia ne-flagella

I-centrosome iwuphawu lwamaseli ezilwane futhi iyisilinda esingenalutho esakhiwe ngama-centrioles amabili. ahlelwe perpendicular nomunye. Ukwakheka kwale organelle kwenziwa ngama-protein tubules, anomsebenzi obaluleke kakhulu ekuhlukaniseni amaseli njengoba ehlela i-cytoskeleton futhi akhiqize i-spindle ngesikhathi se-mitosis. Ingakwazi futhi ukukhiqiza i-cilia noma i-flagella.

I-cilia kanye ne-flagella yamangqamuzana ezilwane ama-appendages akhiwe ama-microtubules anikeza uketshezi kungqamuzana. Zikhona ezinhlobonhlobo ze-unicellular futhi zinesibopho sokunyakaza kwazo, kuyilapho kwamanye amaseli zisetshenziselwa ukuqeda imisebenzi yemvelo noma yezinzwa. Ngokwesilinganiso, i-cilia iningi kakhulu kune-flagella.

i-mitochondria kanye ne-cytoskeleton

I-Mitochondria yi-organelles kumaseli ezilwane lapho imisoco ifika futhi aguqulwa abe amandla ngenqubo ebizwa ngokuthi ukuphefumula. Zinde ngokuma futhi zinezimbotshana ezimbili: ulwelwesi lwangaphakathi olugoqiwe lwakha ama-cristae kanye nolwelwesi lwangaphandle olubushelelezi. Inombolo ye-mitochondria ekhona kuseli ngayinye incike emsebenzini wabo (isibonelo, kumaseli emisipha kuzoba nenani elikhulu le-mitochondria).

Ukuqedela uhlu lwezingxenye eziyinhloko zamangqamuzana ezilwane, sibhekisela ku-cytoskeleton. Yenziwe ngeqoqo lama-filaments akhona ku-cytoplasm futhi, ngaphezu komsebenzi wayo wokubumba amaseli, nawo unomsebenzi wokusekela ama-organelles.

Umehluko phakathi kwamaseli ezilwane nezitshalo

Umehluko phakathi kwamaseli ezilwane nezitshalo

Kunomehluko omkhulu ezingxenyeni zombili zesilwane kanye nengqamuzana lesitshalo. Ake sibone ukuthi uyini umehluko omkhulu:

  • Amaseli ezitshalo Inodonga lwamaseli ngaphandle kolwelwesi lwe-plasma isilwane esingenalo. Kunjengokungathi isambatho sesibili esisibekela kangcono. Lolu donga lunikeza ukuqina okukhulu nokuvikelwa okukhulu. Lolu donga lwakhiwe nge-cellulose, i-lignin nezinye izakhi. Ezinye zezingxenye zodonga lwamaseli zinezinhlelo zokusebenza ezithile kuzilungiselelo zezohwebo nezimboni.
  • Ngokungafani neseli lezilwane, iseli lesitshalo linama-chloroplast ngaphakathi. Ama-chloroplast yilawo anezingulube ezifana ne-chlorophyll noma i-carotene okuyizinto ezivumela izitshalo ukuthi zenze i-photosynthesize.
  • Amaseli ezitshalo ayakwazi ukukhiqiza ukudla kwawo ngenxa yezingxenye ezithile ezingaphili. Benza lokhu ngomkhuba we-photosynthesis. Lolu hlobo lokudla okunempilo lubizwa nge-autotrophic.
  • Amaseli ezilwane, ngakolunye uhlangothi, awanawo amandla okukhiqiza ukudla kwawo ezintweni ezingaphili. Ngakho-ke, umsoco wayo yi-heterotrophic. Izilwane kumele zifake ukudla okuphilayo njengezinye izilwane noma izitshalo uqobo.
  • Amaseli ezitshalo avumela ukuguquka amandla amakhemikhali abe amandla abe amandla elanga noma alula ngenxa yenqubo ye-photosynthesis.
  • Kumaseli ezilwane, amandla anikezwa yi-mitochondria.
  • I-cytoplasm yeseli yesitshalo ibanjwe ama-vacuoles amakhulu ku-90% yesikhala. Ngezinye izikhathi kuba ne-vacuole eyodwa enkulu kuphela. Ama-vacuoles asebenza ukugcina imikhiqizo ehlukahlukene evela ngesikhathi se-metabolism. Ngaphezu kwalokho, iqeda imikhiqizo ehlukahlukene yemfucuza eyenzeka ekuphenduleni okufanayo kwe-metabolic. Amaseli ezilwane anama-vacuoles kodwa mancane kakhulu futhi awathathi isikhala esiningi.
  • Emangqamuzaneni ezilwane sithola i-organelle leyo ibizwa ngokuthi i-centrosome. Iyona ephethe ukuhlukanisa ama-chromosome ukuze akhe amangqamuzana endodakazi, kuyilapho kumaseli ezitshalo ayikho i-organelle enjalo.
  • Amaseli ezitshalo anesimo se-prismatic, kuyilapho amangqamuzana ezilwane enezimo ezihlukile.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nezingxenye zeseli nezici zalo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

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