Isebenza kanjani i-turbine yomoya noma i-windmill?

Ukufakwa kwe-windmill Kepha njengoba umoya uba ugesi? Isichasiso esiqondile samanje imishini yomoya ngabadala izigayo, okusasetshenziswa nanamuhla, ukwenza imisebenzi ehlukahlukene njengokukhipha amanzi noma ukugaya okusanhlamvu. A isivunguvungu somoya Kuwumshini onamabhande noma izindwani ezinamathele kushaft ovamile, oqala ukuzungeza lapho kuvunguza umoya.

Le shaft ejikelezayo ixhunywe ezinhlotsheni ezahlukahlukene zemishini, ngokwesibonelo imishini yokugaya okusanhlamvu, ukudonsa amanzi noma khiqiza ugesi.

Ukuthola ugesi, ukuhamba kwama-blades kushayela i-generator kagesi (enye i-alternator noma i-dynamo) eguqula ifayela le- amandla emishini wokujikeleza ku amandla kagesi. Ugesi ungagcinwa kumabhethri noma uthunyelwe ngqo kugridi. Umsebenzi ulula impela, okuthola kuba nzima wuphenyo nokwakhiwa kwe- imishini yomoya iya ngokuya isebenza kahle.

Izinhlobo Zama-Wind Turbines

Umshini womoya kungaba i-eksisi evundlile, okuyizinto ezivame kakhulu namuhla, noma zikhona futhi i-eksisi ebheke phezulu.

Kusuka kuWikipedia incazelo ye- imishini yomoya emile noma enezingqimba njengoba i-generator kagesi isebenza ukuguqula amandla e-kinetic omoya kumandla wokukhanda nangomoya ophendulwa ngamandla kagesi.

Labo abane-eksisi eqondile bagqamile ngokungayidingi indlela yokuqondisa nokuthi yini i-generator kagesi engahlelwa phansi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, labo abane-eksisi evundlile, vumela ukumboza ububanzi obubanzi kusuka ekusetshenzisweni okuhlukanisiwe kwamandla amancane ukufakwa emapulazini amakhulu omoya.

Imishini yomoya eqondile

Imishini yomoya eqondile

Njengoba kushiwo, imishini yomoya eqondile noma emi mpo awudingi indlela yokuqondisa, futhi kungaba yini i-generator kagesi engatholakala itholakala phansi.

Su ukukhiqizwa kwamandla kuphansi futhi inabakhubazekile abancane njengokuthi idinga ukuqhutshwa ngemoto ukuze iqhubeke.

Kukhona izinhlobo ezintathu zemishini yomoya emi mpo njengoSavonius, uGiromill noDarrrieus.

Izingqinamba

Enye yezinkinga ezivame kakhulu imishini yomoya Usayizi wabo omkhulu, ngaphezu kokudlidliza nomsindo abakubangelayo. Ngalesi sizathu, bavame ukutholakala ezindaweni ezikude namakhaya. Kodwa-ke, izinkampani nososayensi emhlabeni jikelele bayaqhubeka nokusebenza yakha ama-turbine amancane (Ungahlola i-athikili eyenziwe ngaphambilini ngamandla amancane omoya), o athule lokho kungatholakala ezindaweni ezisemadolobheni.

ipulazi lomoya omncane

Kepha enye yezinkinga ezikhathaza kakhulu emkhakheni wesizukulwane se- amandla omoya Ukwehluka komthombo, okungukuthi, komoya. I- imishini yokuphehla ugesi Ngokuvamile, zikulungele ukusebenza kahle lapho umoya uvunguza ngaphakathi kokuthize ijubane. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, isivinini esincane esithile siyadingeka ukuhambisa ama-blades, ngakolunye uhlangothi kukhona umkhawulo omkhulu.

Isibonelo, okuvame kakhulu ukuthi le mikhawulo ine- Isivinini somoya phakathi kwamamitha amathathu kuya kwangama-3 ngomzuzwana. Ubuncane bubizwa ngejubane lokuxhuma, okungukuthi, ubuncane bokukhiqiza ugesi othile, futhi ubukhulu babizwa ngokuthi ijubane elisikiwe, okungukuthi, lapho selivele linenkinga, ngoba lingahle liphule lo mshini.

izingxenye zomoya ophephela

 

Un isivunguvungu somoya kungaba yedwa noma ku amapulazi omoya, emhlabeni owakha i- amapulazi omoya asogwini, ogwini lolwandle noma zingafakwa ngisho nasemanzini ngebanga elithile ukusuka ogwini kulokho okubizwa ngokuthi ipulazi lomoya elisogwini lolwandle noma lolwandle.

umshini womoya

Umthethosisekelo we-turbine yomoya noma i-turbine yomoya

Kunezinkulungwane zamapulazi omoya agcwele amamodeli TEEH (ovundlile eksisi imishini yomoya). Le mishini yakhiwe yizingxenye ezilandelayo.

Umbhoshongo nesisekelo: Izisekelo zombhoshongo zingaba yisicaba noma zijule, ziqinisekise ezimweni zombili ukuzinza kwomoya ophephela, ukubophela kwe-nacelle kanye nezinsimbi zemoto. Isisekelo kufanele futhi simunce ukuqhuma okubangelwa ukwehluka namandla omoya.

 

Imibhoshongo ingaba yizinhlobo ezahlukene ngokuya ngezici zayo:

  • Insimbi i-tubularImishini eminingi yomoya yakhiwe ngemibhoshongo yensimbi eyi-tubular.
  • Imibhoshongo ephathekayo: Zakhiwe endaweni efanayo, zivumela ukuphakama okudingekayo ukuthi kubalwe.
  • Imibhoshongo kakhonkolo Precast: Zihlanganiswe yizicucu ezenziwe ngomumo futhi izingxenye zazo zibekwa endaweni efanayo.
  • Izakhiwo zeLattice: Zenziwa kusetshenziswa amaphrofayli ensimbi.
  • AmaHybrids: Zingaba nezici nezinto zokwakha zezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zombhoshongo.
  • Imibhoshongo eqinisiwe yemimoya enomoya: Zibonakala ngokuba yimishini yomoya enobukhulu obuncane.

Indlu iMinieolica

Ukujikeleza: I-Rotor "yinhliziyo" yazo zonke izivunguvungu zomoya, njengoba isekela ama-turbine blades, ibashukumise ngomshini nangokujikeleza ukuguqula umfutho womoya ube ngamandla.

izingxenye ze-windmill

I-Gondola: Yinhloko ebonakala kakhulu yomoya ophephela emoyeni, isigqoko sokuzivikela esifihla futhi sigcine yonke imishini ye-turbine. Igondola lijoyina umbhoshongo usebenzisa amabhele ukwazi ukulandela ukuholwa umoya.

Yandisa ibhokisi: Ngaphezu kokukwazi ukumelana nokwehluka komoya, u-gearbox unomsebenzi wokuhlanganisa isivinini sokujikeleza esiphansi se-rotor kanye nesivinini esikhulu se-generator. Njengoba izwi lakhe uqobo lisho; ikwazi ukuphindaphinda i-18-50 rpm eyenziwe ukunyakaza kwemvelo kwe-rotor cishe ku-1.750 rpm lapho ishiya i-generator.

i-rotor

Umkhiqizi: Iphethe ukuguqula amandla kagesi abe ngamandla kagesi. Kuma-turbine anamandla amakhulu, kusetshenziswa ama-generator asynchronous aphakanyiswe kabili, yize ama-generator ajwayelekile ahambisanayo nawase-asynchronous nawo egcwele.

Amabhuleki: Amabhuleki emishini asetshenziswa esitimeleni samandla, lapho kudingeka khona ukungqubuzana okuphezulu kokungqubuzana ekumeni okumile nangokukhulu kokucindezelwa.

Imishini kagesi ye-turbine yomoya noma i-windmill

Izinjini zomoya zanamuhla azigcini nje ngokwakhiwa ngamabhande kanye ne-generator ukuletha amandla ashibhile emakhaya. Ama-wind turbines kufanele futhi abe ne- uhlelo lokuphakelwa kwamandla ngamunye nezinzwa eziningi. Lezi zamuva zikwazi ukuqapha nokukala izinga lokushisa, ukuqondisa komoya, isivinini salo neminye imingcele engabonakala ngaphakathi kwegondola noma endaweni ezungezile.

Amandla omoya

Izinzuzo zemishini yomoya esheshayo uma iqhathaniswa naleyo ehamba kancane

Inzuzo enkulu kunazo zonke okuthiwa yi "slow wind turbines" ukuthi banayo izindwani eziningi ukuthi ama-rapids nezinto zawo ngokuvamile eshibhile. Kodwa yiziphi izinkinga zakho? Ngaphandle kobubanzi bawo obukhulu (kusuka ku-40 kuye ku-90 m ukuphakama) futhi unama-rotor anamakhanda afinyelela ku-100 m, ophephela bomoya kushesha kulula kunalezo ezihamba kancane.

Lokhu kufinyelelwa ngenxa yama-generator anamandla amakhulu (u-0,5 kuye ku-3 MW) asebenzisa ngokunenzuzo okukhulu isilinganiso samandla okuphakama komoya.

Njengoba ilula, ama-blade ahamba ngokushesha, ngakho-ke ubukhulu kanye ne- izindleko zebhokisi lokuphindaphinda eshayela i-generator kagesi kuncishisiwe.

Ngokuba nenani elincane lamabhande, lokhu kungalungiswa kalula ukuguqula amandla awo ngokuya ngezimpawu zomoya. Imishini yomoya esheshayo imelana kangcono ne izingcindezi ezibangelwa ukuqubuka komoya. Ukugxila kwe-axial ngenxa yesenzo somoya ku-rotor emile kuncane kuma-turbine omoya asheshayo kunalapho ephenduka; okuphambene kwenzeka ku imishini yomoya ehamba kancane.

I-windmill enamandla kunazo zonke emhlabeni

IVestas yethule ukuvuselelwa komoya ophephela omkhulu kunayo yonke emhlabeni. Anginazo izichasiso zokuchaza ukuthi likhulu kangakanani leli turbine. I-V164, i-windmill engu-220 yemitha ene Amathani angama-38, amamitha angama-80 ubude, isanda kugxila kubo bonke abanentshisekelo yokuvuselelwa eDenmark.

I-turbine yangaphambilini ibikwazi ukuletha amandla ka-8 MW, futhi ngenxa yezibuyekezo manje isiyakwazi ukufinyelela ku I-9 MW okukhiphayo ngaphansi kwezimo ezithile. Esivivinyweni sayo sokuqala, i-V164 ibikhona uyakwazi ukukhiqiza ama-kWh angama-216.000 ngamahora angama-24 kuphela.

umshini womoya

Akukhona nje kuphela ukuthi kuyirekhodi eliphelele lokukhiqizwa kwamandla omoya ngomshini owodwa womoya, kodwa kukhombisa ngokusobala ukuthi imimoya yasolwandle izoba indima ebalulekile ekuguqulweni kwamandla osekuvele kuqhubeka.

Kwanele ukuvula ikhaya iminyaka engama-66

Ngokusho kukaTorben UHvid Larsen, IVestas CTO:

"Wethu prototype isethe elinye irekhodi lesizukulwane, ngama-216.000 kWh akhiqizwe esikhathini samahora angama-24. Siyathemba ukuthi lo injini ephehla ugesi engu-9 MW kukhombise ukuthi ikulungele ukumaketha, futhi sikholwa wukuthi izodlala indima enkulu ekwehliseni izintengo zamandla omoya asolwandle. "

 

Imvamisa ukukhuluma ngama-kilowatts kunzima futhi kungabonakali. Kepha ngokusho kwezindikimba ezisemthethweni, ukusetshenziswa kwamandla kagesi okujwayelekile kwekhaya laseSpain kungu-3.250 kWh ngonyaka. Inani eliphakeme kancane kunokusetshenziswa kwaminyaka yonke kokuhlala emadolobheni emadolobheni amakhulu aseNingizimu Melika. Ukubheka lokhu, ngosuku lokukhiqiza kungaphakela ugesi endlini emaphakathi iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-66.

Enkulu kuneTorres Kio eMadrid futhi efana neMeya yaseTorre eMexico, umjikelezo wabo mkhulu kunamasondo ensimbi eLondon Eye eLondon. Lo ephendulwa ngamanzi kungukuziphendukela kwemvelo we-V164-8.0 MW, i-turbine yomoya leyo asevele ephule amarekhodi ngo-2014 futhi inganika amandla amakhaya aseBrithani ayi-16.000 XNUMX.

umshini womoya


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   Ose kusho

    Nginakekela ama-50 km ukusuka e-Edilberto