Konke odinga ukukwazi ngama-biogas

biogas

Kunemithombo eminingi yamandla evuselelekayo ngaphandle kwalokhu esikwaziyo njengomoya, ilanga, ukushisa komhlaba, umfutholuketshezi, njll. Namuhla sizohlaziya futhi sifunde ngomthombo wamandla avuselelekayo, mhlawumbe ongaziwa njengamanye, kepha ngamandla amakhulu. Imayelana nama-biogas.

I-Biogas igesi enamandla ekhishwe kudoti wemvelo. Ngaphezu kwezinzuzo zayo eziningi, kuyindlela yamandla ahlanzekile naphinde avuseleleke. Ngabe ufuna ukwazi kabanzi nge-biogas?

Izici ze-Biogas

I-Biogas igesi ekhiqizwa ezindaweni zemvelo noma kumadivayisi athile. Kungumkhiqizo wokuphendula kwe-biodegradation kwento ephilayo. Zivame ukukhiqizwa ezindaweni ezigcwalisiwe zokulahla imfucuza njengoba konke okubekwayo kufakwa phansi. Lapho kuthiwa izinto eziphilayo zivezwa kumakhemikhali angaphandle, isenzo sezinto ezincane ezinjenge-methanogenic bacteria (amabhaktheriya avela lapho kungekho-oxygen futhi ondla ngegesi ye-methane) nezinye izinto ziyalulaza.

Kulezi zindawo lapho i-oxygen ingekho futhi lawa mabhaktheriya adla izinto eziphilayo, umkhiqizo wazo udoti yigesi yemethane ne-CO2. Ngakho-ke, ukwakheka kwama-biogas iyinhlanganisela eyenziwe nge-40% kanye ne-70% methane nenye i-CO2 esele. Futhi inezinye izilinganiso ezincane zamagesi afana ne-hydrogen (H2), i-nitrogen (N2), i-oxygen (i-O2) ne-hydrogen sulfide (H2S), kepha ayisisekelo.

Ikhiqizwa kanjani i-biogas

ukukhiqizwa kwe-biogas

I-biogas ikhiqizwa ukubola kwe-anaerobic futhi ilusizo kakhulu ekwelapheni imfucuza ebolayo, ngoba ikhiqiza uphethiloli wenani eliphakeme futhi ikhiqiza ukungcola okungasetshenziswa njengesilungisi somhlabathi noma umquba ojwayelekile.

Ngalo gesi amandla kagesi angenziwa ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene. Okokuqala ukusebenzisa imishini yokuhambisa ugesi nokukhiqiza ugesi. Okunye ukusebenzisa igesi ukukhiqiza ukushisa kuhhavini, izitofu, izomisi, ama-boiler noma ezinye izinhlelo zomlilo ezidinga igesi.

Njengoba ikhiqizwa njengomphumela wokubola kwezinto eziphilayo, kubhekwa njengohlobo lwamandla avuselelekayo okwazi ukufaka esikhundleni sezibaseli. Ngayo ungathola futhi amandla okupheka nokushisa njengoba nje negesi yemvelo isebenza. Ngokufanayo, i-biogas ixhunywe ku-generator futhi idala ugesi ngezinjini zangaphakathi zomlilo.

Amandla amandla

Ukukhishwa kwama-biogas ezindaweni zokulahla udoti

Ukukhishwa kwama-biogas ezindaweni zokulahla udoti

Ngakho-ke kungashiwo ukuthi i-biogas inamandla anjengokubuyisela endaweni okubaswayo kungenxa yokuthi kufanele ibe namandla amakhulu. Ngemitha engama-cubic yama-biogas ingakhiqiza kuze kufike emahoreni ayisithupha wokukhanya. Isibani esikhiqizwayo singafinyelela kufana nesibani se-watt ezingama-60. Ungasebenzisa futhi isiqandisi se-cubic meter ihora elilodwa, i-incubator imizuzu engama-30, kanye ne-HP motor amahora amabili.

Ngakho-ke, i-biogas iyabhekwa igesi enamandla enamandla amangalisayo.

Umlando we-Biogas

ukuthola ama-biogas enziwe ekhaya

Okushiwo kokuqala okungabonakala ngaleli gesi kusukela onyakeni we-1600, lapho ososayensi abaningana bekhomba le gesi njengaleyo evela ekuwohlokeni kwezinto eziphilayo.

Ngokuhamba kweminyaka, ngo-1890, yakhiwa i-biodigester yokuqala lapho kukhiqizwa khona ama-biogas futhi kwakuseNdiya. Ngo-1896 amalambu asemgwaqweni e-Exeter, eNgilandi, ayephehlwa ugesi owawuqoqwa kumashini wokugaya amanzi owawubilisa udaka kusuka ezindle zedolobha.

Lapho izimpi zomhlaba ezimbili ziphela, izimboni ezazibiza ngama-biogas zaqala ukusabalala eYurophu. Kulezi zimboni ama-biogas adalelwa ukuthi asetshenziswe ezimotweni zesikhathi. Amathangi e-Imhoff aziwa njengalawo akwazi ukwelapha amanzi endle nokubilisa izinto eziphilayo ukukhiqiza ama-biogas. Igesi ekhiqizwayo ibisetshenziselwa ukusebenza kwezitshalo, ezimotweni zikamasipala nakwamanye amadolobha ibifakwa kwinethiwekhi yegesi.

Ukusabalala kwe-Biogas kwaphazanyiswa ukutholakala okulula nokusebenza kwamafutha ezimbiwa phansi futhi, ngemuva kwenkinga yamandla yama-70s, ucwaningo nentuthuko ye-biogas kwaqalwa futhi kuwo wonke amazwe omhlaba, kugxilwe kakhulu emazweni aseLatin America.

Phakathi neminyaka engama-20 edlule, ukuthuthukiswa kwama-biogas kube nentuthuko eminingi ebalulekile ngenxa yokutholakele kwenqubo yamagciwane kanye nokusebenza kwamakhemikhali okusebenza kuyo futhi ngenxa yokuphenywa kokuziphatha kwamagciwane angenela ezimweni ze-anaerobic.

Yini ama-biodigesters?

izitshalo ze-biogas

Ama-biodigesters ayizinhlobo zeziqukathi ezivaliwe, ze-hermetic nezingangenisi amanzi lapho kufakwa khona izinto eziphilayo futhi zivunyelwe ukubola futhi zenze ama-biogas. I-biodigester kufanele ivalwe futhi i-hermetic ukuze ama-bacterium anaerobic enze futhi alulaze izinto eziphilayo. Ama-bacterium e-Methanogenic akhula kuphela ezindaweni lapho kungekho-oxygen.

Lezi zinzwa zinobukhulu ezingaphezu kwamamitha ayi-cubic metres angaphezu komthamo futhi zisebenza ngaphansi kwezinga lokushisa kwe-mesophilic (phakathi kwama-20 no-40 degrees) ne-thermophilic (ngaphezu kwama-40 degrees).

Ama-biogas akhishwa futhi ezindaweni okulahlwa kuzo udoti lapho, njengoba izingqimba zezinto eziphilayo zigcwaliswa futhi zivaliwe, kudalwa izindawo ezingenayo i-oxygen lapho amabhaktheriya e-methanogenic ehlazisa khona izinto eziphilayo futhi enza ama-biogas akhishwa ngamashubhu aqhubayo.

Izinzuzo abanazo ngama-biodigester kunezinye izikhungo zokuphehla ugesi ukuthi zinomthelela ophansi kwezemvelo futhi azidingi abasebenzi abaqeqeshiwe kakhulu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, njengomkhiqizo odaleka ukubola kwezinto eziphilayo, kungatholwa umanyolo ophindaphindiwe osetshenziswayo ukuvundisa izitshalo kwezolimo.

IJalimane, iChina neNdiya ngamanye amazwe angamaphayona ekwethuleni lolu hlobo lobuchwepheshe. E-Latin America, eBrazil, e-Argentina, e-Uruguay naseBolivia bakhombise inqubekela phambili ebonakalayo ekuhlanganisweni kwabo.

Biogas isicelo namuhla

ukusetshenziswa kwama-biogas namuhla

ELatin America, ama-biogas asetshenziselwa ukwelapha ukuqothuka e-Argentina. I-Stillage yizinsalela ezikhiqizwa ekwakhiweni komoba ngaphansi kwezimo ze-anaerobic zehliswa futhi zenze ama-biogas.

Inani lama-biodigesters emhlabeni alikacaci kakhulu. EYurophu kunezigcawu zokuphanjiswa kwezidalwa kuphela eziyi-130. Kodwa-ke, lokhu kusebenza njengensimu yamanye amandla avuselelekayo afana nelanga nomoya, okungukuthi, njengoba ubuchwepheshe butholwa futhi buthuthukiswa, izindleko zokukhiqiza ziyancipha futhi ukuthembeka kokukhiqizwa kwe-biogas kuyathuthuka. Ngakho-ke, kunenkolelo yokuthi bazoba nomkhakha obanzi wentuthuko ngokuzayo.

Ukusetshenziswa kwama-biogas ezindaweni zasemakhaya kubaluleke kakhulu. Esokuqala sisebenzele ukukhiqiza amandla nomanyolo wemvelo kubalimi ezindaweni ezisezingeni eliphansi kakhulu abathola imali encane nokufinyelela okunzima emithonjeni yamandla ejwayelekile.

Okwenzelwe izindawo zasemakhaya, ubuchwepheshe buthuthukisiwe obufuna ukufeza ama-digesters ngezindleko eziphansi futhi nokugcinwa kulula ukusebenza. Amandla adinga ukukhiqizwa awekho kangako ezindaweni zasemadolobheni, ngakho-ke akanayo imibandela yokuthi ukusebenza kwawo kahle kuphezulu.

Enye indawo okusetshenziselwa i-biogas namuhla Kusemkhakheni wezolimo nezimboni zezolimo. Inhloso ye-biogas kule mikhakha ukuhlinzeka ngamandla nokuxazulula izinkinga ezinkulu ezibangelwa ukungcola. Ngama-biodigesters ukungcoliswa kwezinto eziphilayo kungalawulwa kangcono. Lawa ma-biodigesters anokusebenza kahle kakhulu futhi ukusetshenziswa kwawo, ngaphezu kokuba nezindleko eziphezulu zokuqala, kunezinhlelo eziyinkimbinkimbi zokulungisa nokusebenza.

Ukuthuthuka kwakamuva kwemishini yokuzibandakanya kuvumele ukusetshenziswa kwegesi okwenziwe ngempumelelo futhi ukuthuthuka okuqhubekayo kwamasu wokuvutshelwa kuqinisekisa intuthuko eqhubekayo kulo mkhakha.

Lapho lolu hlobo lobuchwepheshe lufakiwe, kuphoqelekile ukuthi imikhiqizo ekhishelwa kwinethiwekhi yokuhambisa indle emadolobheni kukhona organic kuphela. Ngaphandle kwalokho, ukusebenza kwama-digesters kungathinteka futhi ukukhiqizwa kwe-biogas kube nzima. Lokhu kwenzeke emazweni amaningana futhi izilahli zemvelo ezilahliwe.

Umkhuba osabalele kakhulu emhlabeni jikelele owokulahlwa kwendle kwenhlanzeko. Inhloso yalo mkhuba leyo yokuqeda udoti omningi owenziwe emadolobheni amakhulu futhi ngalokhu, ngamasu wesimanje, kungenzeka kukhishwe futhi kuhlanzwe igesi yemethane ekhiqizwayo nokuthi emashumini eminyaka edlule lokhu kudale izinkinga ezinkulu. Izinkinga njengokufa kohlaza olwalusezindaweni eziseduze nezibhedlela, iphunga elibi nokuqhuma okungenzeka.

Ukuthuthuka kwamasu wokukhipha i-biogas kuvumele amadolobha amaningi emhlabeni, njengeSantiago de Chile, ukusebenzisa ama-biogas njengomthombo wamandla kunethiwekhi yokusabalalisa igesi yemvelo ezindaweni ezisemadolobheni.

IBiogas inamathemba amakhulu ngekusasa, ngoba ingamandla avuselelekayo, ahlanzekile asiza ekunciphiseni ukungcoliswa kanye nezinkinga zokwelashwa kwemfucuza. Ngaphezu kwalokho, inegalelo elihle kwezolimo, inikela njengomanyolo womkhiqizo ovela eceleni osiza kumjikelezo wempilo yemikhiqizo nasekuvundeni kwezitshalo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   UMnuz Jorge Bussi kusho

    Boas,
    Ngicwaninga ukwenza i-biodigester.
    Ukusebenza epulazini lezingulube elinamakhanda angama-8000, ngidinga inkampani enolwazi lokwakhiwa kwama-biodigesters.
    Lokhu kusesifundeni esiseningizimu.
    Ozithobayo
    G.Busi