Izinto zokuvikela

Izinto zokuvikela

Izinto ezibonakalayo zingahlukaniswa zibe Izinto zokuvikela noma amakhondaktha, kuye ngokuthi awenza kalula yini ugesi. Lokhu kuhlukaniswa kuncike ekutheni ama-electron asondelene kangakanani esakhiweni sawo, njengoba lokhu kuyinkomba yamandla adingekayo ukuze anyakaze (okungukuthi ukuqhuba ugesi) ngaphakathi kwempahla. Lo mehluko uwusizo kuze kube iphuzu. Isibonelo, i-silica ehlanganisiwe iyisivikeli mandla esiphindwe izikhathi eziyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-10 kunethusi, ngakho-ke okubili kuvame ukubizwa ngokuthi ama-insulators nama-conductor amahle kakhulu, ngokulandelana. Izinsimbi namanzi angashiyiwe kubhekwa njengama-conductor amahle, kuyilapho amapulasitiki nengilazi kungama-insulators amahle.

Kulesi sihloko sikutshela konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana ne-insulating materials, izici zabo kanye nokusebenziseka kwazo.

Izici eziyinhloko

izinto zokushisa ezishisayo

Amanzi ahlanzekile ngamakhemikhali ayisivikelo. Emvelweni, nokho, ikhona ezixazululweni zezinye izinto ezinama-ion esakhiweni sawo ezinamadigri ahlobene enkululeko yokuhamba. Kulokhu, lezi zixazululo zingama-conductor kagesi amahle kakhulu.

Amasu okuvimbela izingozi ezibangelwa ukunqwabelana kwe-electrostatic ahlanganisa ukukhulisa ukuguquguquka kwendawo ngokukhuphula umswakama ohlobene. Izikhathi eziningi, amasistimu omswakama afakelwa le njongo futhi ahlanganiswe namayunithi omoya. Umoya onomswakama uqhuba ugesi futhi uvimbele ukushajwa kwendawo.

Ngokuphambene nenkolelo evamile, ama-insulators ashisayo awafani neze nama-thermal conductors. Kuyiqiniso ukuthi ama-conductor ashisayo anokumelana okuncane nokudlulisa ukushisa, kodwa kungashiwo ukuthi zonke izinto (ngisho noma zimbalwa) Bangama-thermal conductors. kufaka phakathi ukufakwa kwe-thermal.

Eqinisweni, cishe noma iyiphi into noma into eshiselwayo izoshisa. Umehluko ukuthi okunye ukumelana kuthatha isikhathi eside ngaphambi kokuba lokhu kushintsha kwezinga lokushisa kwenzeke. Lokhu kuvumela izinto ezithile ukuthi zisetshenziswe njenge-insulation. Ziyizinto ezinokumelana nokushisa okwanele ukuze zisetshenziswe ezihlosiwe. Ngakho-ke, enye ye-insulators engcono kakhulu yokushisa i-vacuum ngokwayo, njengoba kungekho lutho lokushisa.

Ukushisa okushisayo kungasetshenziselwa izinjongo ezingenakubalwa, njengokumboza amagumbi ezindiza noma ukuqinisa izindawo ezivalekile ezizungezwe amazinga okushisa aphezulu. Ezinye zezinto ezivikelayo ezisemthethweni ezisemthethweni ziyi i-polystyrene enwetshiwe, uboya obunamaminerali (uboya bedwala), ibhodi le-kapok, i-polystyrene ekhishwe, igwebu le-polyurethane noma ukhokho owandisiwe.

Izakhiwo ze-insulating materials

ama-insulators emvelo

Nakuba kusobala ukuthi ukusebenza kwezinto ezifakwayo kushintsha usuku ngalunye oludlulayo, kukhona “ikhathalogi evamile” okufanele wonke umuntu ayazi, uma kubhekwa ukuthi kulula ukufinyelela kuyo nokuba wusizo kwephrojekthi yokubuyisela amandla. Ukuqonda amakhono ayo nendlela esebenza ngayo kudinga izici ezintathu: I-thermal conductivity, ukumelana nokushisa kanye nokudluliswa kwe-thermal.

Ngokwenqubo yokukhiqiza, izinto zokwakha zihlukaniswa futhi zihlelwe ku:

  • Izinto zokwenziwa zemvelaphi yezinto eziphilayo: Isibonelo, zonke izinto ezitholakala ezintweni ezingavuthiwe ezifana ne-petroleum. Zitholakala kumapulasitiki.
  • Izinto zomsuka we-inorganic: lezi zinto aziveli kumaseli ezitshalo noma ezilwane, futhi azihlobene nesizinda sekhabhoni (isb., izingubo zokulala zengilazi zoboya).
  • Izinto zomsuka wemvelo wemvelo: izinto ezithathwe ezakhiweni zezilwane noma zemifino (isibonelo, imicu ye-hemp)

Izibonelo ze-insulating materials

ukugxila

Ake sibone ukuthi yiziphi izibonelo ezaziwa kakhulu ze-insulating materials:

  • Izinkuni: I-conductive ngenxa yokuba khona kukasawoti kanye nomswakama. Ivame ukusetshenziselwa izakhiwo nezinduku ezahlukene.
  • I-silicate: Izinto zokuvikela, ezitholakala ikakhulukazi kuma-insulators. Kungaba i-aluminium silicate (ku-porcelain eqinile) noma i-magnesium silicate (ku-talc noma i-forsterite). Esimweni sokuqala kuwukusekela okuhle komqhubi wokushisa.
  • Ubumba olunwetshiwe. Yenziwe ngobumba bemvelo futhi isetshenziswa njengenhlanganisela yodaka nokhonkolo, ithuthukisa amandla okuvikela emikhakheni ehlukene yokwakha.
  • I-ceramics ye-oxide. Okokufakwa kwe-spark plug, noma ukusetshenziswa emazingeni okushisa aphezulu.
  • Ingilazi. Ukufakwa kwamandla kagesi amafushane namaphakathi, akumuncwa umswakama kodwa kulula ukuwulimaza.
  • Isikhokho: Isisindo esiphansi kanye nezinto eziphansi zokuminyana, okuvumela ukubeka izendlalelo eziningi, okwandisa ukusebenza kahle kukakhokho. Futhi iyi-insulator engenamanzi kakhulu.
  • Isisuli. Ukuguquguquka kwenjoloba kuyinikeza amandla ayo, njengoba ngokuvamile ikwazi ukumelana nokuguqulwa okuningi ngaphandle kokuphuka futhi ibuyele esimweni sayo sokuqala. Irabha yegwebu nayo iyisivikelo futhi ingasetshenziswa njengento evimbela umsindo.
  • I-Ceramics. Kuyi-insulator enhle enokumunca umswakama ophansi kanye nokumelana nomthelela omkhulu. Ivame ukusetshenziswa embonini kagesi.
  • I-aluminium oxide. Okwezingxenye zokuvala umlilo kanye nokufakwa kwe-spark plug.
  • Ipulasitiki. Ingenye yezivikeli ezingcono kakhulu ngoba ukucinana kwamabhondi ayizinhlayiyana kwenza kucishe kungenzeki ukuthi ama-electron agqashuke.

Ukushisa okushisayo

Okokuqala, sithola ama-insulators okwenziwa. Lezi izinto ezisebenza kahle kakhulu ze-RTD ngamanani aphansi uma kuqhathaniswa. Uma lezi zinto zokwenziwa zihlanganiswa nezinye izinhlobo zezinto, zingasetshenziswa futhi njenge-acoustic insulation.

Izinto ezivame kakhulu ze-synthetic insulating yilezi:

  • i-refleive roll Afika emgqeni owodwa noma ngaphezulu futhi aqukethe amabhamuza e-polyethylene nezingqimba ze-foil. Ubukhulu bayo bungahluka kuye ngesimo sezulu lapho izokwakhiwa khona. Zingama-insulators akhanyayo. Zisetshenziswa kakhulu lapho isimo sezulu sinokulinganisela futhi sifana.
  • I-Polystyrene Enwetshiwe (EPS). Kuyimpahla ehlinzeka ngokufakwa okuhle kwe-thermal ngaphandle kokuqina okuningi, okungukuthi, impahla encane iyadingeka. Ukusetshenziswa kwayo phansi akukhuthazwa, ngakho-ke kunconywa ukuyibeka ezindongeni zokuhlukanisa noma ugcwalise izikhala phakathi kwabo.
  • I-polystyrene enwetshiwe (XPS). Kuyinto esetshenziswa kakhulu ukuhlukanisa izinga lokushisa lekhaya. Impahla efana kakhulu neyangaphambili, kodwa imelana nomswakama kanye nesisindo esiningi ngaphandle kokukhubazeka. Ngaphezu kwalokho, yenziwe ngamashidi amancane athatha indawo encane kakhulu.
  • I-polyurethane. Enye yezinto ezisetshenziswa kakhulu zokufaka ukushisa okushisayo, okubaluleke kakhulu, kwaziwa kakhulu. Ingasetshenziswa ngesimo se-foam noma ngesimo samapaneli aqinile. Ine-conductivity enhle ye-thermal. Ukusetshenziswa kwayo kuvame kakhulu ezindongeni zangaphakathi kanye nophahla lwamanga, noma njengegwebu langokwezifiso emakamelweni omoya noma imifantu edinga ukugcwaliswa. I-drawback eyinhloko yalesi sihloko ukukhishwa kwezinto ezingavuseleleki ngakho-ke ukuvikelwa komlilo okuphansi.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nezinto ezihlukahlukene zokuvikela ezikhona nokuthi yiziphi izici zazo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.