Isebenza kanjani injini kagesi

Isebenza kanjani injini kagesi

Akungabazeki ukuthi izimoto zikagesi zithuthuka ngokushesha. Ubuchwepheshe obuningi buyathuthukiswa ukuze kuthuthukiswe ukusebenza kahle kwalezi zinjini. Nokho, ababaningi abantu abazi Isebenza kanjani injini kagesi.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela lesi sihloko ukuze sikutshele ukuthi imoto kagesi isebenza kanjani, yiziphi izingxenye zayo kanye nezinzuzo ekusetshenzisweni kwayo.

Izimoto zikagesi

Isebenza kanjani injini yemoto kagesi?

Izingxenye ezihambayo ezimbalwa, ukusebenza okulula nokuthembekile, asikho isidingo sesiqandisi noma i-gearbox yendabuko. Iminyaka eminingana, izimoto zikagesi bezilokhu zisemilonyeni yawo wonke umuntu. Lokhu kwakungenye yezinguquko eziphambili kakhulu zangaleso sikhathi, ngoba imoto yokuqala enebhethri Yasungulwa nguRobert Anderson ngo-1839. Kodwa-ke, abazi okuningi mayelana nokuthi izimoto zikagesi zisebenza kanjani ngempela.

U-Tesla uzishaye isifuba ngokuthi okuwukuphela kwezindawo ezigcina amanzi abanikazi bezimoto okudingeka bazigcwalise iwasha yomshini womoya kanye nama-brake fluid reservoirs. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi injini kagesi yemoto ayikukhiqizi ukushisa okwanele okudinga uhlelo lokupholisa lwendabuko, ayidingi ukugcoba izingxenye ezihambayo, Ayinawo u-gearbox one-clutch yesintu, futhi idinga noketshezi oluthile ukuze kuqinisekiswe ubuqotho bayo nokulawula izinga lokushisa.

Izingxenye zemoto kagesi

izinzuzo zemoto kagesi

Ngaphambi kokuqonda isimiso sokusebenza senjini yemoto kagesi, sidinga ukwazi ukuthi yiziphi izingxenye zayo, ngoba asikwazi ukuthola ama-piston, amasilinda, ama-crankshafts, noma amasistimu e-exhaust, ukumane sibala ezimbalwa. Izingxenye zesistimu kagesi zihlukaniswe ngamaqembu amane amakhulu: ishaja esebhodini, ibhethri, isiguquli kanye nemoto ngokwayo. Ndawonye, ​​banesibopho sokuguqula amandla kagesi esiwashaja ebhethrini ngokusebenzisa okokufaka kokushajwa kweselula kumasondo. Lona umsebenzi wengxenye ngayinye:

  • Ishaja engaphakathi: Inesibopho sokuguqula amandla kagesi ukusuka endaweni yokushaja ye-AC abe amandla aqondile futhi awaqongelele ebhethrini.
  • Isiguquli: ophethe ukuguqula amandla ukusuka ku-DC ukuya ku-AC futhi ngokuphambene nalokho, kuye ngokuthi siyasheshisa noma siyehla. Iphinde ibe nesibopho sokulawula injini ngokwesicelo somshayeli.
  • Injini kagesi: iguqula amandla kagesi abe ukunyakaza. Esigabeni sokunciphisa izinga, ingakwazi ukubuyisela amandla okubhuleka, iguqule amandla e-kinetic abe amandla kagesi futhi iwagcine ebhethrini, okungukuthi, i-regenerative braking.
  • Ibhetri: Kuyidivayisi yokugcina amandla kagesi eyenziwe ngamabhethri amancane. Yithangi likaphethiloli lemoto kagesi.

Isebenza kanjani injini kagesi

izingxenye zenjini

Ngaphakathi kwe-motor sine-stator, okuyingxenye ye-motor engashintshi, kanye nama-windings ahlukene, umsinga odlula kulawa ma-windings. izokhiqiza inkambu kazibuthe ejikelezayo ku-stator. Phakathi nendawo, sithola i-rotor, okuyingxenye ehambayo equkethe insimu yamagnetic engashintshi. Inkambu kazibuthe ezungezayo ku-stator idonsa futhi izungezise inkambu kazibuthe engaguquki ye-rotor. Lokhu-ke, kuphendulela amasondo emoto kagesi ngochungechunge lwamagiya, ngaleyo ndlela kukhiqize ukunyakaza.

Kuyathakazelisa futhi ukuqonda ukuthi izimoto zikagesi zilawula kanjani amandla ezigabeni ezihlukene zokusetshenziswa kwazo. Siyathola izigaba ezimbili ezihlukene, isigaba sokusheshisa kanye nesigaba sokunciphisa, esilawulwa ngokuqondile umshayeli.

Kuzo zombili izimo, ngokungafani nenjini yokushisa, injini kagesi ingafaka amandla ukuze ikhiqize ukunyakaza noma iguqule amandla e-kinetic (ukunyakaza) ibe amandla kagesi ukuze ishaje ibhethri.

  • Isigaba sokusheshisa: Esigabeni sokusheshisa, amandla kagesi ngendlela yamanje eqondile adluliselwa kusuka kubhethri kuya ku-converter, futhi isiguquli sinesibopho sokuguqula la mandla kagesi ukusuka kumanje oqondile kuya ku-alternating current. Lokhu kufinyelela ku-motor, ehambisa i-rotor ngokusebenzisa uhlelo oluchazwe ngenhla, futhi ekugcineni iba ukunyakaza kwamasondo.
  • Isigaba sokunciphisa: Kulesi sigaba, ukunyakaza kuyahlehliswa. Lesi sigaba siqala ngamasondo, futhi amasondo ahamba ngemva kokuphela kwesigaba sokusheshisa, okungukuthi, lapho sisusa izinyawo zethu ku-accelerator. I-motor ikhiqiza ukumelana futhi iguqule amandla e-kinetic abe amandla ashintshayo, aguqulelwe emuva abe awamanje aqondile ngesiguquli bese agcinwa ebhethrini. Le nqubo yenzeka futhi ngesikhathi sokubhuleka kabusha kwezimoto zikagesi.

Izinhlobo

Uma sesazi ukuthi injini kagesi isebenza kanjani, sizobona ukuthi yiziphi izinhlobo eziyinhloko ezikhona:

Injini eqondile yamanje (DC): sIsetshenziswa ezimeni lapho kubalulekile ukwazi ngokuqhubekayo ukulungisa isivinini injini. Lolu hlobo lwemoto kufanele lube nenani elifanayo lezigxobo ku-rotor ne-stator kanye nenani elifanayo lekhabhoni. Ama-motor e-DC angahlukaniswa ngezinhlobo ezintathu:

  • uchungechunge
  • Ukuhambisana
  • Kuxubile

Alternating Current (AC) Motors: Lawa amamotho asebenza kuma-alternating current. Imoto kagesi iguqula amandla kagesi abe amandla ajikelezayo ngokusebenzisana kwendawo kazibuthe.

Izinzuzo zemoto kagesi

Kunezinzuzo eziningi ezinikezwa ukusetshenziswa kwemoto kagesi uma kuqhathaniswa nejwayelekile. Sizobala izinzuzo eziyinhloko:

  • Ukungabikho kokukhishwa kwegesi.
  • Ukusebenza buthule.
  • Ukuphatheka kalula.
  • Amathuba wokuyishaja kabusha kunoma iyiphi indawo.
  • Amathuba okuyishaja kabusha ngamandla avuselelekayo (amandla omoya namandla elanga).
  • Inketho ye-DC brushed motor.
  • Ama-Motor anamabhulashi e-DC, angaba nenkundla yezilonda noma anozibuthe baphakade.
  • I-induction motor, elula futhi esebenza kahle kakhulu.
  • Amamotho amaningi kagesi anganikeza amandla aphezulu ngezikhathi ezifushane.
  • Amasistimu ezimoto zikagesi yilawo anethuba lokuba ne-regenerative braking Faka inkanyezi futhi ume, (okwenza kube nokwenzeka ukusebenzisa amandla ngokuvamile alahlekayo lapho kubhuleka)

Kodwa injini kagesi engcono kakhulu, Kuyisigaba sesithathu sokungeniswa nesilawuli se-elekthronikhi esinokubhuleka kabusha. Injini, ngokusho kwabo, ingakwazi ukuzuza ukuzimela okuhle kakhulu futhi icishe ingabikho intuthu engcolisayo.

Njengoba ubona, ukufunda ukuthi imoto kagesi isebenza kanjani kungaqinisekisa ukwanda kokusetshenziswa kwalobu buchwepheshe bezinguquko. Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokuthi imoto kagesi isebenza kanjani.


Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.