Francis ephendulwa

Francis ephendulwa

Enye yezinto ezisetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni jikelele ukukhiqizwa kwamandla kagesi ophehlwa ngamanzi yi Francis ephendulwa. Kungumshini we-turbo owakhiwa nguJames B. Francis futhi usebenza ngokuphendula nangokugeleza okuxubile. Yimishini ephehla amandla wokubamba engakwazi ukunikeza ukweqa okuhlukahlukene nokugeleza futhi isebenze emithambekeni esukela kumamitha amabili kuya kumamitha angamakhulu ambalwa.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici nokubaluleka kweturbine kaFrancis.

Izici eziyinhloko

Francis izingxenye zomoya

Lolu hlobo lwe-turbine luyakwazi ukusebenza ezindaweni eziphakeme ezingalingani ezisukela kumamitha amaningana kuya emakhulwini wamamitha. Ngale ndlela, yakhelwe ukuthi ikwazi ukusebenza ezinhlokweni eziningi nasekugelezeni. Ngenxa yeglu esebenza kahle kakhulu eyakhiwe nezinto ezisetshenziselwe yona, le modeli izoba ngomunye osetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni. Ukusetshenziswa kwayo okuyinhloko kusensimini yokukhiqizwa kwamandla kagesi ezitshalweni zamandla kagesi kagesi.

Amandla we-Hydroelectric energy, njengoba sazi, wuhlobo lwamandla avuselelekayo asebenzisa amanzi ezitsheni ukwenza amandla kagesi. Lawa ma-turbine anzima kakhulu futhi ayabiza ukuklama ukufaka kepha angasebenza amashumi eminyaka. Lokhu kwenza utshalomali kuzindleko zokuqala zalolu hlobo lwama-turbine lube ngaphezulu kunezinye. Kodwa-ke, kufanelekile njengoba utshalomali lokuqala lukwazi ukukhokha eminyakeni embalwa yokuqala. Njengamandla we-photovoltaic lapho sisebenzisa khona ama-solar panel ngempilo emaphakathi esebenzisekayo yeminyaka engama-25, singabuyisa utshalomali phakathi neminyaka eyi-10-15 sisetshenzisiwe.

I-turbine kaFrancis ifaka umklamo we-hydrodynamic Kusinikeza isiqiniseko sokusebenza okuphezulu ngenxa yokuthi akukho ukulahleka kwamanzi. Banobuso obuqinile impela futhi banezindleko eziphansi zokulungisa. Leli ngelinye lamaphuzu alusizo kunayo yonke yalolu hlobo lwama-turbine kwazise ukugcinwa kwawo kuphansi nokuthi yini okunciphisa izindleko ezijwayelekile. Ukufakwa kweturbine kaFrancis enezindawo eziphakeme ngaphezu kwamamitha ayi-800 akunconyiwe nakancane ngoba kunokuhlukahluka okuningi kakhulu kwamandla adonsela phansi. Futhi akukhuthazwa ukufaka lolu hlobo lwe-turbine ezindaweni lapho kunokuhlukahluka okukhulu ekugelezeni.

Ukuhamba ngomkhumbi we-Francis

Ukukhiqizwa kwamandla kagesi

I-Cavitation yinto ebalulekile okufanele siyilawule ngaso sonke isikhathi. Kungumthelela we-hydrodynamic owenzekayo lapho kukhiqizwa izimbotshana zesitimu ngaphakathi kwamanzi adlula kogesi. Njengamanzi, kungenzeka nganoma yiluphi olunye uketshezi olusesimweni soketshezi futhi olusebenze ngalo emandleni aphendula ngokungafani kokudangala. Kulokhu, kwenzeka lapho uketshezi ludlula ngejubane ngomphetho obukhali futhi kube nokuncipha phakathi koketshezi nokongiwa kwe-Bernoulli njalo.

Kungenzeka ukuthi ingcindezi yomhwamuko ketshezi isendleleni yokuthi amangqamuzana angashintsha ngokushesha kube wumphunga bese kwakheka inani elikhulu lamabhamuza. Lawa magwebu aziwa njengezimbobo. Yilapho umqondo we-cavitation uvela khona.

Wonke la magwebu hamba uye ezindaweni lapho kunengcindezi ephezulu khona lapho kunengcindezi encane. Phakathi nalolu hambo, umhwamuko ubuyela kungazelelwe esimweni soketshezi. Lokhu kudala ukuthi amabhamuza agcine echoboza futhi ekhungathekisa futhi akhiqize umzila wegesi okhiqiza inani elikhulu lamandla endaweni eqinile futhi ongaqhekeka ngesikhathi sokushayisana.

Konke lokhu kusenza ukuthi sicabangele ukuvalwa kwenjini kaFrancis.

Francis izingxenye zomoya

Izici ze-turbine kaFrancis

Lolu hlobo lwama-turbine lunezingxenye ezahlukahlukene futhi ngalinye liphethe ekuqinisekiseni ukukhiqizwa kwamandla kagesi kagesi. Sizohlaziya ngayinye yalezi zingxenye:

  • Igumbi Kuvunguza: Kuyingxenye ye-turbine kaFrancis ebhekele ukusabalalisa ngokulinganayo uketshezi lapho kungena khona impeller. Leli gumbi lokuvunguza linomumo womnenke futhi kungenxa yokuthi ijubane elijwayelekile loketshezi kufanele lihlale lingaguquguquki endaweni ngayinye yalo. Lesi yisizathu esenza ukuthi kube sesimweni sokuvunguza kanye nomnenke. Ingxenye yesiphambano yaleli gumbi ingaba yizinhlobo ezahlukahlukene. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, unxande futhi kolunye luyindilinga, okuyindilinga okuvame kakhulu.
  • Umsabalalisi: Kuyingxenye yalokhu kuphephela okwenziwe ngamacembe ahleliwe. Lawa blade anomsebenzi wokuhleleka kuphela. Zisebenza ukugcina ukwakheka kwegumbi lokuvunguza esesishilo ngenhla futhi zikunikeze ukuqina okwanele ukuze zikwazi ukuxhasa sonke isakhiwo se-hydrodynamic nokunciphisa ukulahleka kwamanzi.
  • Umsabalalisi: le ngxenye yakhiwe ngokuhamba kwamaveni okuqondisa. Lezi zinto kufanele ziqondise amanzi ngokuqonde kuma-Arabhu empimpi ahleliwe. Ngaphezu kwalokho, lo mhambisi uphethe ukulawula ukugeleza okuvunyelwe lapho kudlula i-turbine kaFrancis. Yile ndlela amandla we-turbine angashintshwa ngayo ukuze ilungiswe ngangokunokwenzeka ekushintsheni kokulayisha kwenethiwekhi kagesi. Ngasikhathi sinye, iyakwazi ukuqondisa ukuhamba koketshezi ukuze ithuthukise ukusebenza komshini.
  • Impeller noma Rotor: kuyinhliziyo ye-turbine kaFrancis. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi yindawo lapho ukushintshaniswa kwamandla kwenzeka phakathi komshini wonke. Amandla oketshezi olujwayelekile ngesikhathi esidlula ngaso impoqo isamba samandla we-kinetic, amandla ingcindezi anayo namandla angaba khona maqondana nokuphakama. I-turbine inesibopho sokuguqula la mandla abe amandla kagesi. I-impeller ibhekene nokudlulisa la mandla nge-shaft kuya ku-generator kagesi lapho lokhu kuguqulwa kokugcina kwenziwa. Ingaba nezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene ngokuya ngenombolo ethile yenguquko umshini owenzelwe yona.
  • Ukuncela tube: Kuyingxenye lapho uketshezi luphuma kuphephela. Umsebenzi wale ngxenye ukunikeza ukuqhubeka koketshezi nokubuyisa ukweqa okulahlekile ezikhungweni ezingaphezulu kwezinga lamanzi. Ngokuvamile, le ngxenye yakhiwe ngendlela yesisabalalisi ukuze ikhiqize umphumela wokudonsa osiza ukubuyisa ingxenye yamandla angakahanjiswa ku-rotor.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-turbine kaFrancis.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.