Zithini izinyithi

zithini izinyithi

Isinyithi, into esiyisebenzisa yonke imihla kubomi bethu bemihla ngemihla. Nangona kunjalo, abantu abaninzi abazi kakuhle zithini izinyithi kwicandelo lekhemistri enjalo. Kule ntsimi, izinyithi ziyaziwa, ezo zinto zetheyibhile yamaxesha eyona nto iphambili kuyo kukuba ngumqhubi wombane kunye nobushushu. Bavame ukuba noxinano oluphezulu kwaye ngokubanzi bomelele kubushushu begumbi, ngaphandle kwentsimbi ye-mercury, engamanzi. Uninzi lwazo lunokubonisa ukukhanya, lubunike ukukhanya kwesinyithi.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba zeziphi izinto zesinyithi ezivela kumbono weklinikhi, ziziphi iimpawu zazo kunye neentlobo zazo.

Zithini izinyithi

itheyibhile yamaxesha

Izitye zezona zinto zininzi kakhulu kwitheyibhile yamaxesha kwaye ezinye zezona zinto zininzi kakhulu kuqweqwe lomhlaba. Ezinye zazo zihlala zifumaneka kwindalo zinobunyulu obuninzi okanye obuncinci, nangona uninzi lwazo ziyinxalenye yezimbiwa zomhlaba ongaphantsi komhlaba kwaye kufuneka bohlulwe ngabantu ngaphambi kokuba zisetyenziswe.

Izinyithi zineebhondi ezibizwa ngokuba yi "metallic bond." Kolu hlobo lobophelelwano, iiathom zentsimbi ziyadibana ngendlela yokuba ii-nuclei kunye ne-valence electron (ii-elektroni kwigobolondo lokugqibela le-elektroni, ii-elektroni ezingaphandle) zidibane zenze uhlobo "lwamafu" alujikelezileyo. Ke ngoko, kwi-metallic bond, ii-atom zentsimbi zisondele kakhulu omnye komnye kwaye zonke "zibhaptiziwe" kwii-elektroniki zazo ze-valence, zenza ubume besinyithi.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, izinyithi zingenza iibhondi ze-ionic kunye nee-nonmetals (njenge-chlorine kunye ne-fluorine) ukwenza iityuwa. Olu hlobo lwebhondi lwenziwa ngumtsalane wombane phakathi kweeon zemiqondiso eyahlukeneyo, apho isinyithi sakha ii-ion ezintle (ii-cations) kwaye ezingezizo ezesinyithi zakha ii-ion ezingalunganga. Xa ezi tyuwa zinyibilika emanzini, ziqhekeka zibe ziion.

Nokuba ingxubevange yentsimbi enye nenye (okanye ngentsimbi) iseyinto yentsimbi, njengensimbi kunye nobhedu, nangona ingumxube ofanayo.

Propiedades

isinyithi segolide

Ngenxa yeempawu zabo ezizodwa zomzimba, isinyithi sikhonze umntu ukusukela kumaxesha amandulo, ngenxa yeempawu zabo ezifanelekileyo zokwenza izixhobo ezahlukeneyo, imifanekiso eqingqiweyo okanye ulwakhiwo:

  • Xa ucinezelwe, ezinye izinyithi zingenza amaphepha amancinci ezinto ezifanayo.
  • Xa ziphantsi koxinzelelo, ezinye izinyithi zingenza iingcingo okanye imicu yezinto ezifanayo.
  • Isakhono sokumelana nophuko xa siphantsi kwemikhosi yequbuliso (amaqhuma, amathontsi, njl.
  • Amandla oomatshini. Iyakwazi ukumelana nokutsalwa, uxinzelelo, uxinzelelo kunye neminye imikhosi ngaphandle kokutshabalalisa ubume bayo okanye ukonakala.

Ukongeza, ukuqaqamba kwabo kubenza balungele ukwenza ubucwebe kunye nezinto zokuhombisa, kunye nokuqhuba kakuhle kombane kubenza babaluleke kakhulu ekuhanjisweni kwenkqubo yangoku yeenkqubo zamandla.

Iindidi zensimbi

yintoni izinyithi kunye neempawu zazo

Izinto zentsimbi zinokuba ziindidi ezininzi kwaye zihlelwe kwitheyibhile yamaxesha ngokwazo. Iqela ngalinye labelane ngeempawu:

  • Ialkali Ziyakhanya, zithambile kwaye zinempilo kakhulu phantsi koxinzelelo oluqhelekileyo kunye neemeko zeqondo lobushushu (1 i-atmosferi kunye ne-25ºC), ke azisokuze zibe nyulu kwindalo. Banobuninzi obuphantsi kwaye babahambisa kakuhle ubushushu nombane. Banendawo yokunyibilika ephantsi kunye neendawo zokubila. Kwitheyibhile yamaxesha, bahlala kwiqela I. Kukho nehydrogen kweli qela (ayisosinyithi).
  • Umhlaba wealkali. Bakwiqela II letheyibhile yamaxesha. Igama layo livela kwi-alkalinity ye-oxide yayo. Zivame ukuba nzima kwaye zingasebenzi ngakumbi kunezo-alkaline. Ziikhowudi eziqaqambileyo kwaye zilungile zobushushu nombane. Banobuninzi obuphantsi kunye nombala.
  • Utshintsho lwesinyithi. Uninzi lwezinyithi luwela kolu luhlu. Bahlala kwindawo esembindini wetafile yamaxesha kwaye baphantse babanzima, ngamanqaku aphezulu anyibilikayo kunye nokubilisa, kunye nokuqhuba kakuhle kombane kunye nokuqhutywa kombane.
  • Lanthanides. Kwaziwa njengeelanthanides, zibizwa ngokuba "ngumhlaba onqabileyo" kwitheyibhile yamaxesha kwaye zenze "izinto zenguqu zangaphakathi" ezinee-actinides. Zifana kakhulu nezinye kwaye, ngaphandle kwamagama ahlukeneyo, zininzi kakhulu phezu komhlaba. Banendlela yokuziphatha ebabazekayo (xa benxibelelana nomazibuthe, umzekelo, umazibuthe oveliswe yimagnethi) kunye nokuziphatha okubonakalayo (xa kubethwa yimitha).
  • Izinto ezenziwayo. Ngokudibeneyo nomhlaba onqabileyo, benza "izinto zotshintsho lwangaphakathi", ezifanayo kakhulu omnye komnye. Banenombolo yeatom ephezulu kwaye zonke iisotopu ezininzi zezi isotopu ziradioactive, ezenza zinqabile kakhulu kwindalo.
  • IiTransactinides. Ikwaziwa njenge "superheavy element", zizinto ezo ezigqitha eyona nto inzima kwi-atomic number, lawrence (103). Zonke iisotopu zezi zinto zinobomi obufutshane, zi-radioactive, kwaye zidityanisiwe elebhu, ke zonke zinamagama oososayensi abazenzileyo.

Imizekelo kunye non-esinyithi

Makhe sibone eminye imizekelo yesinyithi:

  • Ialkali ILithium (Li), isodiyam (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), francium (Fr).
  • Umhlaba wealkali. I-Beryllium (Be), i-magnesium (Mg), i-calcium (Ca), i-strontium (Sr), i-barium (Ba) kunye ne-radium (Ra).
  • Utshintsho lwesinyithi. titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), isilivere (Ag), i-cadmium (Cd), i-tungsten (W), iplatinam (Pd), igolide (i-Au), i-mercury (Hg).
  • Umhlaba onqabileyo. Lanthanum (La), Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), Neodymium (Nd), Promethium (Pm), Samarium (Sm), Europium (Eu).
  • Izinto ezenziwayo. Actinium (Ac), thorium (Th), protactinium (Pa), uranium (U), neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), americium (Am).
  • IiTransactinides. Rutherfordium (Rf), Dubnium (Db), Seaborgium (Sg), Bohrio (Bh), Hassium (Hs), Meitnerium (Mt).

Izinto ezisisiseko kubomi bezinto eziphilayo azizezentsimbi. Izinto ezingezizo ezesinyithi zizinto ezinempawu zazo ezahluke ngokupheleleyo kwezo zesinyithi, nangona kukho iikhompawundi ezibizwa ngokuba zii-metalloids ezineempawu kunye neempawu eziphakathi kwesinyithi kunye nezingezizo ezesinyithi. Ii-nonmetals zenza iibhondi ezidibeneyo xa zisenza iimolekyuli phakathi kwazo. Ngokungafaniyo nesinyithi, Ezi khompawundi ayihambisi kakuhle umbane nobushushu, kwaye ayikhanyi.

Ioksijini, ikhabhon, i-hydrogen, i-nitrogen, i-phosphorus kunye nesalfure zizinto ezisisiseko zobomi kwaye ziyinxalenye yezinto ezingezozentsimbi. Ezi zinto zingesosinyithi zinokuqina, zingamanzi okanye zinerhasi.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nezinto eziyinyithi kunye neempawu zazo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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