Yenziwa njani iglasi

iglasi eyaphukileyo

Kwimekobume yethu sinesixa esikhulu seglasi kuyo yonke indawo. Nangona kunjalo, ababaninzi abantu abaziyo yenziwe njani iglasi. Kweli nqaku siza kufunda indlela iglasi kunye nekristale zenziwe kwaye zenziwe kwaye zeziphi umahluko okhoyo phakathi kwazo. Namhlanje sisebenzisa inani elikhulu lezinto ezenziwe ngeglasi kunye nekristale. Ukuthengiswa kwezindlu, iimoto, izipili, iibhotile zamayeza, iibhotile, izikrini zikamabonwakude, izibane ezikhanyayo, iikhawuntari zeevenkile, ubuso bewotshi, iivazi, izihombiso nezinye izinto ezininzi.

Ngoko ke, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela indlela iglasi eyenziwe ngayo kwaye yintoni ekufuneka ithathelwe ingqalelo kuyo.

Yenziwa njani iglasi

ukwenziwa kweebhotile zeglasi

Iglasi yenziwe ngesanti, kwaye yisanti equlethe i-silica, esisiseko sokwenziwa kweglasi. Kwakhona kubaluleke kakhulu ukwazi indlela yokwahlula phakathi kweglasi kunye nekristale. Into ebizwa ngokuba yi "crystal" nayo iglasi, kodwa ifakwe ilothe. Kodwa makhe sijonge konke oku ngcono.

Iglasi yenziwe nge-silica kwisanti kunye nezinye izinto ezifana ne-sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) kunye ne-limestone (CaCO3). Sinokuthi iqulunqwe Izinto ezi-3, umxube wesanti yequartz, isoda kunye nekalika. Ezi zinto zintathu zinyibilikiswa kwiziko kwiqondo lobushushu eliphezulu kakhulu (malunga ne-1.400ºC ukuya kwi-1.600ºC). Isiphumo sale fusion yintlama yeglasi ephantsi kweendlela ezahlukeneyo zokubumba, ezizezi, ubuchule bokubumba, njengoko siza kubona ngezantsi. Njengoko kunokubonwa, into ekrwada yeglasi yisanti.

Ukwenziwa kweglasi

yenziwe njani iglasi

Siza kubona iindlela ezi-3 zeglasi ezisetyenziswa kakhulu, okanye ngokufanayo, ukwenziwa kweemveliso zeglasi.

  • Ukubumba ukuvuthela okuzenzekelayo: Izinto zeglasi (iglasi etyhidiweyo) ingena kwi-mold evulekileyo, indawo yayo yangaphakathi inesimo esifuna ukunika iglasi, okanye ngokuchanekileyo, ukumila kwento yokugqibela. Emva kokuba i-mold ivaliwe, umoya ocinezelweyo ufakwe ngaphakathi ukuze ulungelelanise izinto kwiindonga zayo. Emva kokupholisa, vula isikhunta kwaye ususe into. Njengoko ubona, iglasi etyhidiweyo yenziwa kwangaphambili, kwaye ekugqibeleni inxalenye eseleyo, ebizwa ngokuba yi-flash, iyasikwa. Emazantsi ephepha, unevidiyo, ukuze ukwazi ukubona ngokwenene itekhnoloji. Le teknoloji isetyenziselwa ukwenza iibhotile, iingqayi, iiglasi, njl. Le teknoloji isetyenziselwa ukwenza iibhotile, iingqayi, iiglasi, njl.
  • Yakhiwe ngokudada kwibhafu yetoti: Olu buchule lusetyenziselwa ukufumana iipleyiti zeglasi, umzekelo ukwenza iglasi kunye neefestile. Galela izinto ezityhidiweyo kwitoti enetoti engamanzi. Ekubeni iglasi inoxinano olungaphantsi kunetoti, isasazwa phezu kwetoti (ezidadayo) ukuze zenze iiflakes, ezithi zityhalelwe kwiziko lomlilo ngenkqubo yokuqengqeleka, apho zipholiswa khona. Xa sele epholile, amashiti ayasikwa.
  • Isekwe ngabaqengqelekayo: Izinto ezityhidiweyo zidlula ngendlela egudileyo okanye yegranular lamination roll. Olu buchule lusetyenziselwa ukwenza iglasi yokhuseleko. Ngokwenene iyafana nendlela yangaphambili, umahluko kulapho isixhobo sokusika sikhona, sinerola esinokubumba kunye / okanye ubukhulu bephepha ngaphambi kokusika.

Iipropati zeglasi kunye nekristale

iiglasi zekristale

Iimpawu ezibaluleke kakhulu zeglasi zezi: ezicacileyo, eziguquguqukayo, ezingenamanzi, ezichasene neemeko zokusingqongileyo kunye neekhemikhali eziphendulayo, kwaye ekugqibeleni zinzima kodwa zibuthathaka kakhulu. Kunzima kuthetha ukuba ayikrweleke lula kwaye ayikrweleki, iqhekezwe lula ngamaqhuma.

Kubalulekile ukwahlula phakathi kweglasi kunye nekristale. Okokuqala, kufuneka siqonde umahluko phakathi kweglasi kunye nekristale. Ikristale ikhona ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo kwindalo, njengequartz okanye icrystal, ngoko ke yimathiriyeli ekrwada.

Nangona kunjalo, iglasi yinto (eyenziwe ngesandla) kuba yiphumo lokudityaniswa kwamacandelo athile (i-silica, i-soda kunye ne-lime). Ukuthetha ngemichiza, ityuwa, iswekile kunye nomkhenkce nazo ziikristale, kunye neegugu, isinyithi kunye nepeyinti ye-fluorescent.

Kodwa igama leglasi lihlala lisetyenziswa njengegama eliqhelekileyo kuyo nayiphi na i-glassware eyenziwe ngokugqwesileyo kuneebhotile zeglasi okanye iibhotile ezisetyenziswa yonke imihla. Into abantu abaninzi abayibiza ngokuba “yikristale” ibhekisa kwiglasi ekuye kongezelelwa kuyo ilothe (i-lead oxide). Olu hlobo "lweglasi" ngokwenene "iglasi yokukhokela." Olu hlobo lweglasi luxabiswa kakhulu ngenxa yokuqina kunye nokuhlobisa, nangona kungenalo ulwakhiwo lwe-crystalline. Ibizwa ngokuba yikristale kwaye yikristale eqhelekileyo kwiiglasi kunye nemihlobiso.

Ukuze ugweme iimpazamo, imigangatho emi-3 iye yamiselwa ukuphatha iglasi ekhokelayo ngokungathi yikristale. Le migaqo yaqulunqwa ngo-1969 liqela lezorhwebo eliphambili kwi-European Union. I-United States ayizange ibeke imigangatho yayo, kodwa yamkela imigangatho yaseYurophu ngeenjongo zezithethe.

Iimeko ezintathu zokuqwalasela ikristale kwiglasi ekhokelayo zezi:

  • Umxholo okhokelayo udlula i-24%. Khumbula, yiglasi yelothe kuphela.
  • Uxinaniso likhulu kuno-2,90.
  • Isalathisi se-refractive se-1.545.

Nangona kunjalo, kukho iiglasi ezidalwe kwindalo, njenge-obsidian eyenziwe bubushushu obuveliswa ngaphakathi kwentaba-mlilo, efana neglasi.

Njengoko ubona, ngempazamo sibiza iglasi ekhokelayo okanye iglasi yokukhanya kuba ukukhanya kwayo kulinganisa iglasi yendalo. Oku kuxelisa kuye kwaba yinjongo ephambili yabavelisi beglasi. Akufunekanga sibeke ikristale okanye izinto zeglasi yelothe kwizikhongozeli zeglasi ezirisayikilishwa. Ngokomzekelo, iiglowubhu ezikhanyayo okanye izibane, izibane ze-fluorescent, kunye neeglasi zewayini zenziwe ngeglasi endaweni yeglasi. Nangona kunjalo, iglasi yekhitshi eqhelekileyo idla ngokwenziwa ngeglasi.

Kukho ukudideka okuqhelekileyo kubemi ngokubiza iglasi yeglasi kwaye ngokuphambeneyo. Xa sibona inkqubo yokwakheka komntu ngamnye, sinokubona zonke iiyantlukwano phakathi kwabo, ngaphezu kweempawu zabo. Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nendlela iglasi eyenziwe ngayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
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