Iza kuphela nini ioyile?

xa ioli yaphela

¿Iza kuphela nini ioyile?? Ngumbuzo esiye sazibuza wona ngamanye amaxesha ebomini. Ioyile yeyona nto isetyenziswa kakhulu ekuveliseni umbane nakwezinye iindawo ezininzi. Ugcino lweoyile lilinganiselwe kwaye ngoku iplanethi ayinalo ixesha lokuzihlaziya kwakhona kwinqanaba lomntu. Ukupheliswa kwala mafutha ezinto eziphilayo kunabantu abaxhalabileyo.

Ke ngoko, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela ukuba i-oyile izakuphela nini kwaye zithini iziphumo.

Iimpawu zeoyile

Ukukhutshwa kwefossil fuel

Umxube weentlobo ngeentlobo zeehydrocarbon kwinqanaba lolwelo. Yenziwe ngezinye izinto ezinkulu ezingcolileyo kwaye isetyenziselwa ukufumana iifutha ezahlukeneyo kunye neemveliso. I-petrolium ngamafutha aphuma kwizicwili eziphila emanzini, izilwanyana kunye nezityalo. Ezi zidalwa zihlala elwandle, amachibi kunye nemilomo kufutshane nolwandle.

I-oyile yafunyanwa kwimithombo yeendaba evela kwimvelaphi yentlenge. Oku kuthetha ukuba izinto esele zenziwe zezinto eziphilayo kwaye zigqunywe ngentlenga. Nzulu kwaye nzulu, phantsi koxinzelelo loqweqwe lomhlaba, uguqulwa ube ziihydrocarbon.

Le nkqubo ithatha izigidi zeminyaka. Ke ngoko, nangona i-oyile iveliswa rhoqo, inqanaba layo lemveliso alinakuthelekiswa nanto ebantwini. Yintoni egqithisile, inqanaba lokusetyenziswa kweoyile liphezulu kakhulu kangangokuba umhla wokuphelelwa kwayo umiselwe. Kwindlela yokwenziwa kweoyile, intsholongwane ye-aerobic isebenza kuqala kwaye ibacteria yeanaerobic iya nzulu. Ezi mpendulo zikhupha ioksijini, initrogen, nesalfure. Ezi mpendulo zikhupha ioksijini, initrogen, nesalfure. Ezi zinto zintathu ziyinxalenye yezihlanganisi zehydrocarbon.

Xa intlenga icinezelwe phantsi koxinzelelo, ibhedi yenziwa. Emva kwexesha, ngenxa yesiphumo sokufuduka, ioyile yaqala ukugcwala kuwo onke amatye anokungena kunye nokungena. La matye abizwa ngokuba 'ngamatye okugcina'. Ioyile igxila apho kwaye ihlale kuyo. Ngale ndlela, inkqubo yokukhupha ioyile iyenziwa ukuyikhupha njengombane.

Iza kuphela nini ioyile?

xa ioyile iphelile kwaye kuzakwenzeka ntoni

Xa "uMad Max" wakhululwa ngo-1980, ingcamango malunga nokuphela kwehlabathi apho ukungabikho kwamafutha kuza kutshintsha umhlaba kwakungabonakali ngathi yinyani yesayensi. Ukubandezeleka kukaMel Gibson ngexesha lohambo kubonisa uloyiko lwehlabathi lokwenyani, ngenxa yokunyuka kwamaxabiso amandla, ukutshiswa kwamaqula eIran naseIraq ngenxa yemfazwe kunye nemiyalelo yokuthintela.

Nangona kunjalo, UMad Max wayengalunganga. Umgqomo wokugqibela weoli otshisiweyo emhlabeni awuyi kuxabisa izigidi zeedola kwaye ixabiso lawo liya kuba ngu-zero. Ayizukuba lixesha lokugqibela, kuba kugqityiwe, kodwa kuba akukho mntu ufuna ixesha elizayo. Umbuzo wenkulungwane yama-XNUMX ukukhathazeka malunga nokuba ioyile iyakuphela nini. Kwi-XXI, umbuzo omtsha kukuba sifuna ukuqhubeka nokuwusebenzisa ixesha elingakanani.

Uloyiko olukhulu lweoyile ukuza kuthi ga ngoku lujikeleze umzuzu wokuthatha isigqibo xa imveliso iincopho (incopho yeoyile) kwaye iya isiba nqabileyo.

Oko umphanda weoyile wakhutshwa ePennsylvania (eUnited States) ngo-1859, Ibango alizange liyeke ukukhula. Kwenzeka ntoni ukuba amaqula akhoyo aphelile? Eli lelona phupha libi kwinkqubela phambili yehlabathi. Ioyile ilincedile ilizwe kangangeminyaka eli-150, kodwa isenokungabi yinjini yayo kwezoqoqosho kwiminyaka elishumi ukusukela ngoku.

Nokuba i-OPEC, ibhokisi yasentsomini yamazwe athumela ngaphandle ioyile, iyavuma ukuba incopho yemfuno isondela, Oko kukuthi, nini iincopho zokusetyenziswa kweoyile kwaye ziye ekucutheni okusisigxina. Ukungafikeleli kwisivumelwano yayiyimigaqo.

Ukukhutshwa kweoyile

Ukuphela kweoyile

Yintoni etshintsha imigaqo yomdlalo yinkqubela phambili yetekhnoloji yakutshanje. Okokuqala, kuba bayakuvumela ukukhutshwa koovimba kunye nokusetyenziswa kweehydrocarbons ezingahambelaniyo kumanzi anzulu, yiyo loo nto ukuphela kweoyile kusondele kakhulu ukuya phambili. Yintoni egqithisile, Ukuphuhliswa kweminye imithombo yamandla kuyenza isebenze ngokukuko. Ngokutsho kweengcali, baya kuthi ekugqibeleni bathathe indawo yezibaso.

I-OPEC ikholelwa ekubeni ukwehla kwebango lehlabathi emva kwe-2040 yeyona meko inokwenzeka kwixesha elizayo. Nangona beqonda ukuba amazwe amaninzi athabathe amanyathelo okujongana notshintsho lwemozulu ekuvunyelwene ngalo kwingqungquthela yaseParis, ngowama-2029, ungafikelela kumda ophezulu kwangoko. Ngaphantsi kwezi meko, baxela kwangaphambili ukuba ukusetyenziswa komhlaba kuya kunyuka ukusuka kwimigqomo yangoku yezigidi ezingama-94 ngosuku ukuya kwi-100,9 yezigidi zemigodi ngemini kwisithuba seminyaka elishumi, emva koko ngokuthe ngcembe ziqale ukwehla.

Uphando lombutho wokhuselo lokusingqongileyo lunethemba ngakumbi kwaye luqhubela phambili kwelona bango liphezulu kude kube ngu-2020. Ngokwezibalo zayo, Amandla elanga aya kumela iipesenti ezingama-23 zonikezelo lwehlabathi ngo-2040 kwaye ziya kufikelela kuma-29% ngowama-2050.

Nangona kunjalo, olu tshintsho aluzukwenzeka ngokukhawuleza. I-oyile isala iipesenti ezingama-31 zamandla ombane aphambili kwihlabathi (ngelixa amandla ahlaziyekayo, kubandakanya umbane wamanzi kunye nemfuno yamandla e-biomass, yiakhawunti kuphela ye-13%), ke ukunyamalala kwayo ngekhe kwenzeke ngequbuliso. Iinkampani ezikolu shishino kunye namazwe avelisa imveliso zilungiselela umhlaba omtsha ohluke ngokupheleleyo kuleyo siyaziyo.

Amaxabiso eoyile azinzile phakathi kwe- $ 60 kunye ne- $ 70 umphanda kwaye akunakulindeleka ukuba anyuke. Enye ingxaki enkulu lixabiso. Ngokusekwe kwimvumelwano yentengiso, ayizukuphakama kakhulu kunangoku, okanye ubuncinci ayizukubona i-100 ephezulu kwiminyaka emithathu eyadlulayo. Umda omtsha ongasentla ujikeleze i-US $ 60/70 ngomgqomo, kuba ukusuka kulo mqobo, ukuqhekeka kwe-hydraulic kunye nokumbiwa kwamanzi enzonzobila okuchaphazela amazwe avelisa ngokwesiqhelo ukuba abe nenzuzo. Ngapha koko, ukuba ixabiso leehydrocarbon lingaphezulu komlinganiselo ophezulu, utyalo-mali kweminye imithombo yamandla luya kukhuthazwa ngakumbi kwaye ibango liza kuncipha.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba ioyile izakuphela nini kwaye ibaluleke ngantoni.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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