Ingxaki yongcoliseko lwamanzi

amanzi angcolileyo kunye neziphumo zawo

Kwinqaku elilandelayo siza kuthetha ngongcoliseko lwemilambo, ulwandle kunye nemithombo yamanzi. Ukwenza oku, siya kuzama ukucacisa ukuba iveliswa njani Ungcoliseko lwaManzi, indlela olwa ngayo kunye nefuthe elinalo kubomi bakho.

Alithandabuzeki elokuba ungcoliseko lwamanzi yenye yezinto Iingxaki ezinkulu ejongene nabantu abaninzi namhlanje. Nangona kule minyaka idlulileyo, maninzi amazwe azama ukulwa le ngxaki.

Ungcoliseka njani amanzi?

Njengoko wonke umntu esazi, amanzi abalulekile ebomini, ke ukungcoliseka kwawo kuyingozi kakhulu kuphuhliso lwezoqoqosho nezentlalo kwiindawo apho imithombo yamanzi Bakwimeko emaxongo.

Amaxesha amaninzi asazi ukuba ukungcolisa amanzi ayisiyonto ibangelwa yimizi-mveliso emikhulu, kunye nezinye iifektri ezisebenza kwiindawo kufutshane nemilambo okanye ulwandle. Sikwanenxalenye yoxanduva ukusukela ulwandle kunye namanzi alungile kuye wonke umntu.

ishishini lokonga amandla

Ngale ndlela, akukho nto mayiphoswe emanzini,  kunye nokuhlala okuncinci okanye izinto ezinokufikelela elwandle ukusuka kwindlu yangasese yendlu yethu.

Udoti

Ukuqala kongcoliseko lwamanzi

Ungcoliseko lwamanzi olubangelwa yimisebenzi yabantu, iqala ukwenzeka kuhlaziyo lweshishiniNgelishwa, oku kuye kwanda kwaba yingxaki exhaphakileyo.

Ngexesha Inguquko kumashishini (phakathi kwesiqingatha sesibini senkulungwane ye-XNUMX kunye neminyaka yokuqala yenkulungwane ye-XNUMX), ukwanda kwempahla yabathengi kunye neenkqubo zabo zokuvelisa kufuna isixa esikhulu samanzi ukuguqulwa kwezinto eziluhlaza. Inkunkuma evela kwezi nkqubo yalahlwa kwizifundo zamanzi zendalo ngaphandle kwalo naluphi na uhlobo lolawulo. Apha ndaqala ukusasaza enzima Ungcoliseko lwamanzi.

ungcoliseko lwendalo lusongela ifa esiza kulishiya kwixesha elizayo

Uvelaphi ungcoliseko lwamanzi?

Ngokwesiqhelo, ungcoliseko lwamanzi lwenzeka ngokukhupha ngokuthe ngqo okanye ngokungathanga ngqo kwimithombo yamanzi (imilambo, iilwandle, amachibi, njl. Njl.) Zezinto ezahlukeneyo ezingcolisayo. Indalo inesakhono sokucoca isiqu sayo ukuba ifumana isixa esincinci sezingcolisi, kwaye ngale ndlela, ibuyisa umlinganiso. Ingxaki iqala xa ukungcola kugqitha ukufunxeka kwenkqubo.

Ezona ntlobo zingcoliseko lwamanzi:

Enye yazo inento yokwenza neyakhe umjikelo wendalo, apho inokuthi idibane nezinto ezithile ezingcolisayo (njengokunyibilika okanye ukumiswa kwezimbiwa kunye nezinto eziphilayo) ezikhoyo kumhlaba womhlaba, iatmosferi nasemanzini.

Kodwa olunye uhlobo longcoliseko lwamanzi -oluthanda ukuba lolona lubalulekileyo noluyingozi- lolunolwalamano olukhethekileyo kunye nesenzo sabantu. Apha sinamathuba amaninzi. Phakathi kwezona ziqhelekileyo sinokuzikhankanya:

  • Ukukhutshwa kwentsalela yezinto eziyityhefu ezivela kwimizi-mveliso kunye nasezidolophini, eziphoswa emilanjeni, ezilwandle nasemachibini.
  • Ungcoliseko oluveliswe ngu ukusetyenziswa kakhulu kwezibulali zinambuzane kunye nezichumisi kwezolimo nzulu, ethi ingene kumanzi angaphantsi komhlaba.

  • Inkunkuma elahlwa kunxweme, ngelishwa le nkunkuma ithatha amakhulu okanye amawaka eminyaka ukuthotywa.

Udoti

  • Ukusetyenziswa kwezibasa ezingcolisa izikhephe, ezigcina ziphelele elwandle ngenxa yokucoca izikhephe, okanye ngenxa yeengozi, ezinje ngePrestige.

Ungcoliseko lwezixhobo zamanzi

Ulwandle ayilulo lodwa olufumana ukungcola, enyanisweni sinengxaki enkulu ngenxa yongcoliseko lwemilambo kunye namachibi.

Ngelishwa, zininzi iiarhente ezinokungcolisa imilambo kunye namachibi. Eyona ibalulekileyo iya kuba:

  • amanzi amdaka kunye nezinye iintsalela ezifuna ioksijini (ezihlala zizinto eziphilayo, ukubola kwazo kuvelisa ukungabikho kwamanzi).
  • Izifo ezosulelayo oko kuphelela ekubangeleni iingxaki zesisu kunye nezifo ezoyikekayo kwabo basela la manzi (ikholera, ...).

amanzi ashiyekileyo

  • Tyala izondlo Zenzelwe ukukhuthaza ukukhula kwezityalo zasemanzini, ezigcina zibolile, ziphelise ioksijini enyibilikileyo kwaye zibangele ngaphezulu kwevumba elibi.

  • Iimveliso zamachiza, ezifana nezibulala-zinambuzane, iimveliso ezahlukeneyo zorhwebo, izinto zemichiza iqulethwe kwisepha, iisepha kunye neemveliso zokubola kwezinye izinto eziphilayo.

amanzi ashiyekileyo

  • Izimbiwa ezingaphiliyo kunye neeMichiza.

Iziphumo zongcoliseko lwamanzi

Njengoko sisazi, ukungcoliseka kwamanzi okunjalo kungakhokelela ungcoliseko lwemilambokwi ungcoliseko lolwandleNokuba amachibi, amadama ... Emva kwayo yonke into enamanzi.

Ukuqala, olu lungcoliso luchaphazela izilwanyana kunye nezinto eziphilayo ezinokuhlala kuzo. Ngale ndlela, ukungcola kungeniswa kwi itsheyina lokutya, Kwaye bayayihlasela bade bafikelele kumakhonkco aphezulu, oko kukuthi, kuthi. Ngokutyisa kwizinto eziphilayo ezihlala emanzini angcolileyo, ezinje ngeentlanzi kunye neentlanzi, siyangena kwaye siqokelele ityhefu abayityileyo, eneziphumo ezibulalayo kwixesha elide, ezinje ngokuvela kwezifo ezinje ngee-aleji, okanye iCancer.

ukuloba okukhulu

Ukongeza, izakhamzimba ezingaphezulu ziyaqokelelana kokukhona sikwi-chain, oko kukuthi, thina siqokelela iityhefu ezininzi ebomini bethu kunezinye izinto eziphilayo. Ngapha koko, uphononongo lwakutsha nje lubonisa ukuba abantu baseSpain bane-mercury ephindwe kalishumi egazini lethu kunamaJamani, ngenxa yokutya okuphezulu kweentlanzi eSpain.

Ukongeza, kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukuba amanzi angcolileyo anokuthwala iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zezifo ezinje nge-typhoid fever, ikholera, igastroenteritis ... kunye nesizathu Ukufa kwabemi, ngakumbi umntwana. Amanzi acocekileyo nasempilweni aqhuba ukukhula kwabantu kunye nokuchuma.

amandla ombane

Unganceda njani ukunciphisa ungcoliseko lwamanzi?

Ngokwesiqhelo, kukusetyenziswa kwethu okugqithileyo yeyona nto ingunobangela wongcoliseko lwamanzi, kuba ukuveliswa kwazo zonke iintlobo zempahla kuthetha ukusetyenziswa kwamanzi okukhulu, kunye nongcoliseko lwalo. Umzekelo, Amakhulu amabala ombala kunye nezinto ezingcolisayo kakhulu zisetyenziselwa ukwenza iimpahla, njengezihlangu.

Uninzi lokungcoliseka lubangelwa ulimo olunzulu, olufuna imichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi, Ukuveliswa kwaso kudla isixa esikhulu samanzi kwaye kukhokelela ekukhutshelweni kwezinto ezingcolisayo kwiilali zomlambo. Ngapha koko, ukusetyenziswa kwezi zinambuzane kunye nezichumisi kungcolisa umhlaba kunye namanzi amdaka. Singanegalelo ekunciphiseni ukungcoliseka kwendalo ngokutya iimveliso zezinto eziphilayo, ngaloo ndlela sinciphise iimveliso eziveliswa lulimo olunzulu.

Omnye umsebenzi odlayo nowongcolisa amanzi iphepha mhlophe, Ukuchitha iphepha elisetyenzisiweyo kwakhona kunegalelo kungcoliseko lwamanzi oluncinci.

Amaxesha amaninzi inkunkuma ethile, efana Iiplastikhi ziphelela emanzini. Ezi ziya elwandle kwaye zihlala khona ixesha elide kude kube kubolile. Oku kunokuthintelwa ngokunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kweengxowa zeplastikhi kunye nokufaka ezo zingasasebenziyo kwisitya esimthubi kunyango lwamva kunye nokurisayikilisha.

Ungcoliseko lweLwandle

Nangona ingakhange ibonakale ngathi injalo, kubaluleke kakhulu ukuba siyabazi ubungozi bokungcoliseka kolwandle kwaye ngenxa yezi zinto eziphilayo zolwandle lweentlobo ezininzi ziyagcinwa, ukongeza isinika ithuba lokuba neoksijini, loo oxygen inye oyiphefumlayo.

El ukulahla inkunkuma ngabom, ukuchitheka kweoyile, kunye neendidi eziphezulu zeekhemikhali ezinobungozi agalelwa ulwandle ungcoliseko lwayo Ayichaphazeli kuphela izityalo kunye neentlobo zaselwandle ezihlala kuzo kodwa nazo zonke Inani lehlabathi

Ukuchitheka kweoyile

Okwangoku i-brent yeyona inkulu isoyikiso malunga nongcoliseko lolwandle, okoko imveliso kunye nokuhanjiswa kweoyile kukhule kakhulu ukuze kuhlangatyezwane neemfuno zoqoqosho lwangoku.

imveliso oyile kunye nokuthuthwa

Ngenxa yokuchitheka kweoyile elwandle, afe uninzi lwezilwanyana ezihlala kuzo

ukuchitheka kweoyile

Masikhe sicinge ngayo yonke into eyivelisayo i-petroleum, kwaye ihlala isetyenziselwa ukwenza iiplastikhi kunye nezinye iimveliso, Ngelishwa konke oku kubonakala kuphelela emazantsi olwandle.

inkunkuma elwandle

Iziphumo ezibi zeoyile yaselwandle

Kuthiwa ngaphezulu kwe-80% yongcoliseko olenzeka kwiilwandlekazi impazamo yethu, kwaye ngokusisiseko kungenxa yokusetyenziswa gwenxa esikwenzayo ngeoyile.

Ukongeza, ngenxa yeenzame ezininzi zokucoca ukuphelisa intsalela yeoyile efumaneka emazantsi olwandle, kubonisiwe ukuba Ukonakaliswa kwamanzi kunye nobomi baselwandle kuyaqhubeka ubuncinci iminyaka eli-10. Ukuthathela ingqalelo into yokuba kukho ukuchitheka kweoyile rhoqo ngonyaka, inani leziphumo ezinjalo liyatshabalalisa.

ukuchitheka kweoyile kunye neziphumo zazo

Uthintelo kunye nolawulo longcoliseko lwaselwandle ngeoyile

Xa inqaku lokungcoliseka elwandle ngenxa yeoyile likho, uthotho lwezifundo zommandla ziyenziwa ukugqiba umthetho olandelwayo, ukuze ube nakho yicoce ngokupheleleyo. Ukuba ibala lincinci, unokukhetha ukulinda linyibilike ngokwendalo, nangona eyona nto iqhelekileyo kukuthintela ngaphambi kokuba usebenze.

Ngesi sizathu, olu hlobo lothintelo lwaselwandle luhlala lwenziwa ukusuka kwizikhephe ezinemigaqo-nkqubo yayo ilandelayo:

  • Ukuphuhliswa kwemigangatho yobugcisa yokufaka isicelo kwiitanki
  • Ukuhlolwa kobugcisa bamatanki
  • Ukulawulwa kwetrafikhi yaselwandle
  • Uqeqesho
  • Ukuphendula kuthetha ukuthintela iingozi (iinqaba zokulawula, iinqwelo zokutsala, njl.

Idatha ngongcoliseko lwamanzi

Amaxesha amaninzi, asiyiboni le ngxaki de basinike idatha malunga nesihloko. Mhlawumbi uwazi la manani ngongcoliseko lwamanzi, uyayiqonda indlela kumoshwa amanzi kumazwe okuqala ehlabathi. inkcitho yamanzi Ngelishwa, amanzi angcolileyo sesinye sezizathu eziphambili zoku Ukufa komntwana zehlabathi. Amanzi angcolileyo ngunobangela wenani elikhulu lokufa kwabantwana, ngakumbi eAfrika naseAsia, ikakhulu ngenxa usulelo kunye norhudo.

Ngaphezulu Izigidi ezi-5 zabantu bafa minyaka le ngokusela amanzi angcolileyo.

El Iipesenti ezingama-90 zamanzi Ukugqitywa ngabemi behlabathi kuvela amanzi angaphantsi komhlaba.

Un Ilitha yeoyile yemoto kunye neelitha ezine zepeyinti ungene emhlabeni Ungcolisa iilitha ezizigidi zamanzi okusela.

Iilitha ezine zepetroli ochitha umhlaba Ungcolisa iilitha ezintathu zezigidi zamanzi.

2000 yezigidigidi zabantu kwiplanethi abanayo ukufikelela kumanzi okusela kunye nongcoliseko oluqhubela phambili lwamanzi kuya kuba nzima ukulufikelela.

Ngelishwa i izifo ezibangelwa ngamanzi Ungcoliseko lubulele abantu abaninzi kuyo yonke imbali kunayo nayiphi na imfazwe. Namhlanje, baphantse babe zizigidi ezi-5 abantu abafayo minyaka le emhlabeni ngenxa yamanzi angcolileyo, uninzi lwabo kumazwe angathathi ntweni.

Nangona kunjalo, amazwe okuqala ehlabathi akasindiswanga kungcoliseko lwamanzi. Umzekelo kwi EUnited States phantse isiqingatha samachibi eli lizwe angcoliswe kukuhlala kweentlanzi okanye ukutyiwa ngabantu

ngo-2050 kuzakubakhona iiplastikhi ezingaphezulu kweentlanzi zolwandle

Los amazwe ahambele phambili kwezoqoqosho Banoxanduva lokukhutshwa okungcolisayo kwamanzi. Kuqikelelwa ukuba iikota ezi-3 zokukhutshwa kwemizi-mveliso ziphoswa elwandle ngaphandle kwalo naluphi na unyango, oko kukuthi, zinegalelo elikhulu kungcoliseko lwamanzi.

CO2

Amanani ayonyuka nangakumbi xa sithetha nge kumazwe asakhulayo. Abanawo umzi-mveliso omninzi njengamazwe ahambele phambili, kodwa iinkqubo zokucoca inkunkuma zisesichengeni, ngenxa yoko ukukhutshwa okuphoswa elwandle ngaphandle konyango Ixabisa iipesenti ezingama-90.

Amanzi aphantsi komhlaba

Nangona la manzi abizwa ngokuba ngaphezulu, njengemilambo ekhankanywe apha ngasentla, amachibi, iilwandle kunye neelwandle, ezo zifumana Ukuncipha okukhulu kunye nokuqwalaselwa Ukumisa ungcoliseko lwamanzi, amanzi omhlaba awafanelanga ukulibaleka. Inyaniso, imilambo emanzi Yeyona mithombo iphambili yamanzi yokunkcenkceshela kunye nokusetyenziswa kwabantu okukhoyo.

Ubonelelo lwamanzi amatsha olunikezelwa yimilambo kunye namachibi alunakwanela ukuhlangabezana neemfuno zokusetyenziswa kwamanzi ngoku.

Oku kuthetha ukuba kubalulekile ukukhusela amanzi omhlaba yengxaki yongcoliseko. Nangona bengenalo uvakalelo kule ngxaki njengamanzi aphezu komhlaba, kuba indawo abakuyo emhlabeni isebenza njengokukhusela koku. Nangona kunjalo, kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukuba, xa sele ungcolisiwe, indawo yabo ibenza kube nzima kakhulu ukuyicoca, isasaza umonakalo wongcoliseko kwinani elikhulu lemimandla eyahlukeneyo iminyaka.

amanzi okusela

Eyona ndlela ixhaphakileyo apho amanzi omhlaba aphantsi komhlaba angcoliseka kukudlula ukuvuza okuveliswa lindle, iimveliso eziyityhefu, ukuchitheka okunetyhefu, inkunkuma eqhumayo, ipetroli evuzayo okanye ezinye izinto eziyingozi ezifanayo eziphela ziphoswe okanye zilahlwe ngqo emhlabeni.

ukuchitheka kwemichiza

Ezi mveliso, ukongeza kumonakalo omkhulu abawenzayo kwindawo apho badibana khona nomhlaba, batyhutyha kuwo, ngokuthe ngcembe bonakalisa imithombo yamanzi edlula kule mimandla. Ngokunjalo, ingqokelela yeemveliso ezingcolisayo kumhlaba ongaphantsi, njenge amatanki okubolisa okanye iindawo zokugcina inkunkuma yamachizaZikwakhokelela koku kuvuza kungabonakaliyo kuphele kungcolisa imithombo yamanzi yokondla izityalo, izilwanyana kunye nabantu ngokulinganayo.

Kwelinye icala, imithombo yamanzi yangaphantsi komhlaba nayo ihlala ingcoliswe izitshabalalisi kunye nezichumisi Zisetyenziswa kwizityalo abazondla zona. Njengakwimeko zangaphambili, izinto zeekhemikhali ezithwala ezi mveliso zingena emhlabeni, ziphelela kumsinga wamanzi ongaphantsi komhlaba.

Okokugqibela, okokugqibela koonobangela abaqhelekileyo ababangela ukuba Ungcoliseko lwamanzi amdaka Nguwe Ukuxhatshazwa. Amanzi aphantsi komhlaba asetyenziswa kakhulu kwiinjongo zezolimo, imfuyo okanye zonke iintlobo zabavelisi, ke ezi zibonelelo ziyaphelelwa. Imithombo yamanzi eyomileyo inokunika amanzi anetyiwa okanye angcolileyo avela kwezinye iindawo, aya kulandela indlela enye kodwa ngaphandle kweziphumo ezilungileyo ezashiywa ngasemva ngamanzi omhlaba.

Olu ngcoliseko oluqhubekayo, oluthe cwaka nolungabonakaliyo alunjalo etshabalalisayo kuba ngayo ibuhlungu kakhulu zombini imimandla kunye nezinto eziphilayo ezihlangana nazo kuhambo lwayo. Uhlobo lolu hlobo lwamanzi, njengoko besesitshilo, lwenza ukuba kube nzima ucoceke wakube ungcolisekile, Ngapha koko, ubuchule obuye bazanywa kule minyaka idlulileyo abuzange buvelise siphumo sikhulu. Ke ngoko, ekuphela kwendlela esele ikho yokuba nemithombo yamanzi acocekileyo kukuthintela kuba, xa uthe wangcoliseka, la manzi omhlaba aya kubusasaza ububi babo kuzo zonke iindawo abadlula kuzo kwaye akukho nto sinokuyenza ukuyiphepha.

Ungcoliseko lwamanzi

Ngokwedatha i INkqubo yoPhuhliso yeZizwe eziManyeneyo UNDPIzigidi ezili-1.100 zabantu abanawo amanzi okusela kwaye amanye amazwe asemdeni wokusetyenziswa kobutyebi bamanzi.

amanzi okusela

Idatha evela kwi-UN kunye ne-WHO

Abanye data Amagunya ehlabathi afana ne-UN okanye i-WHO ngala:

  • 2.600 yezigidigidi zabantu azinazo iinkqubo zococeko.
  • La isifo sohudo okubangela amanzi angcolileyo kungunobangela wesibini ophambili wokufa kweentsana, oko kukuthi, kufa abantwana abangama-5.000 2 ngosuku emhlabeni wonke, okanye izigidi ezi-XNUMX ngonyaka.

Sinokungqina ukuba olu tyatyazo lubangela ukusweleka kweentsana ezininzi lunokuthintelwa ngokuhlamba izandla ngesepha namanzi, izifo ezininzi zingancitshiswa ukuba amanzi, ezempilo kunye neenkonzo zogutyulo bezinikezelwa ngcono.

Ngokutsho kwe Umbutho wezeMpilo kwiHlabathi liphela (WHO), iqinisekisa ukuba emva kokutshintsha kwemozulu impilo isiba mandundu, i-25% yabantu abaswelekileyo inxulunyaniswa nokungabikho kwamanzi okusela, ungcoliseko lomoya kunye nogutyulo lwelindle.

Amanzi


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