Ukubaluleka komjikelo wamanzi kwiplanethi

amanzi abaluleke kakhulu kubomi bomhlaba. Umjikelo wamanzi

Ngokuqinisekileyo ngamanye amaxesha, kubo bonke ubomi bakho, uye wachazelwa ukuba yintoni umjikelo wamanzi. Yonke inkqubo enayo ukusukela oko ingena ngohlobo lwemvula, ikhephu okanye isichotho ide ibe ngumphunga kwakhona kwaye yenze amafu. Nangona kunjalo, icandelo ngalinye lenkqubo onalo mjikelo wamanzi unezinto kunye nemiba ebalulekileyo kuyo ukukhula kobomi kunye nokusinda kwezinto ezininzi eziphilayo kunye ne-ecosystem yayo.

Ngaba ungathanda ukwazi inyathelo ngenyathelo ukubaluleka komjikelo wamanzi emhlabeni?

Yintoni umjikelo wamanzi?

isishwankathelo ngamanqanaba omjikelo wamanzi

Emhlabeni kukho into ehamba ngokuqhubekayo kwaye ingaba yimimandla emithathu: iqinile, i-liquid kunye ne-gaseous. Imalunga namanzi. Amanzi ahlala etshintsha imeko kwaye eyinkqubo eqhubekayo eqhubeka kwiibhiliyoni zeminyaka kwiplanethi yethu. Ngaphandle komjikelo wamanzi, ubomi njengoko sazi ukuba abunakubakho.

Lo mjikelo wamanzi awuqali nakweyiphi na indawo, oko kukuthi, awunasiqalo okanye isiphelo, kodwa uhamba ngokuqhubekayo. Ukuyicacisa kwaye yenze kube lula, siza kulingisa ukuqala nokuphela. Umjikelo wamanzi uqala elwandle. Apho, amanzi aya ngumphunga kwaye aye emoyeni, aguquke abe ngumphunga wamanzi. Ukunyuka kwemisinga yomoya ngenxa yokwahluka koxinzelelo, ubushushu kunye nokuxinana kubangela ukuba umphunga wamanzi ufikelele kumaleko aphezulu eatmosfera, apho ubushushu bomoya osezantsi ubangela ukuba amanzi adibane kwaye enze amafu. Njengokuba imijelo yomoya ikhula kwaye itshintsha, amafu akhula ngobukhulu kunye nobukhulu, zide ziwe njengemvula. 

Imvula inokwenzeka ngeendlela ezininzi: Amanzi alulwelo, ikhephu okanye isichotho. Imvula ewela ngohlobo lwekhephu iqokelela amaqhekeza omkhenkce kunye nomkhenkce. Ezi ziyakwazi ukugcina amanzi aqanduselweyo kwizigidi zeminyaka. Amanye amanzi awela njengemvula elwandle, kwiilwandle nasemhlabeni. Ngenxa yempembelelo yomxhuzulane, nje ukuba ziwe phezu komhlaba, umphunga wamanzi uveliswa obangela imilambo kunye nemisinga. Kwimilambo, amanzi abuyiselwa elwandle. Kodwa ayingawo onke amanzi awela phezu komhlaba aya emilanjeni, kunoko inkoliso yawo iyaqokelelana. Inxalenye enkulu yala manzi ukufunxwa kukungena kwaye ihlala igcinwe njengamanzi aphantsi komhlaba. Enye igcinwe isenza amachibi nemithombo.

Amanzi angene ngokungenabunzulu amuncwa yingcambu yezityalo ukondla kwaye inxalenye yawo idlula ngaphezulu kwamagqabi, ke ibuyela emoyeni kwakhona.

Ekugqibeleni, onke amanzi abuyela elwandle, kuba okonyukayo ngumphunga, kunokwenzeka ukuba, ubuye umva njengemvula okanye ulwandle, "ukuvala" umjikelo wamanzi.

Amanqanaba omjikelo wamanzi

Umjikelo wamanzi unamacandelo ahlukeneyo alandelelana ngokwamanqanaba. Inkqubo ye- Uphando lwejoloji yase-US (USGS) ichonge izinto ezili-15 kumjikelo wamanzi:

  • Amanzi agcinwe kwiilwandlekazi
  • Ngumphunga
  • Amanzi emoyeni
  • Ukuxinana
  • Ubungakanani
  • Amanzi agcinwe kumkhenkce nakwikhephu
  • Nyibilikisa amanzi
  • Umphezulu wokubaleka
  • Umjelo wamanzi
  • Ukugcina amanzi amatsha
  • Ukungena
  • Ukukhutshwa kwamanzi aphantsi komhlaba
  • Imithombo
  • Ukubila
  • Amanzi agciniweyo omhlaba
  • Ukuhanjiswa kwamanzi kwihlabathi liphela

Amanzi agcinwe kwiilwandle kunye neelwandle

ulwandle lugcina awona manzi maninzi kwiplanethi

Nangona kucingelwa ukuba ulwandle lukwinkqubo eqhubekayo yokunyuka komphunga, isixa samanzi esigcinwa kwiilwandlekazi sikhulu kakhulu kuneso sumphunga. Kukho malunga ne-1.386.000.000 yeekhyubhikhi zamanzi agciniweyo elwandle, apho iikhilomitha ezingama-48.000.000 kuphela zihamba ngokuqhubekayo kumjikelo wamanzi. Iilwandle zinoxanduva Iipesenti ezingama-90 zomhlaba ngumphunga.

Amalwandle ahlala eshukuma ngenxa yamandla eatmosfera. Ngesi sizathu, kukho ezona ndawo zidumileyo kwihlabathi njengeGulf Stream. Ngombulelo kule misinga, amanzi avela elwandle ahanjiswa kuzo zonke iindawo emhlabeni.

Ngumphunga

amanzi ngumphunga nokuba awubilanga

Kukhankanyiwe ngaphambili ukuba amanzi akutshintsho oluqhubekayo lobume: umphunga, ulwelo kunye nokuqina. Ukonyuka kolophu yinkqubo apho amanzi atshintsha imeko yawo esuka kulwelo ukuya kwigesi. Ngombulelo kuwo, amanzi afumaneka emilanjeni, kumachibi nakwiilwandlekazi aphinda ajoyine iatmosfere ngohlobo lomphunga kwaye, xa iqengqeleka, yenza amafu.

Ngokuqinisekileyo ucinga ukuba kutheni amanzi ngumphunga ukuba akabilanga. Oku kwenzeka ngenxa yokuba amandla okusingqongileyo ngohlobo lobushushu anokukwazi ukwaphula iibhondi ezibamba iimolekyuli zamanzi kunye. Xa ezi bhondi zaphukile, amanzi atshintsha ukusuka kulwelo ukuya kwigesi. Ngesi sizathu, xa amaqondo obushushu enyuka esiya kwi-100 ° C, amanzi ayabila kwaye kulula kwaye akhawuleze ukutshintsha ukusuka kulwelo ukuya kwigesi.

Kumlinganiselo wamanzi uwonke, kunokuthiwa isixa samanzi esiphuma, siphelela ukuwa kwakhona ngohlobo lwemvula. Oku nangona kunjalo kuyahluka ngokwendawo. Ngaphezulu kweelwandlekazi, umphunga uqhelekile kunemvula; ngeli xesha kumanzi emvula edlula ngumphunga. Malunga ne-10% lamanzi kuphela Umphunga ovela elwandle uwela eMhlabeni njengemvula.

Amanzi agcinwe kwiatmosfera

umoya uhlala uqukethe umphunga wamanzi

Amanzi anokugcinwa kwiatmosfere ngohlobo lomphunga, ukufuma kunye nokwenza amafu. Akukho manzi maninzi agcinwe kwiatmosfera, kodwa yindlela ekhawulezayo yokuba amanzi ahanjiswe kwaye asiwe kwihlabathi liphela. Kuhlala kukho amanzi emoyeni nokuba akukho mafu. Amanzi agcinwe kwiatmosfera iikhilomitha ezili-12.900 zeekhilomitha.

Ukuxinana

amafu akhiwa ngokudibana komphunga wamanzi

Eli candelo lomjikelo wamanzi kulapho lisuka khona kwigesi ukuya kwimeko engamanzi. Eli candelo Kubalulekile ukuba amafu enze leyo, kamva, iya kunika imvula. Ukuxinana kukwanoxanduva lweziganeko ezinje ngenkungu, ukubetha iifestile, ubungakanani bomswakama wosuku, amathontsi ajikeleze iglasi, njl.

Iimolekyuli zamanzi zidityaniswa namasuntswana othuli, iityuwa, kunye nomsi ukwenza amathontsi amafu, akhulayo enze amafu. Xa amathontsi amafu ehlangana ndawonye akhula ngobukhulu, enza amafu kunye nemvula inokwenzeka.

Ubungakanani

Imvula ngohlobo lwemvula yeyona ininzi

Imvula kukuwa kwamanzi, kokubini kulwelo nakwimo eqinileyo. Uninzi lwamathontsi amanzi enza ilifu sukungxama, kuba baphantsi kwamandla omoya aphezulu. Ukuze imvula yenzeke, okokuqala amathontsi kufuneka ajiye kwaye adibane, enze amathontsi amakhulu amanzi anzima ngokwaneleyo ukuwa kwaye oyise ukuxhathisa okubekwa ngumoya. Ukwenza imvula ethambileyo ufuna amathontsi amaninzi amafu.

Amanzi agcinwe kumkhenkce nakumkhenkce womkhenkce

Umkhenkce onamanzi amaninzi agciniweyo

Amanzi awela kwimimandla apho iqondo lobushushu lihlala lingaphantsi kwe-0 ° C, amanzi agcinwa esenza amaqhekeza omkhenkce, imihlaba yomkhenkce okanye amasimi ekhephu. Lo mthamo wamanzi akwimo eqinileyo ugcinwa ixesha elide. Uninzi lomkhenkce eMhlabeni, malunga ne-90%, iyafumaneka e-Antarcticangelixa i-10% eseleyo iseGreenland.

Thaw amanzi

Amanzi abangelwa kukunyibilika komkhenkce nomhlaba okhenkcezayo kunye nekhephu angena kwizifundo zamanzi njengamanzi abalekayo. Ehlabathini lonke, amanzi abalekayo aveliswa ngamanzi anyibilikayo afaka isandla kumjikelo wamanzi.

Uninzi lwale meltwater yenzeka entwasahlobo, xa amaqondo obushushu enyuka.

Umphezulu wokubaleka

amanzi anyibilikayo kunye nemvula zenza ukubaleka kwamanzi

Ukubaleka komphezulu kubangelwa ngamanzi emvula kwaye kuhlala kukhokelela kumjelo wamanzi. Uninzi lwamanzi emilanjeni aphuma kumanzi abalekayo. Xa kunetha, inxenye yala manzi itsalwa ngumhlaba, kodwa xa ithe yahlutha okanye yangena, iqala ukubaleka emhlabeni, ilandele ukuthambeka kwethambeka.

Isixa sokubaleka komphezulu siyahluka ngo ngokunxulumene nexesha kunye nejografi. Kukho iindawo apho imvula ininzi kwaye inamandla kwaye ikhokelela ekubalekeni ngamandla.

Umjelo wamanzi

ahamba amanzi emilanjeni,

Amanzi ahamba ngokuqhubekayo njengoko kunokuba njalo emlanjeni. Imilambo ibalulekile ebantwini nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo. Imilambo isetyenziselwa ukuhambisa amanzi okusela, ukunkcenkceshela, ukuvelisa umbane, ukuphelisa inkunkuma, ukuhambisa iimveliso, ukufumana ukutya, njl. Ezinye izinto eziphilayo badinga amanzi omlambo njengendawo yokuhlala yendalo.

Imilambo inceda ukugcina amanzi amdaka azala ngamanzi, njengoko ekhupha amanzi kuwo ngeebhedi zawo. Kwaye, iilwandle zigcinwa ngamanzi, nanjengoko imilambo kunye nokubaleka kungenisa amanzi rhoqo kuyo.

Ukugcinwa kwamanzi amatsha

Amanzi aphantsi komhlaba ahambisa izixeko

Amanzi afunyenwe kumphezulu womhlaba agcinwa ngeendlela ezimbini: kumphezulu njengamachibi okanye amadama okanye phantsi komhlaba njengamanzi. Eli candelo lokugcina amanzi libaluleke kakhulu kubomi eMhlabeni. Amanzi angaphezulu abandakanya imilambo, amachibi, amachibi, amadama (amachibi enziwe ngabantu), kunye nemigxobhozo yamanzi amatsha.

Inani elipheleleyo lamanzi emilanjeni nasemachibini liyaqhubeka ukutshintsha ngenxa yokungena kwamanzi nokushiya inkqubo. Amanzi angena ngemvula, amanzi abalekayo, amanzi ashiya ngokungena, umphunga ...

Ukungena

inkcazo yenkqubo yokungena

Ukungena kukuhla kwamanzi ukuhla ukusuka emhlabeni ukuya emhlabeni okanye ematyeni angena ngaphandle. La manzi agcina amanzi avela kwimvula. Amanye amanzi angena ngaphakathi ahlala kweyona ndawo intle yomhlaba kwaye angaphinda angene kumjelo wamanzi njengoko engena kuwo. Elinye icandelo lamanzi linokungena nzulu, ngaloo ndlela zihlaziya ngokutsha imithombo yamanzi yangaphantsi komhlaba.

Ukukhutshwa kwamanzi aphantsi komhlaba

Kukuhamba kwamanzi emhlabeni. Kwiimeko ezininzi, eyona ndlela ifumaneka kuyo yonke imilambo ivela kumanzi aphantsi komhlaba.

Imithombo

isahlulo samanzi emithonjeni

Imithombo yindawo apho amanzi aphantsi komhlaba ekhutshelwa ngaphezulu. Intwasahlobo iphuma xa i-aquifer izalisa ukuya kwindawo apho amanzi aphuphuma khona ngaphezulu komhlaba. Imithombo iyahluka ngobukhulu, ukusuka kwimithombo emincinci ehamba kuphela emva kweemvula ezinkulu, ukuya kumadama amakhulu apho ahamba khona yezigidi zeelitha zamanzi yonke imihla.

Ukubila

izityalo zibila

Yinkqubo apho umphunga wamanzi uphuma kwizityalo ngomphezulu wamagqabi kwaye uye emoyeni. Kuthiwe ngolu hlobo, umbilo sisixa samanzi esikhupha ngomphunga kumagqabi ezityalo. Kuqikelelwa ukuba ngeenxa zonke I-10% yokufuma kweatmosfera ivela kumbilo wezityalo.

Le nkqubo, inikezwe ukuba incinci kangakanani amathontsi amanzi abe ngumphunga, ayibonwa.

Amanzi agciniweyo omhlaba

La manzi ngawona ahleli kwizigidi zeminyaka kwaye ayinxalenye yomjikelo wamanzi. Amanzi kwimithombo yasemanzini ahlala ehamba, nangona kancinci kancinci. Imithombo yolwandle yindawo yokugcina amanzi eMhlabeni kwaye abantu abaninzi kwihlabathi liphela baxhomekeke kumanzi aphantsi komhlaba.

Ngawo onke amanqanaba achaziweyo uya kuba nakho ukubanombono obanzi kwaye ucace ngakumbi womjikelo wamanzi kunye nokubaluleka kwawo kwinqanaba lehlabathi.

 


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   UMaria B. sitsho

    Ndilithandile inqaku lenu. Ibonisa kakhulu.
    Kubonakala ngathi inqaku lokugqibela lilahlekile: Ukuhanjiswa kwamanzi kwihlabathi liphela.
    Enkosi kakhulu ngokusikhanyisela kwesi sihloko sinomdla.

    1.    IsiJamani sasePortillo sitsho

      Enkosi kakhulu ngokufunda kwakho! Ndiyabulisa!