UMichael Faraday

ifildi yombane

UMichael Faraday Wayengusosayensi wase-Bhritane kwezona zibalaseleyo zenkulungwane ye-XNUMX. Wazalelwa kusapho oluthobekileyo kwaye wakwazi ukufumana imfundo esisiseko yoqeqesho kamva kwilizwe lenzululwazi. Kwakudingeka asebenze esemncinci njengenkwenkwana yokuhambisa iphephandaba ukuhlawulela izifundo zakhe. Ungomnye woososayensi abaye banegalelo kwinkqubela phambili kwi-chemistry nakwi-physics.

Ke ngoko, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukuba likuxelele yonke i-biografi kunye nezinto ezenziwa nguMichael Faraday.

Biography kaMichael Faraday

UMichael Faraday

Imalunga nendoda ekufuneka isebenze esemncinci njengendoda yokuhambisa iphephandaba ukuze ihlawule izifundo zayo. Ngeminyaka eli-14 kuphela ubudala, wayesele enendawo yokugcina iincwadi apho wayesebenza khona. Kulapha apho wayenethuba lokubona amanqaku enzululwazi amkhuthaza ukuba enze uvavanyo lwakhe lokuqala. Kufuneka kukhunjulwe ukuba ngaphambi kokuba kubekho igalelo elincinci lezesayensi, ke kwakulula kakhulu ukuzinikela kumasebe ohlukeneyo esayensi. Nangona kunjalo, okwangoku, ubuchwephesha buyimfuneko kuba ulwazi olukho phantse kulo naliphi na isebe lesayensi lubanzi kangangokuba unganikezela ubomi bakho bonke kule nxalenye incinci yesayensi.

Umzekelo, kumaxesha amandulo besinokubona loo mntu mnye banokuba yi-geologist, i-biologist, i-botanist kunye ne-chemist kwangaxeshanye. Oku kunokuba njalo kuba ngaphambili bekukho ulwazi oluncinci kwisebe ngalinye lesayensi. Namhlanje, kuninzi kakhulu ulwazi kwaye kuninzi ukwenza ukuba i-botanist kufuneka igxile kwisebe langaphakathi ngaphakathi kwibhodan kwaye inokuzinikela ngobomi bayo bonke kuyo.

Emva kokuya kwizifundo ezahlukeneyo ngekhemistri wakwazi ukucela uHumphry Davy ukuba amamkele njengomncedisi kwilabhoratri yakhe. Xa omnye wabancedisi bakhe wawushiyayo lo msebenzi, le ndoda yawunika uFaraday. Kungelo xesha ke apho wakwaziyo ukugqwesa kwicandelo lekhemistri. Ezinye zezinto ezifunyaniswe nguMichael Faraday yi-benzene kunye neempendulo zokuqala ezaziwayo zokutshintsha kwezinto eziphilayo. Kwezi mpendulo zomsila, fumana iikhabhonin khabhon yetyathin khompawundi kwiethylene. Emva phaya oku yayikukufumanisa okukhulu.

Ngeli xesha siyabona ukuba usosayensi uHans Christian Oersted wafumanisa amandla kazibuthe aveliswa yimisinga yombane. Enkosi kolu vavanyo, UMichael Faraday wakwazi ukuphuhlisa i-motor yokuqala eyaziwayo yombane. Kwangowe-1831 wayesebenzisana noCharles Wheatstone kwaye waphanda ngeziganeko zokungeniswa kombane. Nje ukuba ezi zifundo ziqale, uFaraday ubalasele kwicandelo le-electromagnetism. Uye wakwazi ukuqaphela ukuba umazibuthe ohamba ngekhoyili yeyona nto ichukumisa umbane. Oku kusivumele ukuba sibhale umthetho olawula ukuveliswa kombane ngemagnethi.

Izifundo zeNzululwazi zikaMichael Faraday

amalinge enzululwazi

Olunye uvavanyo awakwaziyo ukulwenza yayiluvavanyo lombane. Oluvavanyo lwamvumela ukuba adibanise ngqo nombane. Wajonga ngononophelo indlela iityiwa ezikhoyo kwiseli ye-electrolytic ezifakwa ngayo xa kudlula umbane. Ngombulelo kolu vavanyo, ukwazile ukufumanisa ukuba isixa sento ebekiweyo ilingana ngokuthe ngqo nesixa sombane esijikelezayo. Ngokufumana umbane, ubunzima obahlukileyo bezinto ezifakiweyo zihambelana ngokuthe ngqo nokulingana kwemichiza.

Ukufunyanwa kukaMichael Faraday kwathatha isigqibo sokuqhubela phambili kwekhemistri. Kwaye wayenamava kunye nezifundo ezininzi kwi-electromagnetism. Le yindlela amanye amagalelo alandelayo kwezi zifundo esizibonileyo ebecacisile kuphuhliso lwefiziksi. Olunye uphononongo olunjalo yayiyithiyori yentsimi ye-electromagnetic yaziswa nguJames Clerk Maxwell. Le ngcamango yayisekelwe kumsebenzi wobuvulindlela owawenziwa nguMichael Faraday.

Ukufunyanwa

Imisebenzi ka michael faraday

Phakathi kwezinto ezifunyanisiweyo kunye negalelo kwisayensi kukubakho kwe-diamagnetism. Wayekwazi ukuqinisekisa ukuba intsimi yemagnethi inamandla okujikeleza inqwelomoya yokukhanya okucacileyo okudlula kwiindidi ezithile zeglasi. Isiphumo seFaraday safunyanwa ngo-1845. Esi siphumo asiyonto ngaphandle kokuphambuka kwenqwelomoya yokukhanya kokukhanya ngenxa yesibane semagnethi esidlula kwinto ebonakalayo.

Kwiminyaka kamva wakwazi ukubhala malunga nokusetyenziswa kweekhemikhali, uphando lovavanyo lombane kunye nophando lokulinga kwi-physics nakwi-chemistry.

Ukufumanisa kwakhe okokuqala malunga ne-electromagnetism kwenzeka ngonyaka we-1821. Ngokuphinda ulingelo luka-Oersted ngenaliti enomazibuthe kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo ezingqonge ucingo olubukhoma. Ngombulelo kolu vavanyo, wakwazi ukufumanisa ukuba umsonto ujikelezwe luthotho olungenasiphelo lwemigca enesetyhula kunye namandla okugxininisa. Siyazi ukuba yonke le seti yemigca yamandla yimagnethi yomhlaba eveliswa ngombane wamandla. Ukugqitywa kwaziswa nguMichael Faraday.

Ufumanise ukuba xa umbane ugqitha kwikhoyili, elinye ixesha langoku elifutshane lenziwa kwenye ikhoyili ekufuphi. Oku kufumanisa kwaphawula isiganeko esibalulekileyo kwinkqubela phambili yesayensi noluntu ngokubanzi. Kwaye ke namhlanje isetyenziselwa ukwenza umbane kwizinga elikhulu lezityalo. Le nto isalatha kwinto entsha malunga neendawo zombane kunye nemagnethi. Kunokuthiwa ukuba uMichael Faraday wayenguyise wobunjineli bombane.

Iminyaka edlulileyo

Kwiminyaka yokugqibela yobomi bakhe wayishiya ithiyori yombane kunye nemagnethi yolwelo ukuze achaze umbane kunye nemagnethi kwaye wazisa iikhonsepthi zentsimi kunye nemigca yasendle. La magama asebenza ukuze akwazi ukucacisa umbane kunye nemagnethi kwaye beza kusuka kwinkcazo yemishini yeziganeko zendalo. Oku kudityaniswa kweekhonsepthi ezintsha kuchazwe ngu-Albert Einstein njengotshintsho olukhulu kwi-physics. Nangona kunjalo, kwafuneka balinde iminyaka eliqela de zonke iingcinga ezibonakalayo ziphawulwe ngokufanayo. Kwaye ukuba imigca yasendle yaseFaraday kuye kwafuneka ilinde iminyaka embalwa ukuba yamkelwe ngokuqinisekileyo luluntu lwenzululwazi.

Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, enye yezinto ezinokufunyanwa nguFaraday, nangona ingaziwa ncam, Yimpembelelo yamandla ombane kumqadi wokukhanya opholileyo. Le nto yaziwa ngokuba sisiphumo seFaraday. Ekugqibeleni, wasweleka ngo-Agasti 25, 1867 eLondon.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga noMichael Faraday kunye negalelo lakhe kwisayensi.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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