Itritium

itritium ngokwewotshi

Imolekyuli ye-hydrogen ineesotopu ezininzi zokuveliswa kwamandla enyukliya. Ezi isotop ziyaziwa njenge-deuterium kunye tritium. I-Tritium yinxalenye yamandla aphezulu okwenene kumandla. Ngesi sizathu, ukusetyenziswa kwayo bekuphikisana kakhulu okoko amandla enyukliya ebejolise kwiingxoxo ezininzi okoko yaqala. Nangona kunjalo, i-tritium ikwasebenzisa ngaphandle kokuveliswa kwamandla enyukliya.

Ke ngoko, siza kulinikela eli nqaku ukuba likuxelele ukuba yintoni i-tritium, yintoni imvelaphi yayo, ukusetyenziswa kwayo kunye neempawu eziphambili.

Yintoni i-tritium

Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, sisotope yendalo efumaneka kwimolekyuli yehydrogen. Olona phawu luphambili kukuba iradioactive kakhulu. Ke ngoko, isetyenziswa njengenxalenye yomxube wamafutha enyukliya ekwenzeni amandla. I-nucleus ye-tritium yenziwe yiproton kunye nee-neutron ezimbini. Oku kwenza ukudityaniswa kwenyukliya kusebenze ukuvelisa amandla. Ingxaki ngokudityaniswa kwenyukliya kukuba ifuna ubushushu obuphezulu kakhulu kunye noxinzelelo kwitekhnoloji yomntu ukuze ayenze. Le fusion yenyukliya ivela ngokwendalo kwaye ngokuzenzekelayo elangeni.

I-Tritium yenziwe ngokwendalo ngenxa yemitha ye-cosmic eyenzeka emoyeni. Yaqala ukufunyanwa ngu-Ernest Rutherford kwi-1934. Izifundo zokuqala zenziwa ngeemolekyuli eziqhelekileyo ze-hydrogen kodwa i-deuterium kunye ne-tritium isotopes zazingenakubekwa bucala. Emva kwexesha, kuvavanyo lwenziwa de kwahlulwa le isotope, ephawuleka ngokuba nemitha yeathom. Emva kweminyaka yokufunda i-tritium, kwafumaniseka ukuba ukwakhiwa kwayo kuluncedo ekuboneni iwayini.

Isotope isakhiwo

itotshi

Ukuba siya kulwakhiwo lwangaphakathi lwe-tritium sinokubona ukuba ubunzima bayo bungaphezulu kobuka-hydrogen. Ubomi obusebenzayo besotope bunokwaziwa ngenxa yeempawu zekinetic zesakhiwo sayo. Emva kokufunda kweempawu zekinetic, kunokwaziwa ukuba inobomi obuluncedo obufikelela kwiminyaka eli-12. Ngombulelo kulwakhiwo lwangaphakathi, luyakwazi ukuhlala ngaphandle kweengxaki nge-hydrogen eqhelekileyo kunye namanzi. Ngoko ke, akuqhelekanga ukufumana i-tritium emanzini.

Phakathi kweempawu kunye neempawu zetritium sifumana oku kulandelayo:

  • Njengazo zonke izinto ezinemitha eqhumayo ezinje ngesotopu yexesha, akukho lula ukuzivalela ngaphandle. Kuthathe uninzi lwezifundo kunye nophando ukuze kukwazi ukwahlula i-tritium kwimolekyuli ye-hydrogen.
  • Imitha yayo isekwe kwimitha ye-beta. Kungenxa yokuba ivelisa amasuntswana amandla asezantsi.
  • Inamandla amakhulu e-radioactive kuba iminyaka emininzi ibinomdla omkhulu kwicandelo lenyukliya. Izazinzulu zinethemba lokuba ziya kuba nakho ukusebenzisa i-tritium kwixa elizayo ukwenza i-fusion yenyukliya.
  • Iyakwazi ukudibanisa ngokulula kunye nezinye izinto ezikhanyayo. Kunzima ngakumbi ukuphinda uyixube kwakhona ngehydrogen eqhelekileyo. Esi sesinye sezizathu zokuba ukuxutywa kwenyukliya kube nzima ngakumbi.
  • Iyakwazi ukuvelisa amandla amakhulu xa isenziwa kwi-deuterium.
  • Uhlobo lwayo lweemolekyuli ngu-T2 okanye u-3H2, kabani Ubunzima beemolekyuli bujikeleze i-6 g.
  • Ukuba siyidibanisa neoksijini, inika oksidi engamanzi ebizwa ngokuba ngamanzi anzima kakhulu.
  • Obunye bobuchule bakhe awaziwa kakhulu ngabo kukuba nako ukuphendula ngeoksijini ukwenza enye i-oxide engamanzi. La manzi anemitha yeathom.

Ukusetyenziswa kwetrium

ukungalunganga kwetritium

Siza kuhlalutya ukuba zeziphi ezona zinto zisetyenziswayo kwi-tritium.

Amandla enyukliya

Yeyona nto ibaluleke kakhulu ekusetyenzisweni oyinikiweyo. Kwaye isetyenziswa njengenxalenye yomxube wamafutha enyukliya oza kuqhuba imveliso yamandla kwezi zityalo. Le isotope ikho kumacandelo aliqela emizi-mveliso ekuboniswa uluhlu olubanzi lokusetyenziswa kunye nokusetyenziswa kwezicelo. Kwindawo yamachiza, iimpendulo zenyukliya ezivela kwi-tritium ziyafumaneka. Kwikhemistri yenyukliya Isetyenziselwa ukwenza amandla ukwenza izixhobo zokubulala. Ezi zixhobo zinokuba ziibhombu zenyukliya.

Ukusetyenziswa okungekho semngciphekweni kwetritium kwi-chemistry yohlalutyo yey iilebheli ezinemitha yeathom. Le nkqubo inokongeza i-tritium ngoku i-molecule ukurekhoda ukujonga kwayo kamva kwaye ijonge ukuba ithatha izifundo ezahlukeneyo zamachiza. Xa idityaniswe ne-deuterium, ikhokelela kwiinkqubo zokudibana kwenyukliya.

Amandla ombane kunye nebhayoloji yaselwandle

Olunye usetyenziso lwetritium ekwenziweni kweebhetri zeatomiki ezinomthamo omkhulu wokuvelisa amandla ombane. Enye yeendlela zokugcina amandla ombane.

Ngokubhekisele kwibhayoloji yaselwandle, ziluncedo kakhulu. Oku kuyabulela kwinto yokuba iyasivumela ukuba sifunde ngokuvela kweelwandle. Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambilana, ungawazi umhla wokudityaniswa kwewayini, ke kuyabanceda ukwazi utshintsho olwenziwe ngumhlaba kwimihlaba emininzi enomdla. Ingasetyenziswa njenge tracer yethutyana. Olunye usetyenziso lwe yenza izixhobo ezisetyenziselwa ukukhanyisa njengeewotshi, umpu kunye nezinye izixhobo.

Eyona nto iphambili kwi-tritium

Phakathi kokungalunganga okuphambili esikufumanayo kule isotope kukuba isetyenziselwa ukwenza izixhobo zenyukliya kunye neebhombu. Ezi zizinto zentshabalalo enkulu ezisetyenziswa emfazweni kwaye zingakhokelela ekutshatyalalisweni kwiindawo ezininzi. Kufuneka ithathelwe ingqalelo ukuba inqanaba eliphezulu lemitha enokubonisa ingozi kokusingqongileyo nakubantu abasesichengeni ngqo. Siyazi ukuba imitha ineempembelelo zexesha elide emzimbeni.

Ukuba isetyenziswe kakhulu kunokuba yingozi ekufutshane. Kwimeko apho sinokuthi sisebenzise amanzi anemitha eveliswe kwi-tritium, siyabona ukuba iimpendulo ezibeka emngciphekweni impilo zinokujongwa. Nangona kunjalo, I-Tritium yaziwa ngokuhlala kwiintsuku ezi-3 ukuya kwezi-18 emzimbeni.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi nge-tritium kunye nokusetyenziswa kwayo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.