Yintoni isityalo samandla ashushu

iimpawu zezityalo

Zininzi iindlela zokuvelisa amandla kuxhomekeke kuhlobo lwepetroli esiyisebenzisayo kunye nendawo okanye indlela esetyenzisiweyo. Izityalo zamandla ashushu ezifudumeleyo zikwabizwa ngokuba zizityalo ze-thermoelectric kwaye zisebenzisa iifosili ukwenza umbane. Abantu abaninzi abazi kakuhle siyintoni isityalo samandla ashushu.

Ke ngoko, siza kulinikela eli nqaku ukukuxelela ukuba siyintoni isityalo samandla obushushu, zithini iimpawu zayo kunye nendlela avelisa ngayo amandla ombane.

Yintoni isityalo samandla ashushu

siyintoni isityalo samandla ashushu

Izityalo zamandla ashushu ezifudumeleyo, ezikwabizwa ngokuba zizityalo eziqhelekileyo zethemelektri, zisebenzisa izibaso (igesi yendalo, amalahle okanye ioyile yeoyile) ukwenza umbane kumjikelo womphunga wamanzi ashushu. Igama elithi "eliqhelekileyo" lisetyenziselwa ukwahlula kwezinye izityalo zamandla ashushu, ezifana nomjikelo odibeneyo okanye izityalo zamandla enyukliya. Izityalo zamandla ombane ezifudumeleyo zenziwe ngezinto ezininzi ezinokuguqula iifosili zibe ngumbane. Izinto zayo eziphambili zezi:

  • Ibhoyila: Isithuba esiguqula amanzi abe ngumphunga ngokusebenzisa amandla omlilo. Kule nkqubo, amandla ekhemikhali aguqulwa abe ngamandla ashushu.
  • Ohlobo: Umbhobho apho amanzi ajikeleza ajike abe ngumphunga. Ukutshintshiselana phakathi kobushushu kwenzeka phakathi kwerhasi yamanzi kunye namanzi.
  • Umphunga weinjini: Umatshini oqokelela umphunga wamanzi, ngenxa yenkqubo entsonkothileyo yoxinzelelo kunye nobushushu, i-axis edlula kuyo ihamba. Olu hlobo lweinjini yomoya luhlala lunemizimba eliqela, uxinzelelo oluphezulu, uxinzelelo oluphakathi kunye noxinzelelo olusezantsi lokwenza uninzi lomphunga wamanzi.
  • UmvelisiUmatshini oqokelela amandla oomatshini oveliswe nge-shaft yeinjini aze ayiguqule ibe ngamandla ombane ngokufakwa kombane. Isityalo samandla siguqula amandla oomatshini eshafini iye kwinqanaba langoku elitshintshayo elinamanqanaba amathathu. Umvelisi uqhagamshele kwimingxunya edlula kwimizimba eyahlukeneyo.

Ukusebenza kwesityalo samandla ashushu

Isixhobo soMbane seThermal

Kwisityalo samandla eshushu eshushu, ipetroli iyatshiswa kwibhoyila ukuvelisa amandla ashushu okufudumeza amanzi, aguqulwa abe ngumphunga kuxinzelelo oluphezulu kakhulu. Lo mphunga emva koko ujika iiturbine enkulu, eguqula amandla obushushu abe ngamandla oomatshini, athi Emva koko iguqulelwa kumandla ombane kwenye indawo. Umbane udlula kwisiguquli esonyusa umbane waso kwaye sivumele ukuba sidluliselwe, oko ke kunciphisa ilahleko ngenxa yempembelelo yeJoule. Umphunga oshiya i-turbine uthunyelwa kwi-condenser, apho uguqulwa ube ngamanzi kwaye ubuyiselwe kwibhoyila ukuqala umjikelo omtsha wemveliso yomphunga.

Nokuba ungasisebenzisa phi na isibaso ukusebenza kwesityalo samandla eshushu eshushu kuyefana. Nangona kunjalo, kukho umahluko phakathi kokunyanzeliswa kwamafutha kunye noyilo lwesitovu se-boiler.

Ke ngoko, ukuba isityalo sisebenza emalahleni, ipetroli kufuneka ityunyuzwe ngaphambi kwexesha. Kwisityalo seoyile ipetroli iyashushubeza, ngelixa kwisityalo igesi yendalo ipetroli ifika ngokuthe ngqo ngombhobho, ke akukho sidingo sokulondolozwa kwangaphambili. Kwimeko yesixhobo sokuxuba, unyango olufanayo lusetyenziswa kumbane ngamnye.

Iimpembelelo kokusingqongileyo

yintoni isityalo se-thermal kunye ne-thermoelectric

Izityalo zamandla emveli zamandla obushushu zichaphazela okusingqongileyo ngeendlela ezimbini eziphambili: ukukhuphela inkunkuma kwiatmosfera nangokudlulisa ubushushu. Kwimeko yokuqala, ukutshiswa kwe-fossil fuels kuya kuvelisa amasuntswana athi ekugqibeleni angene emoyeni, onokonakalisa imeko-bume yomhlaba. Ngesi sizathu, ezi ntlobo zezityalo zineetshimini ezinde angawasasaza la masuntswana kwaye ekuhlaleni anciphise ifuthe lawo elibi emoyeni. Ukongeza, izityalo zamandla ashushu ezifudumeleyo zinezihluzo zamasuntswana, ezinokuthi zibambe uninzi lwazo kwaye zibathintele ukuba baphume ngaphandle.

Kwimeko yokuhanjiswa kobushushu, izityalo ezivula amandla emijikelezo zinokubangela ukuba imilambo nolwandle zifudumeze. Ngethamsanqa, esi siphumo sinokuconjululwa ngokusebenzisa inkqubo yefriji ukupholisa amanzi kubushushu obulungele indalo.

Izityalo zamandla obushushu zivelisa iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zezinto ezingcolisa umzimba kunye neekhemikhali, ezinefuthe elibi kwimpilo yabantu. Iziphumo ezibi emzimbeni womntu zibonakaliswa kwixesha elifutshane, eliphakathi nelide, ukuphucula nokwazisa iziphumo zezinto ezingcolisayo zangaphambili. Impembelelo embi kwimpilo yabantu inokubandakanya uluhlu olubanzi lwezifo, ukusuka kubumnene ukuya kubunzima kunye neemeko ezisongela ubomi. Ezi zezona zinto zingcolisa umoya:

  • Izinto ezingcolisayo emzimbeni: Izinto ezingcolisayo ze-acoustic ezibangelwa yingxolo eveliswe yimisebenzi zinokubangela utshintsho emzimbeni womntu, olulandela emva kokuphazamiseka kwesingqisho sebhayoloji yokulala. Izinto ezingcolisa umbane, oko kukuthi, imitha ye-electromagnetic eyenziwe ngokufumana nokusabalalisa umbane, ikakhulu ivelisa utshintsho kwiinkqubo zeemvakalelo kunye neentliziyo.
  • Izinto ezingcolisayo zeekhemikhali: I-CO2, i-CO, i-SO2, amasuntswana, i-ozone ethe tropospheric, yonyusa inani lezifo zokuphefumla kunye nentliziyo, kunye nokunciphisa amandla ethu okhuselo lomzimba, iikhemikhali eziyingozi (ezivela kwi-arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, benzene i-formaldehyde, i-naphthalene, i-toluene kunye ne-pyrene.

Isityalo samandla omphunga

Izityalo zamandla omphunga zibonakaliswa kukusetyenziswa kwamanzi okanye olunye ulwelo, olukwizigaba ezibini ezahlukeneyo kumjikelo womsebenzi, ngokubanzi ngohlobo lwomphunga nolwelo. Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, ubuchwepheshe obugqithisileyo buye bathandwa, obungakhokeleli kwinto ebizwa ngokuba sisigaba sokutshintsha, ebeseluphawu loku kufakelwa ngaphambili.

Ezi zityalo zamandla obushushu zinokwahlulwahlulwa zibe ngamacandelo aliqela: iintambo zombane, iijenreyitha zomphunga, iiturbines zomphunga kunye nee condensers Nangona inkcazo yesityalo samandla ashushu kakhulu, Iindidi ezahlukeneyo zemijikelezo ye-thermal inokujongwa ehlangabezana nezi mfunos, ngakumbi ezona ziqhelekileyo ngumjikelo weRankine kunye nomjikelo weHirn.

Ngaphambi kokungena kwibhoyila, amanzi okondla ahamba kwinqanaba lokulungiselela kwangaphambili kunye noxinzelelo. Ngapha koko, xa ungena kwibhoyila, kukho izinto ezininzi ezifumba ubushushu, oko kukuthi, izitshisi zokufudumeza, apho isitovu esandisiweyo sigqibe ngokuyinxenye okanye siwugqibe ngokupheleleyo umbane osebenzayo. Oku kuvumela amaqondo obushushu aphezulu ukuba angene kumenzi wenkunkuma, oko ke kwandisa ukusebenza kwesityalo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba yintoni isityalo samandla eshushu kunye neempawu zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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