Yintoni imithombo yamandla

Imithombo yamandla

Umntu ufuna i Imithombo yamandla Ukuhlangabezana neemfuno kunye nenqanaba lokuphila esinalo namhlanje. Imithombo yamandla ebonelela ngezixeko zethu, amashishini, njl. Yahlukile. Kwaye nganye kuzo ivela kwicandelo elinokuphinda lihlaziyeke okanye lingavuseleleki.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba yeyiphi imithombo yamandla, zeziphi iintlobo ezahlukeneyo ezikhoyo kwaye yintoni imvelaphi kunye nokusetyenziswa kwazo.

Yintoni imithombo yamandla

ithini imithombo yamandla

Ngaphambi kokuchaza uhlobo ngalunye olukhoyo, kubalulekile ukucacisa ukuba yintoni umthombo wamandla. Ngumthombo apho amandla anokukhutshwa khona ngeenjongo ezahlukeneyo (ikakhulu ezorhwebo). Nangona kunjalo, akusoloko kunjalo.

Kwixesha elidlulileyo, abantu babesebenzisa indalo ebalulekileyo ukuhlangabezana neemfuno zabo. Xa efumene umlilo, eyona njongo yalamalangatye yayikumkhusela engqeleni ze amphekele. Nangona siqhubeka sisebenzisa umlilo kwezi njongo, oovimba abaseleyo (bendalo okanye bokuzenzela) sele bevelisile amandla anokusetyenziswa kwizityalo zamandla okanye kumzi mveliso.

Ekupheleni kwekhulu lama-XNUMX, imodeli yamandla ekhoyo yaqala ukubuzwa ngezizathu ezibini:

  • Iingxaki zokusingqongileyo ezibangelwe kukutsha kwezibaso, ezinje nge-smog episodes kwizixeko ezikhulu ezinje nge ILondon okanye iLos Angeles, okanye ubushushu beplanethi.
  • Umngcipheko wokusebenzisa amandla enyukliya, obonakaliswe kwiingozi ezinjengeChernobyl.

Ukwazi inkcazo yamandla, sinokuqala ukufunda ngokuhlelwa kwawo.

Ukwahlula

ifosili yeefuweli

Imithombo yamandla ehlaziyekayo

Eyaziwa nangamandla acocekileyo, amandla ahlaziyekayo yeyona nto ibalulekileyo kuba idlala indima kukhuseleko lwendalo kunye nophuhliso lwetekhnoloji. Le mithombo yamandla isebenzisa izixhobo ezingapheliyo ezivela kwindalo (njengemitha yelanga, umoya, amanzi, njl. Njl.) Ukukhupha amandla. Phakathi kwemithombo yamandla ehlaziyekayo ekhoyo sinale ilandelayo:

  • Amandla esola: Njengoko igama lisitsho, la mandla asebenzisa ukukhanya kwelanga ukuvelisa umbane. Kananjalo, ngenxa yenkqubela phambili yetekhnoloji, amandla elanga anike amandla kwiipaneli ezidumileyo zelanga kunye neemoto zelanga.
  • Amandla ombane: Ngokungafaniyo neentlobo zamandla zangaphambili, amandla ombane asebenzisa amanzi ukwenza umbane. Le nkqubo yenzeka kwidama okanye kwisikhululo samandla ombane ngamanzi.
  • Amandla omoya: Ukuba besithetha ngemithombo yendalo, lixesha lokuba sithethe ngomoya. Oku kunendima ebalulekileyo kumandla omoya, anoxanduva lokuvelisa umbane ngoomatshini bomoya okanye oomatshini bomoya.
  • IBiomass: Kukwanxulumene nokusetyenziswa kwelanga ukuvelisa amandla kwindalo.
  • I-geothermal energy: ukusetyenziswa kwamandla e-geothermal, eyenye yemithombo yamandla ehlaziyekayo ebaluleke kakhulu.
  • Thermodynamics: Ukuba sithetha ngolu hlobo lwamandla, ukuhanjiswa kobushushu kusabalulekile kwimithombo evuselelekayo.

Imithombo yamandla engavuselelekiyo

Kubo, amandla angahlaziyekiyo asebenzisa izibonelelo zendalo ezinokupheliswa, lo ngumahluko ophambili phakathi kwamandla ahlaziyekayo kunye nalawo angahlaziyekiyo. Ngexesha lokusebenzisa nokukhupha, izixhobo ezivela kuwo amandla zinokucinywa okanye zithathe ixesha lokuzihlaziya, zibenze owona mthombo wamandla usesichengeni. Kuhlelo lwayo sifumana:

  1. Amafutha amafutha, anjengeoyile, amalahle, okanye igesi yendalo: Ezi zibonelelo ziya kupheliswa kungekudala, kwaye kuxhomekeke kwingingqi yehlabathi esithetha ngayo, zisenokungabikho. Ukuba sithetha ngongcoliseko lokusingqongileyo, ukusetyenziswa kwalo, uphuhliso kunye nezothutho kubeka umngcipheko obonakalayo, kwaye inxenye yoku kukubeka ityala.
  2. Amandla enyukliya: Eyaziwa nangamandla e-athomu, la mandla adlala indima ebalulekileyo kwi-physics kwaye ithathwa njengomnye wemithombo yamandla kwilizwe lam.

Imithombo yamandla eSpain

amandla omoya

Ukuba sigxila kuphela kumandla eSpain, siya kufumana ukusetyenziswa kwezixhobo ezihlaziyiweyo kunye nezingahlaziyekiyo. Nangona kunjalo, ukusetyenziswa kwezixhobo ezingavuselelekiyo kuphezulu kakhulu kunamandla ahlaziyekayo, anokuguqula kube semngciphekweni kwindalo.

Icandelo lamandla eSpain limele iipesenti ezi-2,5 zemveliso epheleleyo yasekhaya (GDP), ebonisa ukubaluleka kwayo kuyo yonke imisebenzi yezoqoqosho. Ukongeza, esi sesinye sezona zixhobo zibalulekileyo kubantu baseSpain, kwaye singayibonisa kwimisebenzi yethu yemihla ngemihla ekhaya okanye phesheya.

Ngokwengxelo kaSeptemba 2019 ekhutshwe yiNkampani yoMbane oBomvu yaseSpain (i-REE), Imveliso yombane yeli lizwe ivela ikakhulu kwizibonelelo ezingavuselelekiyo. Ukuvelisa umbane inyanga nenyanga ngamandla enyukliya, umjikelo odityanisiweyo, ukuzalwa ngokutsha kunye namalahle.

Ukhumbula ukuba ukusetyenziswa kwezixhobo ezingapheliyo kunefuthe elibalulekileyo kwilizwe kwaye, ewe, kwiplanethi, kuyinyani ukuba kubalulekile ukutshintsha le meko. Ngokuchasene noko, eyona nto ifanelekileyo kukusebenzisa izixhobo ezingapheliyo zendalo kunye nokuziphucula ngendlela enembeko ngokusebenzisa izixhobo ezinokuhlaziywa.

Ukuhlaziywa eSpain

E-Spain, eyona ndlela iphambili yokuvelisa umbane kwimithombo evuselelekayo ngamandla omoya, elandelwa ngamandla e-hydroelectric, photovoltaic solar energy kunye ne-thermal solar energy. Nangona kunjalo, njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambilana, inyani yokuba ukusetyenziswa kwezixhobo ezingavuselelekiyo kukhulu kunokusetyenziswa kwezixhobo ezinokuphinda zihlaziyeke imalunga kwaye kufuneka itshintshwe.

Okwangoku, ngakumbi nangakumbi iinkampani zizinikele ekuphuculeni le meko. Nangona kunjalo, akunakwenzeka ukushiya lonke uxanduva kwisityalo semveliso; Sivela emakhayeni ethu nakwimisebenzi yemihla ngemihla (emsebenzini okanye esitratweni), sinokunceda ukunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kwamandla, oko ke kunciphisa ibango lamandla, kuba ukunciphisa imfuno yezi zixhobo kuyinyani elisonzakalisayo kwihlabathi liphela.

Umsebenzi wethu kukufunda ukonga amandla kwaye sivumele ishishini ukuba libheje kwizixhobo ezinokuhlaziywa. Kungale ndlela kuphela esinokuthi sithintele ukungcolisa ii-fuels kunye neegesi ekuqhubekeni zonakalise okusingqongileyo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga nemithombo yamandla kunye nemithombo eyahlukeneyo ekhoyo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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