I-Pyrolysis

isityalo sepyrolysis

Inkqubo pyrolysis okanye i-pyrolytic, eyaziwayo, yinkqubo apho ukuchithwa kwe-biomass kuveliswa ngesenzo sokushisa ngaphandle kwesidingo se-oksijeni, oko kukuthi, kwenzeka kwindawo eyomileyo ngokupheleleyo. Iimveliso ezenziwe ngenxa ye-pyrolysis zinokuba ziqinileyo, ulwelo kunye neegesi, kwaye zihambelana neemveliso ezinjengamalahle okanye amalahle, i-tar kwaye ekugqibeleni imveliso yegesi eyaziwayo okanye umphunga wamalahle. Le nkqubo ingenzeka yodwa kwindalo okanye kunye ngexesha lokutsha okanye i-gasification.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into okufuneka uyazi malunga ne-pyrolysis, iimpawu zayo kunye nokubaluleka.

Iimpawu eziphambili

inkqubo yepyrolytic

I-Pyrolysis yonyango lwe-thermochemical leyo Ingasetyenziswa kuyo nayiphi na imveliso ye-carbon-based organic. Izinto eziphathekayo zibonakaliswe kumaqondo okushisa aphezulu, ngokungabikho kwe-oksijeni, kwiikhemikhali kunye nokwahlula ngokwasemzimbeni kwiimolekyuli ezihlukeneyo.

I-Pyrolysis yindlela ye-thermolysis kwaye inokuchazwa njengento yokuchithwa kwe-thermal eyenziwa yimpahla ngokungabikho kwe-oksijeni okanye uhlobo oluthile lwe-reagent. Ukubola okwenzekayo kunokukhokelela kuthotho oluntsonkothileyo lweekhemikhali kunye nobushushu kunye neenkqubo zokudlulisa ubunzima. Inokuchazwa kwakhona njengamanyathelo ayenzekayo ngaphambi kokuba i-gasification kunye nokutsha.

Xa isenzeka kwimo yayo egqithisileyo, kuphela ikhabhoni eseleyo njengentsalela, leyo ibizwa ngokuba yi charring. Ngokusebenzisa i-pyrolysis sinokufumana iimveliso zesibini ezahlukeneyo eziluncedo kwintsimi yobugcisa. Iimveliso zePyrolysis zihlala zivelisa iigesi eziqinileyo ezifana nekhabhoni, i-liquids kunye ne-non-condensable gases ezifana ne-H2, i-CH4, i-CnHm, i-CO, i-CO2 kunye ne-N. ingasetyenziswa kunye kwezinye izicelo apho i-syngas eshushu inikezelwa ngokuthe ngqo kwisitshisi okanye kwigumbi lokuxutywa kwe-oxidation.

Iintlobo zepyrolysis

pyrolysis

Kukho iintlobo ezimbini ezahlukeneyo zepyrolysis ngokuxhomekeke kwiimeko zomzimba apho yenziwa khona:

  • I-Aqueous pyrolysis: Eli gama lisetyenziswa xa kuyimfuneko ukubhekisela kwi-pyrolysis eyenzeka kubukho bamanzi, njengokuqhekeka komphunga weeoli okanye ukuchithwa kwe-thermal depolymerization ye-organic residues kwi-oyile ekrwada enzima.
  • I-vacuum pyrolysis: Olu hlobo lwe-vacuum pyrolysis lubandakanya ukufudumeza izinto eziphilayo kwi-vacuum ukuphumeza amanqaku aphantsi abilayo kwaye ugweme ukuphendulwa kweekhemikhali ezingathandekiyo.

Inkqubo eyenzeka ngayo i-pyrolysis yahlulwe ngamanqanaba amathathu, ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

  • Kwinqanaba lokuqala kukho ukubola okucothayo kunye nokuveliswa kwamanzi amancinci; iioksidi zekhabhoni, ihydrogen kunye nemethane. Oku kuchithwa kwenzeka ngenxa yokuphulwa kweebhondi ngenxa yokushisa okuphezulu kwenkqubo kunye nokukhululwa kweegesi ezibanjwe kumalahle.
  • Inqanaba lesibini libizwa inqanaba elisebenzayo lokubola kwe-thermal. Iqondo lobushushu liyenyuka ngeli nqanaba kwaye iimolekyuli zekhabhoni ziqhekeka nzulu, zenze ii-hydrocarbons ezicondekileyo kunye netar. Esi sigaba siqala kuma-360º C kwaye siphele xa sifikelela kubushushu obumalunga nama-560º C.
  • Inqanaba lokugqibela lenzeka kumaqondo obushushu angaphezu kwama-600ºC kwaye liphawulwa ngokunyamalala kancinci kwehydrogen kunye nezinye iiheteroatom.

Isetyenziselwa ntoni ipyrolysis ekhitshini?

i-oven pyrolysis

Xa sisekhitshini, kufuneka sibe nezixhobo eziyimfuneko ukwenza ubomi bethu bube lula, kwaye ukuba ne-oven ye-state-of-art ilungele oko. Okwangoku kukho uluhlu lwee-ovens ezinomsebenzi wokuzihlambulula, ezibizwa ngokuba yi-pyrolysis ovens, umsebenzi wawo oyintloko kukukwazi ukuzicoca.

Olu hlobo lwee-oveni Banamandla okunyusa ubushushu ukuya kuthi ga kwi-500 ° C, ukubola okushiyekileyo kokutya ngaphakathi, ukujika zibe ngumphunga okanye umlotha, kwaye kwakhona ukuphelisa amavumba angathandekiyo emva kokupheka ngaphakathi kwe-oven. Oko kukuthi, ukutya kusele, ngenxa yobushushu obuphezulu, kuguqula i<em>organic matter ibe yi<em>carbon dioxide, ethi, xa iguqulwa ibe ngamanzi, ibe ngumphunga; ngokunjalo, izinto ezingaphiliyo zijika zibe luthuthu xa zibekwe kobo bushushu.

Le nkqubo inokuthatha ukusuka kwi-1 ukuya kwiiyure ze-4., kuxhomekeke kwindlela ecocekileyo ngayo inkqubo, ekugqibeleni sihlambulula ngokulula i-oven ngendwangu emanzi kwaye siqokelele umlotha. Ngale ndlela, ukusetyenziswa kweemveliso zeekhemikhali ezinokuthi zibe yingozi kwimpilo ekuhambeni kwexesha kupheliswa.

Izibonelelo kwii-oveni kunye nokubaluleka kokusingqongileyo

Ukuba ne-oven esivumela ukuba songe ixesha kunye nemali, ukwenza i-pyrolysis kuzisa ezi zibonelelo zilandelayo:

  • Ngaphandle kokungathandabuzeki, inzuzo ephambili ngumsebenzi wokuzicoca.
  • I-ecological njengoko inciphisa ukusetyenziswa kweemveliso zeekhemikhali ukucoca i-oven.
  • Ngokwe-calculator yexabiso lombane weKhomishini yeSizwe yaMandla, ixabiso lombane liphantsi kuba lidla kuphela i-0,39 cent.
  • Yenziwe ngezona zinto ziphezulu zokukhusela ifenitshala ukusuka kumaqondo obushushu aphezulu.
  • Xa iziko lifikelela kubushushu obungama-500 °C, ucango lweoveni luyatshixa kwaye ioveni iyazicoca ukuze kuthintelwe iingozi.
  • Zikhululekile kwaye zisebenza kakuhle kunee-oveni zendabuko.
  • Inokucwangciswa ukuqalisa ipyrolysis ngamaxesha apho iindleko zombane ziphantsi.

I-Pyrolysis ibalulekile kuba inceda ukulawula ukungcoliseka komoya okuhambelana nokutshisa.. Ikwanceda ekunciphiseni umthamo wenkunkuma engenayo kunye nokuveliswa kwenkunkuma engcolileyo, nto leyo eyandisa ubomi bendawo yokulahla inkunkuma kwaye iphucula umgangatho wendawo yokulahla inkunkuma. Okokugqibela, ikwayindlela yokuguqula inxalenye yenkunkuma ibe sisibaso esigcinwayo nesihanjiswayo.

Ngokumalunga ne-pyrolysis ye-lignin, ekwayinxalenye yomthi, ivelisa iikhompawundi ezinevumba elimnandi kunye nomxholo ophezulu wekhabhoni, malunga ne-55% kwimeko ye-cellulose kunye ne-20% kwimeko yeoli yeoli; I-15% yentsalela yetela kunye ne-10% yegesi.

Kwimeko apho i-biomass yehlathi i-pyrolyzed, iipropati zayo zinempembelelo ephawulekayo kwimveliso ephumayo. Umzekelo, indima yokufuma kukunciphisa isivuno senkqubo yokutshaja kuba ubushushu bufuneka ukuze amanzi abe ngumphunga kunye nokuvelisa i-carbon brittle more than xa i-biomass inomthamo osezantsi wokufuma. Ngoko ke, kucetyiswa ukuba isiqulatho sokufuma kwi-biomass sisondele kwi-10%. Ubuninzi be-feedstock yokuqala buchaphazela umgangatho wekhabhoni eya kwenziwa nge-pyrolysis, kunye neentsalela zehlathi zinconywa kwikhabhoni ephezulu.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga ne-pyrolysis kunye neempawu zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
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